Easton's Bible Dictionary

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Senaah — Shiggaion

Senaah

thorny, a place many of the inhabitants of which returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel ( Ezra 2:35 ; Nehemiah 7:38 ).

Senate

( Acts 5:21 ), the "elders of Israel" who formed a component part of the Sanhedrin.

Seneh

the acacia; rock-thorn, the southern cliff in the Wady es-Suweinit, a valley south of Michmash, which Jonathan climbed with his armour-bearer ( 1 Samuel 14:4 1 Samuel 14:5 ). The rock opposite, on the other side of the wady, was called Bozez.

Senir

=Shenir, the name given to Hermon by the Amorites ( Deuteronomy 3:9 ). It means "coat of mail" or "breastplate," and is equivalent to "Sirion." Some interpret the word as meaning "the prominent" or "the snowy mountain." It is properly the name of the central of the three summits of Hermon (q.v.).

Sennacherib

Sin (the god) sends many brothers, son of Sargon, whom he succeeded on the throne of Assyria (B.C. 705), in the 23rd year of Hezekiah. "Like the Persian Xerxes, he was weak and vainglorious, cowardly under reverse, and cruel and boastful in success." He first set himself to break up the powerful combination of princes who were in league against him. Among these was Hezekiah, who had entered into an alliance with Egypt against Assyria. He accordingly led a very powerful army of at least 200,000 men into Judea, and devastated the land on every side, taking and destroying many cities ( 2 Kings 18:13-16 ; Compare Isaiah 222429 ,24,29, and 2 Chronicles 32:1-8 ). His own account of this invasion, as given in the Assyrian annals, is in these words: "Because Hezekiah, king of Judah, would not submit to my yoke, I came up against him, and by force of arms and by the might of my power I took forty-six of his strong fenced cities; and of the smaller towns which were scattered about, I took and plundered a countless number. From these places I took and carried off 200,156 persons, old and young, male and female, together with horses and mules, asses and camels, oxen and sheep, a countless multitude; and Hezekiah himself I shut up in Jerusalem, his capital city, like a bird in a cage, building towers round the city to hem him in, and raising banks of earth against the gates, so as to prevent escape...Then upon Hezekiah there fell the fear of the power of my arms, and he sent out to me the chiefs and the elders of Jerusalem with 30 talents of gold and 800 talents of silver, and divers treasures, a rich and immense booty...All these things were brought to me at Nineveh, the seat of my government." (Compare Isaiah 22:1-13 for description of the feelings of the inhabitants of Jerusalem at such a crisis.)

Hezekiah was not disposed to become an Assyrian feudatory. He accordingly at once sought help from Egypt ( 2 Kings 18:20-24 ). Sennacherib, hearing of this, marched a second time into Palestine ( 2 Kings 18:17 2 Kings 18:37 ; 19 ; 2 Chr 32:9-23 ; Isaiah 36:2-22 . Isaiah 37:25 should be rendered "dried up all the Nile-arms of Matsor," i.e., of Egypt, so called from the "Matsor" or great fortification across the isthmus of Suez, which protected it from invasions from the east). Sennacherib sent envoys to try to persuade Hezekiah to surrender, but in vain. (See TIRHAKAH .) He next sent a threatening letter ( 2 Kings 19:10-14 ), which Hezekiah carried into the temple and spread before the Lord. Isaiah again brought an encouraging message to the pious king ( 2 Kings 19:20-34 ). "In that night" the angel of the Lord went forth and smote the camp of the Assyrians. In the morning, "behold, they were all dead corpses." The Assyrian army was annihilated.

This great disaster is not, as was to be expected, taken notice of in the Assyrian annals.

Though Sennacherib survived this disaster some twenty years, he never again renewed his attempt against Jerusalem. He was murdered by two of his own sons (Adrammelech and Sharezer), and was succeeded by another son, Esarhaddon (B.C. 681), after a reign of twenty-four years.

Seorim

barley, the chief of the forth priestly course ( 1 Chronicles 24:8 ).

Sephar

numbering, ( Genesis 10:30 ), supposed by some to be the ancient Himyaritic capital, "Shaphar," Zaphar, on the Indian Ocean, between the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea.

Sepharad

( Obadiah 1:20 ), some locality unknown. The modern Jews think that Spain is meant, and hence they designate the Spanish Jews "Sephardim," as they do the German Jews by the name "Ashkenazim," because the rabbis call Germany Ashkenaz. Others identify it with Sardis, the capital of Lydia. The Latin father Jerome regarded it as an Assyrian word, meaning "boundary," and interpreted the sentence, "which is in Sepharad," by "who are scattered abroad in all the boundaries and regions of the earth." Perowne says: "Whatever uncertainty attaches to the word Sepharad, the drift of the prophecy is clear, viz., that not only the exiles from Babylon, but Jewish captives from other and distant regions, shall be brought back to live prosperously within the enlarged borders of their own land."

Sepharvaim

taken by Sargon, king of Assyria ( 2 Kings 17:24 ; 18:34 ; 19:13 ; Isaiah 37:13 ). It was a double city, and received the common name Sepharvaim, i.e., "the two Sipparas," or "the two booktowns." The Sippara on the east bank of the Euphrates is now called Abu-Habba; that on the other bank was Accad, the old capital of Sargon I., where he established a great library. (See SARGON .) The recent discovery of cuneiform inscriptions at Tel el-Amarna in Egypt, consisting of official despatches to Pharaoh Amenophis IV. and his predecessor from their agents in Palestine, proves that in the century before the Exodus an active literary intercourse was carried on between these nations, and that the medium of the correspondence was the Babylonian language and script. (See KIRJATH-SEPHER.)

Septuagint

See VERSIONS .

Sepulchre

first mentioned as purchased by Abraham for Sarah from Ephron the Hittite ( Genesis 23:20 ). This was the "cave of the field of Machpelah," where also Abraham and Rebekah and Jacob and Leah were burried ( 79:29-32 ). In Acts 7:16 it is said that Jacob was "laid in the sepulchre that Abraham bought for a sum of money of the sons of Emmor the father of Sychem." It has been proposed, as a mode of reconciling the apparent discrepancy between this verse and Genesis 23:20 , to read Acts 7:16 thus: "And they [i.e., our fathers] were carried over into Sychem, and laid in the sepulchre that Abraham bought for a sum of money of the sons of Emmor [the son] of Sychem." In this way the purchase made by Abraham is not to be confounded with the purchase made by Jacob subsequently in the same district. Of this purchase by Abraham there is no direct record in the Old Testament. (See TOMB .)

Serah

abundance; princess, the daughter of Asher and grand-daughter of Jacob ( Genesis 46:17 ); called also Sarah ( Numbers 26:46 ; RSV, "Serah").

Seraiah

soldier of Jehovah.

1. The father of Joab ( 1 Chronicles 4:13 1 Chronicles 4:14 ).

2. The grandfather of Jehu ( 1 Chronicles 4:35 ).

3. One of David's scribes or secretaries ( 2 Samuel 8:17 ).

4. A Netophathite ( Jeremiah 40:8 ), a chief priest of the time of Zedekiah. He was carried captive by Nebuchadnezzar to Babylon, and there put to death ( 2 Kings 25:18 2 Kings 25:23 ).

5. Ezra 2:2 .

6. Father of Ezra the scribe ( 7:1 ).

7. A ruler of the temple ( Nehemiah 11:11 ).

8. A priest of the days of Jehoiakim ( Nehemiah 12:1 Nehemiah 12:12 ).

9. The son of Neriah. When Zedekiah made a journey to Babylon to do homage to Nebuchadnezzar, Seraiah had charge of the royal gifts to be presented on that occasion. Jeremiah took advantage of the occasion, and sent with Seraiah a word of cheer to the exiles in Babylon, and an announcement of the doom in store for that guilty city. The roll containing this message ( Jeremiah 50:1-8 ) Seraiah was to read to the exiles, and then, after fixing a stone to it, was to throw it into the Euphrates, uttering, as it sank, the prayer recorded in Jeremiah 51:59-64 . Babylon was at this time in the height of its glory, the greatest and most powerful monarchy in the world. Scarcely seventy years elapsed when the words of the prophet were all fulfilled. Jeremiah 51:59 is rendered in the Revised Version, "Now Seraiah was chief chamberlain," instead of "was a quiet prince," as in the Authorized Version.

Seraphim

mentioned in Isaiah 6:2 Isaiah 6:3 Isaiah 6:6 Isaiah 6:7 . This word means fiery ones, in allusion, as is supposed, to their burning love. They are represented as "standing" above the King as he sat upon his throne, ready at once to minister unto him. Their form appears to have been human, with the addition of wings. (See ANGELS .) This word, in the original, is used elsewhere only of the "fiery serpents" ( Numbers 21:6 Numbers 21:8 ; Deuteronomy 8:15 ; Compare Isaiah 14:29 ; 30:6 ) sent by God as his instruments to inflict on the people the righteous penalty of sin.

Sered

fear, one of the sons of Zebulun ( Genesis 46:14 ).

Sergeants

Acts 16:35,38(RSV, "lictors"), officers who attended the magistrates and assisted them in the execution of justice.

Sergius Paulus

a "prudent man" (RSV, "man of understanding"), the deputy (RSV, "proconsul") of Cyprus ( Acts 13:6-13 ). He became a convert to Christianity under Paul, who visited this island on his first mission to the heathen.

A remarkable memorial of this proconsul was recently (1887) discovered at Rome. On a boundary stone of Claudius his name is found, among others, as having been appointed (A.D. 47) one of the curators of the banks and the channel of the river Tiber. After serving his three years as proconsul at Cyprus, he returned to Rome, where he held the office referred to. As he is not saluted in Paul's letter to the Romans, he probably died before it was written.

Sermon on the mount

After spending a night in solemn meditation and prayer in the lonely mountain-range to the west of the Lake of Galilee ( Luke 6:12 ), on the following morning our Lord called to him his disciples, and from among them chose twelve, who were to be henceforth trained to be his apostles ( Mark 3:14 Mark 3:15 ). After this solemn consecration of the twelve, he descended from the mountain-peak to a more level spot ( Luke 6:17 ), and there he sat down and delivered the "sermon on the mount" ( Matthew 57 -7; Luke 6:20-49 ) to the assembled multitude. The mountain here spoken of was probably that known by the name of the "Horns of Hattin" (Kurun Hattin), a ridge running east and west, not far from Capernaum. It was afterwards called the "Mount of Beatitudes."

Serpent

(Heb. nahash; Gr. ophis), frequently noticed in Scripture. More than forty species are found in Syria and Arabia. The poisonous character of the serpent is alluded to in Jacob's blessing on Dan ( Genesis 49:17 ; see Proverbs 30:18 Proverbs 30:19 ; James 3:7 ; Jeremiah 8:17 ). (See ADDER .)

This word is used symbolically of a deadly, subtle, malicious enemy ( Luke 10:19 ).

The serpent is first mentioned in connection with the history of the temptation and fall of our first parents ( Genesis 3 ). It has been well remarked regarding this temptation: "A real serpent was the agent of the temptation, as is plain from what is said of the natural characteristic of the serpent in the first verse of the chapter ( 3:1 ), and from the curse pronounced upon the animal itself. But that Satan was the actual tempter, and that he used the serpent merely as his instrument, is evident (1) from the nature of the transaction; for although the serpent may be the most subtle of all the beasts of the field, yet he has not the high intellectual faculties which the tempter here displayed.

1. In the New Testament it is both directly asserted and in various forms assumed that Satan seduced our first parents into sin ( John 8:44 ; Romans 16:20 ; 2 co Romans 11:3 Romans 11:14 ; Revelation 12:9 ; 20:2 )." Hodge's System. Theol., ii. 127.

Serpent, Fiery

(LXX. "deadly," Vulg. "burning"), Numbers 21:6 , probably the naja haje of Egypt; some swift-springing, deadly snake ( Isaiah 14:29 ). After setting out from their encampment at Ezion-gaber, the Israelites entered on a wide sandy desert, which stretches from the mountains of Edom as far as the Persian Gulf. While traversing this region, the people began to murmur and utter loud complaints against Moses. As a punishment, the Lord sent serpents among them, and much people of Israel died. Moses interceded on their behalf, and by divine direction he made a "brazen serpent," and raised it on a pole in the midst of the camp, and all the wounded Israelites who looked on it were at once healed. (Compare John 3:14 John 3:15 .) (See ASP .) This "brazen serpent" was preserved by the Israelites till the days of Hezekiah, when it was destroyed ( 2 Kings 18:4 ). (See BRASS .)

Serug

branch, the father of Nahor ( Genesis 11:20-23 ); called Saruch in Luke 3:35 .

Servitor

occurs only in 2 Kings 4:43 , Authorized Version (RSV, "servant"). The Hebrew word there rendered "servitor" is elsewhere rendered "minister," "servant" ( Exodus 24:13 ; 33:11 ). Probably Gehazi, the personal attendant on Elisha, is here meant.

Seth

appointed; a substitute, the third son of Adam and Eve ( Genesis 4:25 ; 5:3 ). His mother gave him this name, "for God," said she, "hath appointed me [i.e., compensated me with] another seed instead of Abel, whom Cain slew."

Sethur

hidden, one of the spies sent to search the Promised Land. He was of the tribe of Asher ( Numbers 13:13 ).

Seven

This number occurs frequently in Scripture, and in such connections as lead to the supposition that it has some typical meaning. On the seventh day God rested, and hallowed it ( Genesis 2:2 Genesis 2:3 ). The division of time into weeks of seven days each accounts for many instances of the occurrence of this number. This number has been called the symbol of perfection, and also the symbol of rest. "Jacob's seven years' service to Laban; Pharaoh's seven fat oxen and seven lean ones; the seven branches of the golden candlestick; the seven trumpets and the seven priests who sounded them; the seven days' siege of Jericho; the seven churches, seven spirits, seven stars, seven seals, seven vials, and many others, sufficiently prove the importance of this sacred number" (see Leviticus 25:4 ; 1 Samuel 2:5 ; Psalms 12:6 ; 79:12 ; Proverbs 26:16 ; Isaiah 4:1 ; Matthew 18:21 Matthew 18:22 ; Luke 17:4 ). The feast of Passover ( Exodus 12:15 Exodus 12:16 ), the feast of Weeks ( Deuteronomy 16:9 ), of Tabernacles ( 13:15 ), and the Jubilee ( Leviticus 25:8 ), were all ordered by seven. Seven is the number of sacrifice ( 2 Chronicles 29:21 ; Job 42:8 ), of purification and consecration ( Leviticus 42:6 Leviticus 42:17 ; Leviticus 8:11 Leviticus 8:33 ; Leviticus 14:9 Leviticus 14:51 ), of forgiveness ( Matthew 18:21 Matthew 18:22 ; Luke 17:4 ), of reward ( Deuteronomy 28:7 ; 1 Samuel 2:5 ), and of punishment ( Leviticus 26:21 Leviticus 26:24 Leviticus 26:28 ; Deuteronomy 28:25 ). It is used for any round number in such passages as Job 5:19 ; Proverbs 26:16 Proverbs 26:25 ; Isaiah 4:1 ; Matthew 12:45 . It is used also to mean "abundantly" ( Genesis 4:15 Genesis 4:24 ; Leviticus 26:24 ; Psalms 79:12 ).

Seventy weeks

a prophetic period mentioned in Daniel 9:24 , and usually interpreted on the "year-day" theory, i.e., reckoning each day for a year. This period will thus represent 490 years. This is regarded as the period which would elapse till the time of the coming of the Messiah, dating "from the going forth of the commandment to restore and rebuild Jerusalem" i.e., from the close of the Captivity.

Shaalabbin

or Shaal'bim, a place of foxes, a town of the tribe of Dan ( Joshua 19:42 ; Judges 1:35 ). It was one of the chief towns from which Solomon drew his supplies ( 1 Kings 4:9 ). It is probably the modern village of Selbit, 3 miles north of Ajalon.

Shaaraim

two gates.

1. A city in the plain of Judah ( 1 Samuel 17:52 ); called also Sharaim ( Joshua 15:36 ).

2. A town in Simeon ( 1 Chronicles 4:31 ).

Shaashgaz

servant of the beautiful, a chief eunuch in the second house of the harem of king Ahasuerus ( Esther 2:14 ).

Shabbethai

Sabbath-born, a Levite who assisted in expounding the law and investigating into the illegal marriages of the Jews ( Ezra 10:15 ; Nehemiah 8:7 ; 11:16 ).

Shaddai

the Omnipotent, the name of God in frequent use in the Hebrew Scriptures, generally translated "the Almighty."

Shadow

used in Colossians 2:17 ; Hebrews 8:5 ; 10:1 to denote the typical relation of the Jewish to the Christian dispensation.

Shadrach

Aku's command, the Chaldean name given to Hananiah, one of the Hebrew youths whom Nebuchadnezzar carried captive to Babylon ( Daniel 1:6 Daniel 1:7 ; 3:12-30 ). He and his two companions refused to bow down before the image which Nebuchadnezzar had set up on the plains of Dura. Their conduct filled the king with the greatest fury, and he commanded them to be cast into the burning fiery furnace. Here, amid the fiery flames, they were miraculously preserved from harm. Over them the fire had no power, "neither was a hair of their head singed, neither had the smell of fire passed on them." Thus Nebuchadnezzar learned the greatness of the God of Israel. (See ABEDNEGO .)

Shalem

perfect, a place (probably the village of Salim) some 2 miles east of Jacob's well. There is an abundant supply of water, which may have been the reason for Jacob's settling at this place ( Genesis 33:18-20 ). The Revised Version translates this word, and reads, "Jacob came in peace to the city of Shechem," thus not regarding it as a proper name at all.

Shalim, Land of

land of foxes, a place apparently to the north-west of Jerusalem ( 1 Samuel 9:4 ), perhaps in the neighbourhood of Shaalabbin in Dan ( Joshua 19:42 ).

Shalisha, Land of

probably the district of Baal-shalisha ( 2 Kings 4:42 ), lying about 12 miles north of Lydda ( 1 Samuel 9:4 ).

Shallecheth, The gate of

i.e., "the gate of casting out," hence supposed to be the refuse gate; one of the gates of the house of the Lord, "by the causeway of the going up" i.e., the causeway rising up from the Tyropoeon valley = valley of the cheesemakers ( 1 Chronicles 26:16 ).

Shallum

retribution.

1. The son of Jabesh, otherwise unknown. He "conspired against Zachariah, and smote him before the people, and slew him, and reigned in his stead" ( 2 Kings 15:10 ). He reigned only "a month of days in Samaria" ( 15:13 , marg.). Menahem rose up against Shallum and put him to death ( 2 Kings 15:14 2 Kings 15:15 2 Kings 15:17 ), and became king in his stead.

2. Keeper of the temple vestments in the reign of Josiah ( 2 Kings 22:14 ).

3. One of the posterity of Judah ( 1 Chronicles 2:40 1 Chronicles 2:41 ).

4. A descendant of Simeon ( 1 Chronicles 4:25 ).

5. One of the line of the high priests ( 1 Chronicles 6:13 ).

6. 1 Chronicles 7:13 .

7. A keeper of the gate in the reign of David ( 1 Chronicles 9:17 ).

8. A Levite porter ( 1 Chronicles 9:19 1 Chronicles 9:31 ; Jeremiah 35:4 ).

9. An Ephraimite chief ( 2 Chronicles 28:12 ).

10. The uncle of the prophet Jeremiah ( Jeremiah 32:7 ).

11. A son of king Josiah ( 1 Chronicles 3:15 ; Jeremiah 22:11 ), who was elected to succeed his father on the throne, although he was two years younger than his brother Eliakim. He assumed the crown under the name of Jehoahaz (q.v.). He did not imitate the example of his father ( 2 Kings 23:32 ), but was "a young lion, and it learned to catch the prey; it devoured men" ( Ezekiel 19:3 ). His policy was anti-Egyptian therefore. Necho, at that time at Riblah, sent an army against Jerusalem, which at once yielded, and Jehoahaz was carried captive to the Egyptian camp, Eliakim being appointed king in his stead. He remained a captive in Egypt till his death, and was the first king of Judah that died in exile.

Shalman

an Assyrian king ( Hosea 10:14 ), identified with Shalmaneser II. (Sayce) or IV. (Lenormant), the successor of Pul on the throne of Assyria (B.C. 728). He made war against Hoshea, the king of Israel, whom he subdued and compelled to pay an annual tribute. Hoshea, however, soon after rebelled against his Assyrian conquerer. Shalmaneser again marched against Samaria, which, after a siege of three years, was taken ( 2 Kings 17:3-5 ; 18:9 ) by Sargon (q.v.). A revolution meantime had broken out in Assyria, and Shalmaneser was deposed. Sargon usurped the vacant throne. Schrader thinks that this is probably the name of a king of Moab mentioned on an inscription of Tiglath-pileser as Salamanu.

Shamgar

The Philistines from the maritime plain had made incursions into the Hebrew upland for the purposes of plunder, when one of this name, the son of Anath, otherwise unknown, headed a rising for the purpose of freeing the land from this oppression. He repelled the invasion, slaying 600 men with an "ox goad" (q.v.). The goad was a formidable sharpointed instrument, sometimes ten feet long. He was probably contemporary for a time with Deborah and Barak ( Judges 3:31 ; 5:6 ).

Shamir

a sharp thorn.

1. One of the sons of Michah ( 1 Chronicles 24:24 ).

2. A town among the mountains of Judah ( Joshua 15:48 ); probably Somerah, 2 1/2 miles north-west of Debir.

3. The residence of Tola, one of the judges, on Mount Ephraim ( Judges 10:1 Judges 10:2 ).

Shammah

desert.

1. One of the "dukes" of Edom ( Genesis 36:13 Genesis 36:17 ).

2. One of the sons of Jesse ( 1 Samuel 16:9 ). He is also called Shimeah ( 2 Samuel 13:3 ) and Shimma ( 1 Chronicles 2:13 ).

3. One of David's three mighty men ( 2 Samuel 23:11 2 Samuel 23:12 ).

4. One of David's mighties ( 2 Samuel 23:25 ); called also Shammoth ( 1 Chronicles 11:27 ) and Shamhuth ( 27:8 ).

Shammua

heard.

1. One of the spies sent out by Moses to search the land ( Numbers 13:4 ). He represented the tribe of Reuben.

2. One of David's sons ( 1 Chronicles 14:4 ; 3:5 , "Shimea;" 2 Samuel 5:14 ).

3. A Levite under ( Nehemiah 11:17 ).

Shaphan

a coney, a scribe or secretary of king Josiah ( 2 Kings 22:3-7 ). He consulted Huldah concerning the newly-discovered copy of the law which was delivered to him by Hilkiah the priest (8-14). His grandson Gedaliah was governor of Judea ( 25:22 ).

Shaphat

judge.

1. One of the spies. He represented the tribe of Simeon ( Numbers 13:5 ).

2. The father of Elisha ( 1 Kings 19:16-19 ).

3. One of David's chief herdsmen ( 1 Chronicles 27:29 ).

Shapher

brightness, one of the stations where Israel encamped in the wilderness ( Numbers 33:23 Numbers 33:24 ).

Sharaim

two gates ( Joshua 15:36 ), more correctly Shaaraim ( 1 Samuel 17:52 ), probably Tell Zakariya and Kefr Zakariya, in the valley of Elah, 3 1/2 miles north-west of Socoh.

Sharezer

(god) protect the king!, a son of Sennacherib, king of Assyria. He and his brother Adrammelech murdered their father, and then fled into the land of Armenia ( 2 Kings 19:37 ).

Sharon, Saron

a plain, a level tract extending from the Mediterranean to the hill country to the west of Jerusalem, about 30 miles long and from 8 to 15 miles broad, celebrated for its beauty and fertility ( 1 Chronicles 27:29 ; Isaiah 33:9 ; 35:2 ; 65:10 ). The "rose of Sharon" is celebrated (Cant 2:1 ). It is called Lasharon (the article la being here a part of the word) in Joshua 12:18 .

Shaveh, Valley of

valley of the plain the ancient name of the "king's dale" (q.v.), or Kidron, on the north side of Jerusalem ( Genesis 14:17 ).

Shaveh-Kiriathaim

plain of Kirja-thaim where Chedorlaomer defeated the Emims, the original inhabitants ( Genesis 14:5 ). Now Kureiyat, north of Dibon, in the land of Moab.

Shavsha

("Seraiah," 2 Samuel 8:17 ; "Shisha," 1 Kings 4:3 ), one of David's secretaries ( 1 Chronicles 18:16 ).

Shealtiel

asked for of God, father of Zerubbabel ( Ezra 3:2 Ezra 3:8 ; Nehemiah 12:1 ).

Shearing-house

( 2 Kings 10:12 2 Kings 10:14 ; marg., "house of shepherds binding sheep." RSV, "the shearing-house of the shepherds;" marg., "house of gathering"), some place between Samaria and Jezreel, where Jehu slew "two and forty men" of the royal family of Judah. The Heb. word Beth-eked so rendered is supposed by some to be a proper name.

Shear-Jashub

a remnant shall escape or return (i.e., to God), a symbolical name which the prophet Isaiah gave to his son ( Isaiah 7:3 ), perhaps his eldest son.

Sheba

an oath, seven.

1. Heb. shebha, the son of Raamah ( Genesis 10:7 ), whose descendants settled with those of Dedan on the Persian Gulf.

2. Heb. id. A son of Joktan ( Genesis 10:28 ), probably the founder of the Sabeans.

3. Heb. id. A son of Jokshan, who was a son of Abraham by Keturah ( Genesis 25:3 ).

4. Heb. id. A kingdom in Arabia Felix. Sheba, in fact, was Saba in Southern Arabia, the Sabaeans of classical geography, who carried on the trade in spices with the other peoples of the ancient world. They were Semites, speaking one of the two main dialects of Himyaritic or South Arabic. Sheba had become a monarchy before the days of Solomon. Its queen brought him gold, spices, and precious stones ( 1 Kings 10:1-13 ). She is called by our Lord the "queen of the south" ( Matthew 12:42 ).

5. Heb. shebha', "seven" or "an oak." A town of Simeon ( Joshua 19:2 ).

6. Heb. id. A "son of Bichri," of the family of Becher, the son of Benjamin, and thus of the stem from which Saul was descended ( 2 Samuel 20:1-22 ). When David was returning to Jerusalem after the defeat of Absalom, a strife arose between the ten tribes and the tribe of Judah, because the latter took the lead in bringing back the king. Sheba took advantage of this state of things, and raised the standard of revolt, proclaiming, "We have no part in David." With his followers he proceeded northward. David seeing it necessary to check this revolt, ordered Abishai to take the gibborim, "mighty men," and the body-guard and such troops as he could gather, and pursue Sheba. Joab joined the expedition, and having treacherously put Amasa to death, assumed the command of the army. Sheba took refuge in Abel-Bethmaachah, a fortified town some miles north of Lake Merom. While Joab was engaged in laying siege to this city, Sheba's head was, at the instigation of a "wise woman" who had held a parley with him from the city walls, thrown over the wall to the besiegers, and thus the revolt came to an end.

Shebaniah

whom Jehovah hides, or has made grow up.

1. A Levite appointed to blow the trumpet before the ark of God ( 1 Chronicles 15:24 ).

2. Another Levite ( Nehemiah 9:4 Nehemiah 9:5 ).

3. A priest ( Nehemiah 10:12 ).

4. A Levite ( Nehemiah 10:4 ).

Shebarim

breaks; ruins, a place near Ai ( Joshua 7:5 ; RSV marg., "the quarries").

Shebna

tender youth, "treasurer" over the house in the reign of Hezekiah, i.e., comptroller or governor of the palace. On account of his pride he was ejected from his office, and Eliakim was promoted to it ( Isaiah 22:15-25 ). He appears to have been the leader of the party who favoured an alliance with Egypt against Assyria. It is conjectured that "Shebna the scribe," who was one of those whom the king sent to confer with the Assyrian ambassador ( 2 Kings 18:18 2 Kings 18:26 2 Kings 18:37 ; 19:2 ; Isaiah 36:3 Isaiah 36:11 Isaiah 36:22 ; 37:2 ), was a different person.

Shebuel

captive of God.

1. One of the descendants of Gershom, who had charge of the temple treasures in the time of David ( 1 Chronicles 23:16 ; 26:24 ).

2. One of the sons of Heman; one of those whose duty it was to "lift up the horn" in the temple service ( 1 Chronicles 25:4 1 Chronicles 25:5 ); called also Shubael (ver. 20).

Shecaniah

one intimate with Jehovah.

1. A priest to whom the tenth lot came forth when David divided the priests ( 1 Chronicles 24:11 ).

2. One of the priests who were set "to give to their brethren by courses" of the daily portion ( 2 Chronicles 31:15 ). Shechani'ah, id.

3. A priest whose sons are mentioned in 1 Chronicles 3:21 1 Chronicles 3:22 .

4. Ezra 8:5 .

5. Ezra 10:2-4 .

6. The father of Shemaiah, who repaired the wall of Jerusalem ( Nehemiah 3:29 ).

7. The father-in-law of Tobiah ( Nehemiah 6:18 ).

8. A priest who returned from the Captivity with Zerubbabel ( Nehemiah 12:3 ; marg., or Shebaniah).

Shechem

shoulder.

1. The son of Hamor the Hivite ( Genesis 33:19 ; 34 ).

2. A descendant of Manasseh ( Numbers 26:31 ; Joshua 17:2 ).

3. A city in Samaria ( Genesis 33:18 ), called also Sichem ( 12:6 ), Sychem ( Acts 7:16 ). It stood in the narrow sheltered valley between Ebal on the north and Gerizim on the south, these mountains at their base being only some 500 yards apart. Here Abraham pitched his tent and built his first altar in the Promised Land, and received the first divine promise ( Genesis 12:6 Genesis 12:7 ). Here also Jacob "bought a parcel of a field at the hands of the children of Hamor" after his return from Mesopotamia, and settled with his household, which he purged from idolatry by burying the teraphim of his followers under an oak tree, which was afterwards called "the oak of the sorcerer" ( Genesis 33:19 ; 35:4 ; Judges 9:37 ). (See MEONENIM .) Here too, after a while, he dug a well, which bears his name to this day ( John 4:5 John 4:39-42 ). To Shechem Joshua gathered all Israel "before God," and delivered to them his second parting address ( Joshua 24:1-15 ). He "made a covenant with the people that day" at the very place where, on first entering the land, they had responded to the law from Ebal and Gerizim ( Joshua 24:25 ), the terms of which were recorded "in the book of the law of God", i.e., in the roll of the law of Moses; and in memory of this solemn transaction a great stone was set up "under an oak" (Compare Genesis 28:18 ; 31:44-48 ; Exodus 24:4 ; Joshua 4:3 Joshua 4:8 Joshua 4:9 ), possibly the old "oak of Moreh," as a silent witness of the transaction to all coming time. Shechem became one of the cities of refuge, the central city of refuge for Western Palestine ( Joshua 20:7 ), and here the bones of Joseph were buried ( 24:32 ). Rehoboam was appointed king in Shechem ( 1 Kings 12:1 1 Kings 12:19 ), but Jeroboam afterwards took up his residence here. This city is mentioned in connection with our Lord's conversation with the woman of Samaria ( John 4:5 ); and thus, remaining as it does to the present day, it is one of the oldest cities of the world. It is the modern Nablus, a contraction for Neapolis, the name given to it by Vespasian. It lies about a mile and a half up the valley on its southern slope, and on the north of Gerizim, which rises about 1,100 feet above it, and is about 34 miles north of Jerusalem. It contains about 10,000 inhabitants, of whom about 160 are Samaritans and 100 Jews, the rest being Christians and Mohammedans. The site of Shechem is said to be of unrivalled beauty. Stanley says it is "the most beautiful, perhaps the only very beautiful, spot in Central Palestine." Gaza, near Shechem, only mentioned 1 Chronicles 7:28 , has entirely disappeared. It was destroyed at the time of the Conquest, and its place was taken by Shechem. (See SYCHAR .)

Shechinah

a Chaldee word meaning resting-place, not found in Scripture, but used by the later Jews to designate the visible symbol of God's presence in the tabernacle, and afterwards in Solomon's temple. When the Lord led Israel out of Egypt, he went before them "in a pillar of a cloud." This was the symbol of his presence with his people. For references made to it during the wilderness wanderings, see Exodus 14:20 ; 40:34-38 ; Leviticus 9:23 Leviticus 9:24 ; Numbers 14:10 ; Numbers 16:19 Numbers 16:42 .

It is probable that after the entrance into Canaan this glory-cloud settled in the tabernacle upon the ark of the covenant in the most holy place. We have, however, no special reference to it till the consecration of the temple by Solomon, when it filled the whole house with its glory, so that the priests could not stand to minister ( 1 Kings 8:10-13 ; 2 Chr. 1 Kings 5:13 1 Kings 5:14 ; 7:1-3 ). Probably it remained in the first temple in the holy of holies as the symbol of Jehovah's presence so long as that temple stood. It afterwards disappeared. (See CLOUD .)

Sheep

are of different varieties. Probably the flocks of Abraham and Isaac were of the wild species found still in the mountain regions of Persia and Kurdistan. After the Exodus, and as a result of intercourse with surrounding nations, other species were no doubt introduced into the herds of the people of Israel. They are frequently mentioned in Scripture. The care of a shepherd over his flock is referred to as illustrating God's care over his people ( Psalms 23:1 Psalms 23:2 ; 74:1 ; 77:20 ; Isaiah 40:11 ; 53:6 ; John 10:1-5 John 10:7-16 ).

"The sheep of Palestine are longer in the head than ours, and have tails from 5 inches broad at the narrowest part to 15 inches at the widest, the weight being in proportion, and ranging generally from 10 to 14 lbs., but sometimes extending to 30 lbs. The tails are indeed huge masses of fat" (Geikie's Holy Land, etc.). The tail was no doubt the "rump" so frequently referred to in the Levitical sacrifices ( Exodus 29:22 ; Leviticus 3:9 ; 7:3 ; 9:19 ). Sheep-shearing was generally an occasion of great festivity ( Genesis 31:19 ; Genesis 38:12 Genesis 38:13 ; 1 Samuel 25:4-8 1 Samuel 25:36 ; 2 Sam. 13:23-28 ).

Sheep-fold

a strong fenced enclosure for the protection of the sheep gathered within it ( Numbers 32:24 ; 1 Chronicles 17:7 ; Psalms 50:9 ; 78:70 ). In John 10:16 the Authorized Version renders by "fold" two distinct Greek words, aule and poimne, the latter of which properly means a "flock," and is so rendered in the Revised Version. (See also Matthew 26:31 ; Luke 2:8 ; 1 Corinthians 9:7 .) (SeeFOLD .)

Sheep-gate

one of the gates of Jerusalem mentioned by ( Nehemiah 3:1 Nehemiah 3:32 ; 12:39 ). It was in the eastern wall of the city.

Sheep-market

occurs only in John 5:2 (marg., also RSV, "sheep-gate"). The word so rendered is an adjective, and it is uncertain whether the noun to be supplied should be "gate" or, following the Vulgate Version, "pool."

Shekel

weight, the common standard both of weight and value among the Hebrews. It is estimated at 220 English grains, or a little more than half an ounce avoirdupois. The "shekel of the sanctuary" ( Exodus 30:13 ; Numbers 3:47 ) was equal to twenty gerahs ( Ezekiel 45:12 ). There were shekels of gold ( 1 Chronicles 21:25 ), of silver ( 1 Samuel 9:8 ), of brass ( 17:5 ), and of iron (7). When it became a coined piece of money, the shekel of gold was equivalent to about 2 pound of our money. Six gold shekels, according to the later Jewish system, were equal in value to fifty silver ones.

The temple contribution, with which the public sacrifices were bought ( Exodus 30:13 ; 2 Chr 24:6 ), consisted of one common shekel, or a sanctuary half-shekel, equal to two Attic drachmas. The coin, a stater (q.v.), which Peter found in the fish's mouth paid this contribution for both him and Christ ( Matthew 17:24 Matthew 17:27 ). A zuza, or quarter of a shekel, was given by Saul to Samuel ( 1 Samuel 9:8 ).

Shelah

petition.

1. Judah's third son ( Genesis 38:2 Genesis 38:5 Genesis 38:11 Genesis 38:14 ).

2. A son of Arphaxad ( 1 Chronicles 1:18 ).

Shelemiah

whom Jehovah repays.

1. Ezra 10:39 .

2. The father of Hananiah ( Nehemiah 3:30 ).

3. A priest in the time of ( Nehemiah 13:13 ).

4. Father of one of those who accused Jeremiah to Zedekiah ( Jeremiah 37:3 ; 38:1 ).

5. Father of a captain of the ward ( Jeremiah 37:13 ).

6. Jeremiah 36:14 .

Shem

a name; renown, the first mentioned of the sons of Noah ( Genesis 5:32 ; 6:10 ). He was probably the eldest of Noah's sons. The words "brother of Japheth the elder" in Genesis 10:21 are more correctly rendered "the elder brother of Japheth," as in the Revised Version. Shem's name is generally mentioned first in the list of Noah's sons. He and his wife were saved in the ark ( 7:13 ). Noah foretold his preeminence over Canaan ( 9:23-27 ). He died at the age of six hundred years, having been for many years contemporary with Abraham, according to the usual chronology. The Israelitish nation sprang from him ( Genesis 11:10-26 ; 1 Chronicles 1:24-27 ).

Shema

rumour.

1. A Reubenite ( 1 Chronicles 5:8 ).

2. A Benjamite ( 1 Chronicles 8:13 ).

3. One who stood by Ezra when he read the law ( Nehemiah 8:4 ).

4. A town in the south of Judah ( Joshua 15:26 ); the same as Sheba (ver. 5).

Shemaah

rumour, a Benjamite whose sons "came to David to Ziklag" ( 1 Chronicles 12:3 ).

Shemaiah

whom Jehovah heard.

1. A prophet in the reign of Rehoboam ( 1 Kings 12:22-24 ).

2. Nehemiah 3:29 .

3. A Simeonite ( 1 Chronicles 4:37 ).

4. A priest ( Nehemiah 12:42 ).

5. A Levite ( 1 Chronicles 9:16 ).

6. 1 Chronicles 9:14 ; Nehemiah 11:15 .

7. A Levite in the time of David, who with 200 of his brethren took part in the bringing up of the ark from Obed-edom to Hebron ( 1 Chronicles 15:8 ).

8. A Levite ( 1 Chronicles 24:6 ).

9. The eldest son of Obed-edom ( 1 Chronicles 26:4-8 ).

10. A Levite ( 2 Chronicles 29:14 ).

11. A false prophet who hindered the rebuilding of Jerusalem ( Nehemiah 6:10 ).

12. A prince of Judah who assisted at the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem ( Nehemiah 12:34-36 ).

13. A false prophet who opposed Jeremiah ( Jeremiah 29:24-32 ).

14. One of the Levites whom Jehoshaphat appointed to teach the law ( 2 Chronicles 17:8 ).

15. A Levite appointed to "distribute the oblations of the Lord" ( 2 Chronicles 31:15 ).

16. A Levite ( 2 Chronicles 35:9 ).

17. The father of Urijah the prophet ( Jeremiah 26:20 ).

18. The father of a prince in the reign of Jehoiakim ( Jeremiah 36:12 ).

Shemariah

whom Jehovah guards.

1. One who joined David at Ziklag ( 1 Chronicles 12:5 ).

2. Ezra 10:32 Ezra 10:41 .

Shemeber

soaring on high, the king of Zeboiim, who joined with the other kings in casting off the yoke of Chedorlaomer. After having been reconquered by him, he was rescued by Abraham ( Genesis 14:2 ).

Sheminith

eight; octave, a musical term, supposed to denote the lowest note sung by men's voices ( 1 Chronicles 15:21 ; Psalms 6 ; 12 , title).

Shemiramoth

most high name.

1. A Levite in the reign of Jehoshaphat ( 2 Chronicles 17:8 ).

2. A Levite in David's time ( 1 Chronicles 15:18 1 Chronicles 15:20 ).

Shemuel

heard of God.

1. The son of Ammihud. He represented Simeon in the division of the land ( Numbers 34:20 ).

2. Used for "Samuel" ( 1 Chronicles 6:33 , RSV).

3. A prince of the tribe of Issachar ( 1 Chronicles 7:2 ).

Shen

a tooth, probably some conspicuous tooth-shaped rock or crag ( 1 Samuel 7:12 ), a place between which and Mizpeh Samuel set up his "Ebenezer." In the Hebrew the word has the article prefixed, "the Shen." The site is unknown.

Shenir

=Senir, ( Deuteronomy 3:9 ; Cant 4:8 ), the name given to Mount Hermon (q.v.) by the Sidonians.

Sheol

(Heb., "the all-demanding world" = Gr. Hades, "the unknown region"), the invisible world of departed souls. (See HELL .)

Shepham

a treeless place, Numbers 34:10 Numbers 34:11 : "The coast shall go down from Shepham to Riblah."

Shephatiah

judged of the Lord.

1. A son of David by Abital ( 2 Samuel 3:4 ).

2. A Benjamite who joined David at Ziklag ( 1 Chronicles 12:5 ).

3. A Simeonite prince in David's time ( 1 Chronicles 27:16 ).

4. One of Jehoshaphat's sons ( 2 Chronicles 21:2 ).

5. Ezra 2:4 .

6. Ezra 2:57 ; Nehemiah 7:59 .

7. One of the princes who urged the putting of Jeremiah to death ( Jeremiah 38:1-4 ).

Shepherd

a word naturally of frequent occurence in Scripture. Sometimes the word "pastor" is used instead ( Jeremiah 2:8 ; 3:15 ; 10:21 ; 12:10 ; 17:16 ). This word is used figuratively to represent the relation of rulers to their subjects and of God to his people ( Psalms 23:1 ; 80:1 ; Isaiah 40:11 ; 44:28 ; Jeremiah 25:34 Jeremiah 25:35 ; Nahum 3:18 ; John 10:11 John 10:14 ; Hebrews 13:20 ; 1 Peter 2:25 ; 5:4 ).

The duties of a shepherd in an unenclosed country like Palestine were very onerous. "In early morning he led forth the flock from the fold, marching at its head to the spot where they were to be pastured. Here he watched them all day, taking care that none of the sheep strayed, and if any for a time eluded his watch and wandered away from the rest, seeking diligently till he found and brought it back. In those lands sheep require to be supplied regularly with water, and the shepherd for this purpose has to guide them either to some running stream or to wells dug in the wilderness and furnished with troughs. At night he brought the flock home to the fold, counting them as they passed under the rod at the door to assure himself that none were missing. Nor did his labours always end with sunset. Often he had to guard the fold through the dark hours from the attack of wild beasts, or the wily attempts of the prowling thief (see 1 Samuel 17:34 ).", Deane's David.

Sherebiah

flame of the Lord, a priest whose name is prominent in connection with the work carried on by Ezra and Nehemiah at Jerusalem ( Ezra 8:17 Ezra 8:18 Ezra 8:24-30 ; Nehemiah 8:7 ; Nehemiah 9:4 Nehemiah 9:5 ; 10:12 ).

Sheresh

root, a descendant of Manasseh ( 1 Chronicles 7:16 ).

Sherezer

one of the messengers whom the children of the Captivity sent to Jerusalem "to pray for them before the Lord" ( Zechariah 7:2 ).

Sheriffs

( Daniel 3:2 ), Babylonian officers.

Sheshach

( Jeremiah 25:26 ), supposed to be equivalent to Babel (Babylon), according to a secret (cabalistic) mode of writing among the Jews of unknown antiquity, which consisted in substituting the last letter of the Hebrew alphabet for the first, the last but one for the second, and so on. Thus the letters sh, sh, ch become b, b, l, i.e., Babel. This is supposed to be confirmed by a reference to Jeremiah 51:41 , where Sheshach and Babylon are in parallel clauses. There seems to be no reason to doubt that Babylon is here intended by this name. (See Streane's Jeremiah, l.c.)

Sheshai

whitish, one of the sons of Anak ( Numbers 13:22 ). When the Israelites obtained possession of the country the sons of Anak were expelled and slain ( Joshua 15:14 ; Judges 1:10 ).

Sheshbazzar

O sun-god, defend the lord! ( Ezra 1:8 Ezra 1:11 ), probably another name for Zerubbabel (q.v.), Ezra 2:2 ; Haggai 1:12 Haggai 1:14 ; Zechariah 4:6 Zechariah 4:10 .

Sheth

tumult.

1. "The children of Sheth" ( Numbers 24:17 ); RSV, "the sons of tumult," which is probably the correct rendering, as there is no evidence that this is a proper name here.

2. The antediluvian patriarch ( 1 Chronicles 1:1 ).

Shethar

a star, a prince at the court of Ahasuerus ( Esther 1:14 ).

Shethar-boznai

star of splendour, a Persian officer who vainly attempted to hinder the rebuilding of the temple ( Ezra 5:3 Ezra 5:6 ; Ezra 6:6 Ezra 6:13 ).

Sheva

Heb. Shebher.

1. The son of Caleb ( 1 Chronicles 2:49 ).

2. Heb. Sheva', one of David's scribes ( 2 Samuel 20:25 ).

Shewbread

Exodus 25:30 (RSV marg., "presence bread"); 1 Chronicles 9:32 (marg., "bread of ordering"); Numbers 4:7 : called "hallowed bread" (RSV, "holy bread") in 1 Samuel 21:1-6 .

This bread consisted of twelve loaves made of the finest flour. They were flat and thin, and were placed in two rows of six each on a table in the holy place before the Lord. They were renewed every Sabbath ( Leviticus 24:5-9 ), and those that were removed to give place to the new ones were to be eaten by the priests only in the holy place (see 1 Samuel 21:3-6 ; Compare Matthew 12:3 Matthew 12:4 ).

The number of the loaves represented the twelve tribes of Israel, and also the entire spiritual Israel, "the true Israel;" and the placing of them on the table symbolized the entire consecration of Israel to the Lord, and their acceptance of God as their God. The table for the bread was made of acacia wood, 3 feet long, 18 inches broad, and 2 feet 3 inches high. It was plated with pure gold. Two staves, plated with gold, passed through golden rings, were used for carrying it.

Shibboleth

river, or an ear of corn. The tribes living on the east of Jordan, separated from their brethren on the west by the deep ravines and the rapid river, gradually came to adopt peculiar customs, and from mixing largely with the Moabites, Ishmaelites, and Ammonites to pronounce certain letters in such a manner as to distinguish them from the other tribes. Thus when the Ephraimites from the west invaded Gilead, and were defeated by the Gileadites under the leadership of Jephthah, and tried to escape by the "passages of the Jordan," the Gileadites seized the fords and would allow none to pass who could not pronounce "shibboleth" with a strong aspirate. This the fugitives were unable to do. They said "sibboleth," as the word was pronounced by the tribes on the west, and thus they were detected (Judg. 12:1-6 ). Forty-two thousand were thus detected, and

"Without reprieve, adjudged to death, For want of well-pronouncing shibboleth."

Shibmah

fragrance, a town of Reuben, east of Jordan ( Numbers 32:38 ).

Shield

used in defensive warfare, varying at different times and under different circumstances in size, form, and material ( 1 Samuel 17:7 ; 2 Sam 1:21 ; 1 Kings 10:17 ; 1 Chronicles 12:8 1 Chronicles 12:24 1 Chronicles 12:34 ; Isaiah 22:6 ; Ezekiel 39:9 ; Nahum 2:3 ).

Used figuratively of God and of earthly princes as the defenders of their people ( Genesis 15:1 ; Deuteronomy 33:29 ; Psalms 33:20 ; 84:11 ). Faith is compared to a shield ( Ephesians 6:16 ).

Shields were usually "anointed" ( Isaiah 21:5 ), in order to preserve them, and at the same time make the missiles of the enemy glide off them more easily.

Shiggaion

from the verb shagah, "to reel about through drink," occurs in the title of Psalms 7 . The plural form, shigionoth, is found in Habakkuk 3:1 . The word denotes a lyrical poem composed under strong mental emotion; a song of impassioned imagination accompanied with suitable music; a dithyrambic ode.