Easton's Bible Dictionary


Punishment — Pygarg


The New Testament lays down the general principles of good government, but contains no code of laws for the punishment of offenders. Punishment proceeds on the principle that there is an eternal distinction between right and wrong, and that this distinction must be maintained for its own sake. It is not primarily intended for the reformation of criminals, nor for the purpose of deterring others from sin. These results may be gained, but crime in itself demands punishment. (See MURDER; THEFT .)

Endless, of the impenitent and unbelieving. The rejection of this doctrine "cuts the ground from under the gospel...blots out the attribute of retributive justice; transmutes sin into misfortune instead of guilt; turns all suffering into chastisement; converts the piacular work of Christ into moral influence...The attempt to retain the evangelical theology in connection with it is futile" (Shedd).

Pur, Purim

a lot, lots, a festival instituted by the Jews ( Esther 9:24-32 ) in ironical commemoration of Haman's consultation of the Pur (a Persian word), for the purpose of ascertaining the auspicious day for executing his cruel plot against their nation. It became a national institution by the common consent of the Jews, and is observed by them to the present day, on the 14th and 15th of the month Adar, a month before the Passover.


the process by which a person unclean, according to the Levitical law, and thereby cut off from the sanctuary and the festivals, was restored to the enjoyment of all these privileges.

The great annual purification of the people was on the Day of Atonement (q.v.).

But in the details of daily life there were special causes of cermonial uncleanness which were severally provided for by ceremonial laws enacted for each separate case. For example, the case of the leper ( Leviticus 1314 ,14), and of the house defiled by leprosy ( 14:49-53 ; see also Matthew 8:2-4 ). Uncleanness from touching a dead body ( Numbers 19:11 ; Hosea 9:4 ; Haggai 2:13 ; Matthew 23:27 ; Luke 11:44 ). The case of the high priest and of the Nazarite ( Leviticus 21:1-4 Leviticus 21:10 Leviticus 21:11 ; Numbers 6:6 Numbers 6:7 ; Ezekiel 44:25 ). Purification was effected by bathing and washing the clothes ( Leviticus 14:8 Leviticus 14:9 ); by washing the hands ( Deuteronomy 21:6 ; Matthew 27:24 ); washing the hands and feet ( Exodus 30:18-21 ; Hebrews 6:2 , "baptisms", RSV marg., "washings;" 9:10 ); sprinkling with blood and water ( Exodus 24:5-8 ; Hebrews 9:19 ), etc. Allusions to this rite are found in Psalms 26:6 ; 51:7 ; Ezekiel 36:25 ; Hebrews 10:22 .


1. Gr. balantion, a bag ( Luke 10:4 ; Luke 22:35 Luke 22:36 ).

2. Gr. zone, properly a girdle ( Matthew 10:9 ; Mark 6:8 ), a money-belt. As to our Lord's sending forth his disciples without money in their purses, the remark has been made that in this "there was no departure from the simple manners of the country. At this day the farmer sets out on excursions quite as extensive without a para in his purse; and a modern Moslem prophet of Tarshisha thus sends forth his apostles over this identical region. No traveller in the East would hestitate to throw himself on the hospitality of any village." Thomson's Land and the Book. (See SCRIP .)

Put, Phut

1. One of the sons of Ham ( Genesis 10:6 ).

2. A land or people from among whom came a portion of the mercenary troops of Egypt, Jeremiah 46:9 (A.V., "Libyans," but correctly, RSV, "Put"); Ezekiel 27:10 ; 30:5 (A.V., "Libya;" RSV, "Put"); 38:5 ; Nahum 3:9 .


a city on the coast of Campania, on the north shore of a bay running north from the Bay of Naples, at which Paul landed on his way to Rome, from which it was distant 170 miles. Here he tarried for seven days ( Acts 28:13 Acts 28:14 ). This was the great emporium for the Alexandrian corn ships. Here Paul and his companions began their journey, by the "Appian Way," to Rome. It is now called Pozzuoli. The remains of a huge amphitheatre, and of the quay at which Paul landed, may still be seen here.


Heb. dishon, "springing", ( Deuteronomy 14:5 ), one of the animals permitted for food. It is supposed to be the Antelope addax. It is described as "a large animal, over 3 1/2 feet high at the shoulder, and, with its gently-twisted horns, 2 1/2 feet long. Its colour is pure white, with the exception of a short black mane, and a tinge of tawny on the shoulders and back.", Tristram's Natural History.