Easton's Bible Dictionary
Milaiai — Mystery
eloquent, a Levitical musician ( Nehemiah 12:36 ) who took part in the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem.
(the rendering of a Hebrew word meaning "to be yellow," yellowness), the result of cutting east winds blighting and thus rendering the grain unproductive ( Deuteronomy 28:22 ; 1 Kings 8:37 ; 2 Chr 6:28 ).
(from Lat. mille, "a thousand;" Matthew 5:41 ), a Roman measure of 1,000 paces of 5 feet each. Thus the Roman mile has 1618 yards, being 142 yards shorter than the English mile.
(Miletum, 2 Timothy 4:20 ), a seaport town and the ancient capital of Ionia, about 36 miles south of Ephesus. On his voyage from Greece to Syria, Paul touched at this port, and delivered that noble and pathetic address to the elders ("presbyters," ver. 28) of Ephesus recorded in Acts 20:15-35 . The site of Miletus is now some 10 miles from the coast. (See EPHESIANS, EPISTLE TO .)
1. Hebrew halabh, "new milk", milk in its fresh state (Judg. 4:19 ). It is frequently mentioned in connection with honey ( Exodus 3:8 ; 13:5 ; Joshua 5:6 ; Isaiah 7:15 Isaiah 7:22 ; Jeremiah 11:5 ). Sheep ( Deuteronomy 32:14 ) and goats ( Proverbs 27:27 ) and camels ( Genesis 32:15 ), as well as cows, are made to give their milk for the use of man. Milk is used figuratively as a sign of abundance ( Genesis 49:12 ; Ezek. 25:4 ; Joel 3:18 ). It is also a symbol of the rudiments of doctrine ( 1 Corinthians 3:2 ; Hebrews 5:12 Hebrews 5:13 ), and of the unadulterated word of God ( 1 Peter 2:2 ).
2. Heb. hem'ah, always rendered "butter" in the Authorized Version. It means "butter," but also more frequently "cream," or perhaps, as some think, "curdled milk," such as that which Abraham set before the angels ( Genesis 18:8 ), and which Jael gave to Sisera ( Judges 5:25 ). In this state milk was used by travellers ( 2 Samuel 17:29 ). If kept long enough, it acquired a slightly intoxicating or soporific power. This Hebrew word is also sometimes used for milk in general ( Deuteronomy 32:14 ; Job 20:17 ).
for grinding corn, mentioned as used in the time of Abraham ( Genesis 18:6 ). That used by the Hebrews consisted of two circular stones, each 2 feet in diameter and half a foot thick, the lower of which was called the "nether millstone" ( Job 41:24 ) and the upper the "rider." The upper stone was turned round by a stick fixed in it as a handle. There were then no public mills, and thus each family required to be provided with a hand-mill. The corn was ground daily, generally by the women of the house ( Isaiah 47:1 Isaiah 47:2 ; Matthew 24:41 ). It was with the upper stone of a hand-mill that "a certain woman" at Thebez broke Abimelech's skull ( Judges 9:53 , "a piece of a millstone;" literally, "a millstone rider", i.e., the "runner," the stone which revolves. Compare 2 Samuel 11:21 ). Millstones could not be pledged ( Deuteronomy 24:6 ), as they were necessary in every family.
a thousand years; the name given to the era mentioned in Revelation 20:1-7 . Some maintain that Christ will personally appear on earth for the purpose of establishing his kingdom at the beginning of this millennium. Those holding this view are usually called "millenarians." On the other hand, it is maintained, more in accordance with the teaching of Scripture, we think, that Christ's second advent will not be premillennial, and that the right conception of the prospects and destiny of his kingdom is that which is taught, e.g., in the parables of the leaven and the mustard-seed. The triumph of the gospel, it is held, must be looked for by the wider and more efficient operation of the very forces that are now at work in extending the gospel; and that Christ will only come again at the close of this dispensation to judge the world at the "last day." The millennium will thus precede his coming.
(Heb. dohan; only in Ezekiel 4:9 ), a small grain, the produce of the Panicum miliaceum of botanists. It is universally cultivated in the East as one of the smaller corn-grasses. This seed is the cenchros of the Greeks. It is called in India warree, and by the Arabs dukhan, and is extensively used for food, being often mixed with other grain. In this country it is only used for feeding birds.
(Heb. always with the article, "the" Millo).
1. Probably the Canaanite name of some fortification, consisting of walls filled in with earth and stones, which protected Jerusalem on the north as its outermost defence. It is always rendered Akra i.e., "the citadel", in the LXX. It was already existing when David conquered Jerusalem ( 2 Samuel 5:9 ). He extended it to the right and left, thus completing the defence of the city. It was rebuilt by Solomon ( 1 Kings 9:15 1 Kings 9:24 ; 11:27 ) and repaired by Hezekiah ( 2 Chronicles 32:5 ).
(Heb. taphoph, Isaiah 3:16 ), taking affectedly short and quick steps. Luther renders the word by "wag" or "waggle," thus representing "the affected gait of coquettish females."
The process of mining is described in Job 28:1-11 . Moses speaks of the mineral wealth of Palestine ( Deuteronomy 8:9 ). Job 28:4 is rightly thus rendered in the Revised Version, "He breaketh open a shaft away from where men sojourn; they are forgotten of the foot [that passeth by]; they hang afar from men, they swing to and fro." These words illustrate ancient mining operations.
one who serves, as distinguished from the master.
1. Heb. meshereth, applied to an attendant on one of superior rank, as to Joshua, the servant of Moses ( Exodus 33:11 ), and to the servant of Elisha ( 2 Kings 4:43 ). This name is also given to attendants at court ( 2 Chronicles 22:8 ), and to the priests and Levites ( Jeremiah 33:21 ; Ezekiel 44:11 ).
3. Greek leitourgos, a subordinate public administrator, and in this sense applied to magistrates ( Romans 13:6 ). It is applied also to our Lord ( Hebrews 8:2 ), and to Paul in relation to Christ ( Romans 15:16 ).
4. Greek hyperetes (literally, "under-rower"), a personal attendant on a superior, thus of the person who waited on the officiating priest in the synagogue ( Luke 4:20 ). It is applied also to John Mark, the attendant on Paul and Barnabas ( Acts 13:5 ).
5. Greek diaconos, usually a subordinate officer or assistant employed in relation to the ministry of the gospel, as to Paul and Apollos ( 1 Corinthians 3:5 ), Tychicus ( Ephesians 6:21 ), Epaphras ( Colossians 1:7 ), Timothy ( 1 Thessalonians 3:2 ), and also to Christ ( Romans 15:8 ).
only in Jeremiah 51:27 , as the name of a province in Armenia, which was at this time under the Median kings. Armenia is regarded by some as = Har-minni i.e., the mountainous country of Minni. (See ARMENIA .)
distribution, an Ammonitish town ( Judges 11:33 ) from which wheat was exported to Tyre ( Ezekiel 27:17 ). It was probably somewhere in the Mishor or table-land on the east of Jordan. There is a gentle valley running for about 4 miles east of Dhiban called Kurm Dhiban, "the vineyards of Dibon." Tristram supposes that this may be the "vineyards" mentioned in Judg. (l.c.).
(Gr. heduosmon, i.e., "having a sweet smell"), one of the garden herbs of which the Pharisees paid tithes ( Matthew 23:23 ; Luke 11:42 ). It belongs to the labiate family of plants. The species most common in Syria is the Mentha sylvestris, the wild mint, which grows much larger than the garden mint (M. sativa). It was much used in domestic economy as a condiment, and also as a medicine. The paying of tithes of mint was in accordance with the Mosiac law ( Deuteronomy 14:22 ), but the error of the Pharisees lay in their being more careful about this little matter of the mint than about weightier matters.
an event in the external world brought about by the immediate agency or the simple volition of God, operating without the use of means capable of being discerned by the senses, and designed to authenticate the divine commission of a religious teacher and the truth of his message ( John 2:18 ; Matthew 12:38 ). It is an occurrence at once above nature and above man. It shows the intervention of a power that is not limited by the laws either of matter or of mind, a power interrupting the fixed laws which govern their movements, a supernatural power.
"The suspension or violation of the laws of nature involved in miracles is nothing more than is constantly taking place around us. One force counteracts another: vital force keeps the chemical laws of matter in abeyance; and muscular force can control the action of physical force. When a man raises a weight from the ground, the law of gravity is neither suspended nor violated, but counteracted by a stronger force. The same is true as to the walking of Christ on the water and the swimming of iron at the command of the prophet. The simple and grand truth that the universe is not under the exclusive control of physical forces, but that everywhere and always there is above, separate from and superior to all else, an infinite personal will, not superseding, but directing and controlling all physical causes, acting with or without them." God ordinarily effects his purpose through the agency of second causes; but he has the power also of effecting his purpose immediately and without the intervention of second causes, i.e., of invading the fixed order, and thus of working miracles. Thus we affirm the possibility of miracles, the possibility of a higher hand intervening to control or reverse nature's ordinary movements.
In the New Testament these four Greek words are principally used to designate miracles:
1. Semeion, a "sign", i.e., an evidence of a divine commission; an attestation of a divine message ( Matthew 12:38 Matthew 12:39 ; Matthew 16:1 Matthew 16:4 ; Mark 8:11 ; Luke 11:16 ; 23:8 ; John 2:11 John 2:18 John 2:23 ; Acts 6:8 , etc.); a token of the presence and working of God; the seal of a higher power.
2. Terata, "wonders;" wonder-causing events; portents; producing astonishment in the beholder ( Acts 2:19 ).
4. Erga, "works;" the works of Him who is "wonderful in working" ( John 5:20 John 5:36 ). Miracles are seals of a divine mission. The sacred writers appealed to them as proofs that they were messengers of God. Our Lord also appealed to miracles as a conclusive proof of his divine mission ( John 5:20 John 5:36 ; John 10:25 John 10:38 ). Thus, being out of the common course of nature and beyond the power of man, they are fitted to convey the impression of the presence and power of God. Where miracles are there certainly God is. The man, therefore, who works a miracle affords thereby clear proof that he comes with the authority of God; they are his credentials that he is God's messenger. The teacher points to these credentials, and they are a proof that he speaks with the authority of God. He boldly says, "God bears me witness, both with signs and wonders, and with divers miracles." The credibility of miracles is established by the evidence of the senses on the part of those who are witnesses of them, and to all others by the testimony of such witnesses. The witnesses were competent, and their testimony is trustworthy. Unbelievers, following Hume, deny that any testimony can prove a miracle, because they say miracles are impossible. We have shown that miracles are possible, and surely they can be borne witness to. Surely they are credible when we have abundant and trustworthy evidence of their occurrence. They are credible just as any facts of history well authenticated are credible. Miracles, it is said, are contrary to experience. Of course they are contrary to our experience, but that does not prove that they were contrary to the experience of those who witnessed them. We believe a thousand facts, both of history and of science, that are contrary to our experience, but we believe them on the ground of competent testimony. An atheist or a pantheist must, as a matter of course, deny the possibility of miracles; but to one who believes in a personal God, who in his wisdom may see fit to interfere with the ordinary processes of nature, miracles are not impossible, nor are they incredible. (See LIST OF MIRACLES, Appendix.)
1. The sister of Moses and Aaron ( Exodus 2:4-10 ; 1 Chronicles 6:3 ). Her name is prominent in the history of the Exodus. She is called "the prophetess" ( Exodus 15:20 ). She took the lead in the song of triumph after the passage of the Red Sea. She died at Kadesh during the second encampment at that place, toward the close of the wanderings in the wilderness, and was buried there ( Numbers 20:1 ). (See AARON; MOSES .)
2. 1 Chronicles 4:17 , one of the descendants of Judah.
( Deuteronomy 32:27 , RSV). The Authorized Version reads, "should behave themselves strangely;" i.e., not recognize the truth, misunderstand or mistake the cause of Israel's ruin, which was due to the fact that God had forsaken them on account of their apostasy.
height, a town of Moab, or simply, the height=the citadel, some fortress so called; or perhaps a general name for the highlands of Moab, as some think ( Jeremiah 48:1 ). In Isaiah 25:12 , the word is rendered "high fort."
who is like God!
1. A Levite; the eldest of the three sons of Uzziel ( Exodus 6:22 ).
2. One of the three Hebrew youths who were trained with Daniel in Babylon ( Daniel 1:11 Daniel 1:19 ), and promoted to the rank of Magi. He and his companions were afterwards cast into the burning fiery furnace for refusing to worship the idol the king had set up, from which they were miraculously delivered ( 3:13-30 ). His Chaldean name was Meshach (q.v.).
their cleansing or their beholding, a Benjamite, one of the sons of Elpaal ( 1 Chronicles 8:12 ).
( Joshua 19:26 ), a town of Asher, probably the same as Mishal.
1. One of the sons of Ishmael ( Genesis 25:14 ), and founder of an Arab tribe.
fatness, one of the Gadite heroes who gathered to David at Ziklag ( 1 Chronicles 12:10 ).
burning of waters, supposed to be salt-pans, or lime-kilns, or glass-factories, a place to which Joshua pursued a party of Canaanites after the defeat of Jabin ( Joshua 11:8 ). It is identified with the ruin Musheirifeh, at the promontory of en-Nakhurah, some 11 miles north of Acre.
contraction of minute, from the Latin minutum, the translation of the Greek word lepton, the very smallest bronze of copper coin ( Luke 12:59 ; 21:2 ). Two mites made one quadrans, i.e., the fourth part of a Roman as, which was in value nearly a halfpenny. (See FARTHING .)
given by Mithra, or dedicated to Mithra, i.e., the sun, the Hebrew form of the Greek name Mithridates.
1. The "treasurer" of King Cyrus ( Ezra 1:8 ).
2. Ezra 4:7 , a Persian officer in Samaria.
(Heb. mitsnepheth), something rolled round the head; the turban or head-dress of the high priest ( Exodus 28:4 Exodus 28:37 Exodus 28:39 ; 29:6 , etc.). In the Authorized Version of Ezekiel 21:26 , this Hebrew word is rendered "diadem," but in the Revised Version, "mitre." It was a twisted band of fine linen, 8 yards in length, coiled into the form of a cap, and worn on official occasions ( Leviticus 8:9 ; 16:4 ; Zechariah 3:5 ). On the front of it was a golden plate with the inscription, "Holiness to the Lord." The mitsnepheth differed from the mitre or head-dress (migba'ah) of the common priest. (See BONNET .)
the chief city of the island of Lesbos, on its east coast, in the AEgean Sea. Paul, during his third missionary journey, touched at this place on his way from Corinth to Judea ( Acts 20:14 ), and here tarried for a night. It lies between Assos and Chios. It is now under the Turkish rule, and bears the name of Metelin.
( Exodus 12:38 ), a class who accompanied the Israelites as they journeyed from Rameses to Succoth, the first stage of the Exodus. These were probably miscellaneous hangers-on to the Hebrews, whether Egyptians of the lower orders, or the remains of the Hyksos (see EGYPT; MOSES), as some think. The same thing happened on the return of the Jews from Babylon ( Nehemiah 13:3 ), a "mixed multitude" accompanied them so far.
smallness, a summit on the eastern ridge of Lebanon, near which David lay after escaping from Absalom ( Psalms 42:6 ). It may, perhaps, be the present Jebel Ajlun, thus named, "the little", in contrast with the greater elevation of Lebanon and Hermon.
or Miz'peh, watch-tower; the look-out.
1. A place in Gilead, so named by Laban, who overtook Jacob at this spot ( Genesis 31:49 ) on his return to Palestine from Padan-aram. Here Jacob and Laban set up their memorial cairn of stones. It is the same as Ramath-mizpeh ( Joshua 13:26 ).
2. A town in Gilead, where Jephthah resided, and where he assumed the command of the Israelites in a time of national danger. Here he made his rash vow; and here his daughter submitted to her mysterious fate ( Judges 10:17 ; Judges 11:11 Judges 11:34 ). It may be the same as Ramoth-Gilead ( Joshua 20:8 ), but it is more likely that it is identical with the foregoing, the Mizpeh of Genesis 31:23 Genesis 31:25 Genesis 31:48 Genesis 31:49 .
3. Another place in Gilead, at the foot of Mount Hermon, inhabited by Hivites ( Joshua 11:3 Joshua 11:8 ). The name in Hebrew here has the article before it, "the Mizpeh," "the watch-tower." The modern village of Metullah, meaning also "the look-out," probably occupies the site so called.
4. A town of Moab to which David removed his parents for safety during his persecution by Saul ( 1 Samuel 22:3 ). This was probably the citadel known as Kir-Moab, now Kerak. While David resided here he was visited by the prophet Gad, here mentioned for the first time, who was probably sent by Samuel to bid him leave the land of Moab and betake himself to the land of Judah. He accordingly removed to the forest of Hareth (q.v.), on the edge of the mountain chain of Hebron.
5. A city of Benjamin, "the watch-tower", where the people were accustomed to meet in great national emergencies ( Joshua 18:26 ; Judges 20:1 Judges 20:3 ; Judges 21:1 Judges 21:5 ; 1 Samuel 7:5-16 ). It has been supposed to be the same as Nob ( 1 Samuel 21:1 ; 22:9-19 ). It was some 4 miles north-west of Jerusalem, and was situated on the loftiest hill in the neighbourhood, some 600 feet above the plain of Gibeon. This village has the modern name of Neby Samwil, i.e., the prophet Samuel, from a tradition that Samuel's tomb is here. (See NOB .) Samuel inaugurated the reformation that characterized his time by convening a great assembly of all Israel at Mizpeh, now the politico-religious centre of the nation. There, in deep humiliation on account of their sins, they renewed their vows and entered again into covenant with the God of their fathers. It was a period of great religious awakening and of revived national life. The Philistines heard of this assembly, and came up against Israel. The Hebrews charged the Philistine host with great fury, and they were totally routed. Samuel commemorated this signal victory by erecting a memorial-stone, which he called "Ebenezer" (q.v.), saying, "Hitherto hath the Lord helped us" ( 1 Samuel 7:7-12 ).
the dual form of matzor, meaning a "mound" or "fortress," the name of a people descended from Ham ( Genesis 10:6 Genesis 10:13 ; 1 Chronicles 1:8 1 Chronicles 1:11 ). It was the name generally given by the Hebrews to the land of Egypt (q.v.), and may denote the two Egypts, the Upper and the Lower. The modern Arabic name for Egypt is Muzr.
reminding, or remembrancer, a Christian of Jerusalem with whom Paul lodged ( Acts 21:16 ). He was apparently a native of Cyprus, like Barnabas ( Acts 11:19 Acts 11:20 ), and was well known to the Christians of Caesarea ( 4:36 ). He was an "old disciple" (RSV, "early disciple"), i.e., he had become a Christian in the beginning of the formation of the Church in Jerusalem.
the seed of the father, or, according to others, the desirable land, the eldest son of Lot ( Genesis 19:37 ), of incestuous birth.
2. The land of Moab ( Jeremiah 48:24 ), called also the "country of Moab" ( Ruth 1:2 Ruth 1:6 ; 2:6 ), on the east of Jordan and the Dead Sea, and south of the Arnon ( Numbers 21:13 Numbers 21:26 ). In a wider sense it included the whole region that had been occupied by the Amorites. It bears the modern name of Kerak. In the Plains of Moab, opposite Jericho ( Numbers 22:1 ; 26:63 ; Joshua 13:32 ), the children of Israel had their last encampment before they entered the land of Canaan. It was at that time in the possession of the Amorites ( Numbers 21:22 ). "Moses went up from the plains of Moab unto the mountain of Nebo, to the top of Pisgah," and "died there in the land of Moab, according to the word of the Lord" ( Deuteronomy 34:5 Deuteronomy 34:6 ). "Surely if we had nothing else to interest us in the land of Moab, the fact that it was from the top of Pisgah, its noblest height, this mightiest of the prophets looked out with eye undimmed upon the Promised Land; that it was here on Nebo, its loftiest mountain, that he died his solitary death; that it was here, in the valley over against Beth-peor, he found his mysterious sepulchre, we have enough to enshrine the memory in our hearts."
the designation of a tribe descended from Moab, the son of Lot ( Genesis 19:37 ). From Zoar, the cradle of this tribe, on the south-eastern border of the Dead Sea, they gradually spread over the region on the east of Jordan. Rameses II., the Pharaoh of the Oppression, enumerates Moab (Muab) among his conquests. Shortly before the Exodus, the warlike Amorites crossed the Jordan under Sihon their king and drove the Moabites ( Numbers 21:26-30 ) out of the region between the Arnon and the Jabbok, and occupied it, making Heshbon their capital. They were then confined to the territory to the south of the Arnon.
On their journey the Israelites did not pass through Moab, but through the "wilderness" to the east ( Deuteronomy 2:8 ; Judges 11:18 ), at length reaching the country to the north of the Arnon. Here they remained for some time till they had conquered Bashan (see SIHON; OG). The Moabites were alarmed, and their king, Balak, sought aid from the Midianites ( Numbers 22:2-4 ). It was while they were here that the visit of Balaam (q.v.) to Balak took place. (See MOSES .)
After the Conquest, the Moabites maintained hostile relations with the Israelites, and frequently harassed them in war (Judg. 3:12-30 ; 1 Samuel 14 ). The story of Ruth, however, shows the existence of friendly relations between Moab and Bethlehem. By his descent from Ruth, David may be said to have had Moabite blood in his veins. Yet there was war between David and the Moabites ( 2 Samuel 8:2 ; 23:20 ; 1 Chronicles 18:2 ), from whom he took great spoil ( 2 Samuel 8:2 2 Samuel 8:11 2 Samuel 8:12 ; 1 Chronicles 11:22 ; 18:11 ).
During the one hundred and fifty years which followed the defeat of the Moabites, after the death of Ahab (see MESHA), they regained, apparently, much of their former prosperty. At this time ( Isaiah 15:1 ) delivered his "burden of Moab," predicting the coming of judgment on that land (Compare 2 Kings 17:3 ; 18:9 ; 1 Chronicles 5:25 1 Chronicles 5:26 ). Between the time of Isaiah and the commencement of the Babylonian captivity we have very seldom any reference to Moab ( Jeremiah 25:21 ; 27:3 ; 40:11 ; Zephaniah 2:8-10 ).
a basalt stone, bearing an inscription by King Mesha, which was discovered at Dibon by Klein, a German missionary at Jerusalem, in 1868. It was 3 1/2 feet high and 2 in breadth and in thickness, rounded at the top. It consisted of thirty-four lines, written in Hebrew-Phoenician characters. It was set up by Mesha as a record and memorial of his victories. It records (1) Mesha's wars with Omri, (2) his public buildings, and (3) his wars against Horonaim. This inscription in a remarkable degree supplements and corroborates the history of King Mesha recorded in 2 Kings 3:4-27 .
With the exception of a very few variations, the Moabite language in which the inscription is written is identical with the Hebrew. The form of the letters here used supplies very important and interesting information regarding the history of the formation of the alphabet, as well as, incidentally, regarding the arts of civilized life of those times in the land of Moab.
This ancient monument, recording the heroic struggles of King Mesha with Omri and Ahab, was erected about B.C. 900. Here "we have the identical slab on which the workmen of the old world carved the history of their own times, and from which the eye of their contemporaries read thousands of years ago the record of events of which they themselves had been the witnesses." It is the oldest inscription written in alphabetic characters, and hence is, apart from its value in the domain of Hebrew antiquities, of great linguistic importance.
Heb. tinshameth ( Leviticus 11:30 ), probably signifies some species of lizard (rendered in RSV, "chameleon"). In Leviticus 11:18 , Deuteronomy 14:16 , it is rendered, in Authorized Version, "swan" (RSV, "horned owl").
The Heb. holed ( Leviticus 11:29 ), rendered "weasel," was probably the mole-rat. The true mole (Talpa Europoea) is not found in Palestine. The mole-rat (Spalax typhlus) "is twice the size of our mole, with no external eyes, and with only faint traces within of the rudimentary organ; no apparent ears, but, like the mole, with great internal organs of hearing; a strong, bare snout, and with large gnawing teeth; its colour a pale slate; its feet short, and provided with strong nails; its tail only rudimentary."
In Isaiah 2:20 , this word is the rendering of two words _haphar peroth_, which are rendered by Gesenius "into the digging of rats", i.e., rats' holes. But these two Hebrew words ought probably to be combined into one (lahporperoth) and translated "to the moles", i.e., the rat-moles. This animal "lives in underground communities, making large subterranean chambers for its young and for storehouses, with many runs connected with them, and is decidedly partial to the loose debris among ruins and stone-heaps, where it can form its chambers with least trouble."
king, the name of the national god of the Ammonites, to whom children were sacrificed by fire. He was the consuming and destroying and also at the same time the purifying fire. In Amos 5:26 , "your Moloch" of the Authorized Version is "your king" in the Revised Version (Compare Acts 7:43 ). Solomon ( 1 Kings 11:7 ) erected a high place for this idol on the Mount of Olives, and from that time till the days of Josiah his worship continued ( 2 Kings 23:10 2 Kings 23:13 ). In the days of Jehoahaz it was partially restored, but after the Captivity wholly disappeared. He is also called Molech ( Leviticus 18:21 ; 20:2-5 , etc.), Milcom ( 1 Kings 11:5 1 Kings 11:33 , etc.), and Malcham ( Zephaniah 1:5 ). This god became Chemosh among the Moabites.
Of uncoined money the first notice we have is in the history of Abraham ( Genesis 13:2 ; 20:16 ; 24:35 ). Next, this word is used in connection with the purchase of the cave of Machpelah ( 23:16 ), and again in connection with Jacob's purchase of a field at Shalem ( Genesis 33:18 Genesis 33:19 ) for "an hundred pieces of money"=an hundred Hebrew kesitahs (q.v.), i.e., probably pieces of money, as is supposed, bearing the figure of a lamb.
The history of Joseph affords evidence of the constant use of money, silver of a fixed weight. This appears also in all the subsequent history of the Jewish people, in all their internal as well as foreign transactions. There were in common use in trade silver pieces of a definite weight, shekels, half-shekels, and quarter-shekels. But these were not properly coins, which are pieces of metal authoritatively issued, and bearing a stamp.
Of the use of coined money we have no early notice among the Hebrews. The first mentioned is of Persian coinage, the daric ( Ezra 2:69 ; Nehemiah 7:70 ) and the 'adarkon ( Ezra 8:27 ). The daric (q.v.) was a gold piece current in Palestine in the time of Cyrus. As long as the Jews, after the Exile, lived under Persian rule, they used Persian coins. These gave place to Greek coins when Palestine came under the dominion of the Greeks (B.C. 331), the coins consisting of gold, silver, and copper pieces. The usual gold pieces were staters (q.v.), and the silver coins tetradrachms and drachms.
In the year B.C. 140, Antiochus VII. gave permission to Simon the Maccabee to coin Jewish money. Shekels (q.v.) were then coined bearing the figure of the almond rod and the pot of manna.
( Matthew 21:12 ; Mark 11:15 ; John 2:15 ). Every Israelite from twenty years and upwards had to pay ( Exodus 30:13-15 ) into the sacred treasury half a shekel every year as an offering to Jehovah, and that in the exact Hebrew half-shekel piece. There was a class of men, who frequented the temple courts, who exchanged at a certain premium foreign moneys for these half-shekels to the Jews who came up to Jerusalem from all parts of the world. (See PASSOVER .) When our Lord drove the traffickers out of the temple, these money-changers fared worst. Their tables were overturned and they themselves were expelled.
Among the Egyptians the month of thirty days each was in use long before the time of the Exodus, and formed the basis of their calculations. From the time of the institution of the Mosaic law the month among the Jews was lunar. The cycle of religious feasts depended on the moon. The commencement of a month was determined by the observation of the new moon. The number of months in the year was usually twelve ( 1 Kings 4:7 ; 1 Chronicles 27:1-15 ); but every third year an additional month (ve-Adar) was inserted, so as to make the months coincide with the seasons.
"The Hebrews and Phoenicians had no word for month save 'moon,' and only saved their calendar from becoming vague like that of the Moslems by the interpolation of an additional month. There is no evidence at all that they ever used a true solar year such as the Egyptians possessed. The latter had twelve months of thirty days and five epagomenac or odd days.", Palestine Quarterly, January 1889.
heb. yareah, from its paleness ( Ezra 6:15 ), and lebanah, the "white" (Cant 6:10 ; Isaiah 24:23 ), was appointed by the Creator to be with the sun "for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years" ( Genesis 1:14-16 ). A lunation was among the Jews the period of a month, and several of their festivals were held on the day of the new moon. It is frequently referred to along with the sun ( Joshua 10:12 ; Psalms 72:5 Psalms 72:7 Psalms 72:17 ; Psalms 89:36 Psalms 89:37 ; Eccl 12:2 ; Isaiah 24:23 , etc.), and also by itself ( Psalms 8:3 ; 121:6 ).
The great brilliance of the moon in Eastern countries led to its being early an object of idolatrous worship ( Deuteronomy 4:19 ; 17:3 ; Job 31:26 ), a form of idolatry against which the Jews were warned ( Deuteronomy 4:19 ; 17:3 ). They, however, fell into this idolatry, and offered incense ( 2 Kings 23:5 ; Jeremiah 8:2 ), and also cakes of honey, to the moon ( Jeremiah 7:18 ; Jeremiah 44:17-19 Jeremiah 44:25 ).
the son of Jair, of the tribe of Benjamin. It has been alleged that he was carried into captivity with Jeconiah, and hence that he must have been at least one hundred and twenty-nine years old in the twelfth year of Ahasuerus (Xerxes). But the words of Esther do not necessarily lead to this conclusion. It was probably Kish of whom it is said (ver. 6) that he "had been carried away with the captivity."
He resided at Susa, the metropolis of Persia. He adopted his cousin Hadassah (Esther), an orphan child, whom he tenderly brought up as his own daughter. When she was brought into the king's harem and made queen in the room of the deposed queen Vashti, he was promoted to some office in the court of Ahasuerus, and was one of those who "sat in the king's gate" ( Esther 2:21 ). While holding this office, he discovered a plot of the eunuchs to put the king to death, which, by his vigilance, was defeated. His services to the king in this matter were duly recorded in the royal chronicles.
Haman (q.v.) the Agagite had been raised to the highest position at court. Mordecai refused to bow down before him; and Haman, being stung to the quick by the conduct of Mordecai, resolved to accomplish his death in a wholesale destruction of the Jewish exiles throughout the Persian empire ( Esther 3:8-15 ). Tidings of this cruel scheme soon reached the ears of Mordecai, who communicated with Queen Esther regarding it, and by her wise and bold intervention the scheme was frustrated. The Jews were delivered from destruction, Mordecai was raised to a high rank, and Haman was executed on the gallows he had by anticipation erected for Mordecai ( (6:2-7:10). ). In memory of the signal deliverance thus wrought for them, the Jews to this day celebrate the feast ( 9:26-32 ) of Purim (q.v.).
an archer, teacher; fruitful.
1. A Canaanite probably who inhabited the district south of Shechem, between Mounts Ebal and Gerizim, and gave his name to the "plain" there ( Genesis 12:6 ). Here at this "plain," or rather (RSV) "oak," of Moreh, Abraham built his first altar in the land of Palestine; and here the Lord appeared unto him. He afterwards left this plain and moved southward, and pitched his tent between Bethel on the west and Hai on the east ( Genesis 12:7 Genesis 12:8 ).
probably identical with "little Hermon," the modern Jebel ed-Duhy, or perhaps one of the lower spurs of this mountain. It is a gray ridge parallel to Gilboa on the north; and between the two lay the battle-field, the plain of Jezreel (q.v.), where Gideon overthrew the Midianites ( Judges 7:1-12 ).
the chosen of Jehovah. Some contend that Mount Gerizim is meant, but most probably we are to regard this as one of the hills of Jerusalem. Here Solomon's temple was built, on the spot that had been the threshing-floor of Ornan the Jebusite ( 2 Samuel 24:24 2 Samuel 24:25 ; 2 Chr 3:1 ). It is usually included in Zion, to the north-east of which it lay, and from which it was separated by the Tyropoean valley. This was "the land of Moriah" to which Abraham went to offer up his son Isaac ( Genesis 22:2 ). It has been supposed that the highest point of the temple hill, which is now covered by the Mohammedan Kubbetes-Sakhrah, or "Dome of the Rock," is the actual site of Araunah's threshing-floor. Here also, one thousand years after Abraham, David built an altar and offered sacrifices to God. (See JERUSALEM; NUMBERING THE PEOPLE .)
(Heb. homer), cement of lime and sand ( Genesis 11:3 ; Exodus 1:14 ); also potter's clay ( Isaiah 41:25 ; Nahum 3:14 ). Also Heb. 'aphar, usually rendered "dust," clay or mud used for cement in building ( Leviticus 14:42 Leviticus 14:45 ).
Mortar for pulverizing ( Proverbs 27:22 ) grain or other substances by means of a pestle instead of a mill. Mortars were used in the wilderness for pounding the manna ( Numbers 11:8 ). It is commonly used in Palestine at the present day to pound wheat, from which the Arabs make a favourite dish called kibby.
a bond, one of the stations of the Israelites in the wilderness ( Deuteronomy 10:6 ), at the foot of Mount Hor. (Compare Numbers 33:37 Numbers 33:38 ). It has been identified with el-Tayibeh, a small fountain at the bottom of the pass leading to the ascent of Mount Hor.
drawn (or Egypt. mesu, "son;" hence Rameses, royal son). On the invitation of Pharaoh ( Genesis 45:17-25 ), Jacob and his sons went down into Egypt. This immigration took place probably about 350 years before the birth of Moses. Some centuries before Joseph, Egypt had been conquered by a pastoral Semitic race from Asia, the Hyksos, who brought into cruel subjection the native Egyptians, who were an African race. Jacob and his retinue were accustomed to a shepherd's life, and on their arrival in Egypt were received with favour by the king, who assigned them the "best of the land", the land of Goshen, to dwell in. The Hyksos or "shepherd" king who thus showed favour to Joseph and his family was in all probability the Pharaoh Apopi (or Apopis).
Thus favoured, the Israelites began to "multiply exceedingly" ( Genesis 47:27 ), and extended to the west and south. At length the supremacy of the Hyksos came to an end. The descendants of Jacob were allowed to retain their possession of Goshen undisturbed, but after the death of Joseph their position was not so favourable. The Egyptians began to despise them, and the period of their "affliction" ( Genesis 15:13 ) commenced. They were sorely oppressed. They continued, however, to increase in numbers, and "the land was filled with them" ( Exodus 1:7 ). The native Egyptians regarded them with suspicion, so that they felt all the hardship of a struggle for existence.
In process of time "a king [probably Seti I.] arose who knew not Joseph" ( Exodus 1:8 ). (See PHARAOH .) The circumstances of the country were such that this king thought it necessary to weaken his Israelite subjects by oppressing them, and by degrees reducing their number. They were accordingly made public slaves, and were employed in connection with his numerous buildings, especially in the erection of store-cities, temples, and palaces. The children of Israel were made to serve with rigour. Their lives were made bitter with hard bondage, and "all their service, wherein they made them serve, was with rigour" ( Exodus 1:13 Exodus 1:14 ). But this cruel oppression had not the result expected of reducing their number. On the contrary, "the more the Egyptians afflicted them, the more they multiplied and grew" ( Exodus 1:12 ).
The king next tried, through a compact secretly made with the guild of midwives, to bring about the destruction of all the Hebrew male children that might be born. But the king's wish was not rigorously enforced; the male children were spared by the midwives, so that "the people multiplied" more than ever. Thus baffled, the king issued a public proclamation calling on the people to put to death all the Hebrew male children by casting them into the river ( Exodus 1:22 ). But neither by this edict was the king's purpose effected.
One of the Hebrew households into which this cruel edict of the king brought great alarm was that of Amram, of the family of the Kohathites ( Exodus 6:16-20 ), who with his wife Jochebed and two children, Miriam, a girl of perhaps fifteen years of age, and Aaron, a boy of three years, resided in or near Memphis, the capital city of that time. In this quiet home a male child was born (B.C. 1571). His mother concealed him in the house for three months from the knowledge of the civic authorities. But when the task of concealment became difficult, Jochebed contrived to bring her child under the notice of the daughter of the king by constructing for him an ark of bulrushes, which she laid among the flags which grew on the edge of the river at the spot where the princess was wont to come down and bathe. Her plan was successful. The king's daughter "saw the child; and behold the child wept." The princess (see 'S DAUGHTER ) sent Miriam, who was standing by, to fetch a nurse. She went and brought the mother of the child, to whom the princess said, "Take this child away, and nurse it for me, and I will give thee thy wages." Thus Jochebed's child, whom the princess called "Moses", i.e., "Saved from the water" ( Exodus 2:10 ), was ultimately restored to her.
As soon as the natural time for weaning the child had come, he was transferred from the humble abode of his father to the royal palace, where he was brought up as the adopted son of the princess, his mother probably accompanying him and caring still for him. He grew up amid all the grandeur and excitement of the Egyptian court, maintaining, however, probably a constant fellowship with his mother, which was of the highest importance as to his religious belief and his interest in his "brethren." His education would doubtless be carefully attended to, and he would enjoy all the advantages of training both as to his body and his mind. He at length became "learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians" ( Acts 7:22 ). Egypt had then two chief seats of learning, or universities, at one of which, probably that of Heliopolis, his education was completed. Moses, being now about twenty years of age, spent over twenty more before he came into prominence in Bible history. These twenty years were probably spent in military service. There is a tradition recorded by Josephus that he took a lead in the war which was then waged between Egypt and Ethiopia, in which he gained renown as a skilful general, and became "mighty in deeds" ( Acts 7:22 ).
After the termination of the war in Ethiopia, Moses returned to the Egyptian court, where he might reasonably have expected to be loaded with honours and enriched with wealth. But "beneath the smooth current of his life hitherto, a life of alternate luxury at the court and comparative hardness in the camp and in the discharge of his military duties, there had lurked from childhood to youth, and from youth to manhood, a secret discontent, perhaps a secret ambition. Moses, amid all his Egyptian surroundings, had never forgotten, had never wished to forget, that he was a Hebrew." He now resolved to make himself acquainted with the condition of his countrymen, and "went out unto his brethren, and looked upon their burdens" ( Exodus 2:11 ). This tour of inspection revealed to him the cruel oppression and bondage under which they everywhere groaned, and could not fail to press on him the serious consideration of his duty regarding them. The time had arrived for his making common cause with them, that he might thereby help to break their yoke of bondage. He made his choice accordingly ( Hebrews 11:25-27 ), assured that God would bless his resolution for the welfare of his people. He now left the palace of the king and took up his abode, probably in his father's house, as one of the Hebrew people who had for forty years been suffering cruel wrong at the hands of the Egyptians.
He could not remain indifferent to the state of things around him, and going out one day among the people, his indignation was roused against an Egyptian who was maltreating a Hebrew. He rashly lifted up his hand and slew the Egyptian, and hid his body in the sand. Next day he went out again and found two Hebrews striving together. He speedily found that the deed of the previous day was known. It reached the ears of Pharaoh (the "great Rameses," Rameses II.), who "sought to slay Moses" ( Exodus 2:15 ). Moved by fear, Moses fled from Egypt, and betook himself to the land of Midian, the southern part of the peninsula of Sinai, probably by much the same route as that by which, forty years afterwards, he led the Israelites to Sinai. He was providentially led to find a new home with the family of Reuel, where he remained for forty years ( Acts 7:30 ), under training unconsciously for his great life's work.
Suddenly the angel of the Lord appeared to him in the burning bush ( Exodus 3 ), and commissioned him to go down to Egypt and "bring forth the children of Israel" out of bondage. He was at first unwilling to go, but at length he was obedient to the heavenly vision, and left the land of Midian ( 4:18-26 ). On the way he was met by Aaron (q.v.) and the elders of Israel (27-31). He and Aaron had a hard task before them; but the Lord was with them (ch. 7-12), and the ransomed host went forth in triumph. (See EXODUS .) After an eventful journey to and fro in the wilderness, we see them at length encamped in the plains of Moab, ready to cross over the Jordan into the Promised Land. There Moses addressed the assembled elders ( Deuteronomy 1:1-4 ; 5:1-26:19; ; 27:11-30:20), ), and gives the people his last counsels, and then rehearses the great song ( Deuteronomy 32 ), clothing in fitting words the deep emotions of his heart at such a time, and in review of such a marvellous history as that in which he had acted so conspicious a part. Then, after blessing the tribes (33), he ascends to "the mountain of Nebo (q.v.), to the top of Pisgah, that is over against Jericho" ( 34:1 ), and from thence he surveys the land. "Jehovah shewed him all the land of Gilead, unto Dan, and all Naphtali, and the land of Ephraim, and Manasseh, and all the land of Judah, unto the utmost sea, and the south, and the plain of the valley of Jericho, the city of palm trees, unto Zoar" ( Deuteronomy 34:2-3 ), the magnificient inheritance of the tribes of whom he had been so long the leader; and there he died, being one hundred and twenty years old, according to the word of the Lord, and was buried by the Lord "in a valley in the land of Moab, over against Beth-peor" ( 34:6 ). The people mourned for him during thirty days.
Thus died "Moses the man of God" ( Deuteronomy 33:1 ; Joshua 14:6 ). He was distinguished for his meekness and patience and firmness, and "he endured as seeing him who is invisible." "There arose not a prophet since in Israel like unto Moses, whom the Lord knew face to face, in all the signs and the wonders, which the Lord sent him to do in the land of Egypt to Pharaoh, and to all his servants, and to all his land, and in all that mighty hand, and in all the great terror which Moses shewed in the sight of all Israel" ( Deuteronomy 34:10-12 ).
The name of Moses occurs frequently in the Psalms and Prophets as the chief of the prophets.
In the New Testament he is referred to as the representative of the law and as a type of Christ ( John 1:17 ; 2 co 3:13-18 ; Hebrews 3:5 Hebrews 3:6 ). Moses is the only character in the Old Testament to whom Christ likens himself ( John 5:46 ; Compare Deuteronomy 18:15 Deuteronomy 18:18 Deuteronomy 18:19 ; Acts 7:37 ). In Hebrews 3:1-19 this likeness to Moses is set forth in various particulars.
In Jude 1:9 mention is made of a contention between Michael and the devil about the body of Moses. This dispute is supposed to have had reference to the concealment of the body of Moses so as to prevent idolatry.
Gr. ses, thus rendered in Matthew 6:19 Matthew 6:20 ; Luke 12:33 . Allusion is thus made to the destruction of clothing by the larvae of the clothes-moth. This is the only lepidopterous insect referred to in Scripture.
Of the Gibeonites it is said that "all the bread of their provision was dry and mouldy" ( Joshua 9:5 Joshua 9:12 ). The Hebrew word here rendered "mouldy" (nikuddim) is rendered "cracknels" in 1 Kings 14:3 , and denotes a kind of crisp cake. The meaning is that the bread of the Gibeonites had become dry and hard, hard as biscuits, and thus was an evidence of the length of the journey they had travelled.
Palestine is a hilly country ( Deuteronomy 3:25 ; 11:11 ; Ezekiel 34:13 ). West of Jordan the mountains stretch from Lebanon far down into Galilee, terminating in Carmel. The isolated peak of Tabor rises from the elevated plain of Esdraelon, which, in the south, is shut in by hills spreading over the greater part of Samaria. The mountains of Western and Middle Palestine do not extend to the sea, but gently slope into plains, and toward the Jordan fall down into the Ghor.
East of the Jordan the Anti-Lebanon, stretching south, terminates in the hilly district called Jebel Heish, which reaches down to the Sea of Gennesareth. South of the river Hieromax there is again a succession of hills, which are traversed by wadies running toward the Jordan. These gradually descend to a level at the river Arnon, which was the boundary of the ancient trans-Jordanic territory toward the south.
The composition of the Palestinian hills is limestone, with occasional strata of chalk, and hence the numerous caves, some of large extent, found there.
See SERMON .
( 2 Kings 23:13 ; Vulg., "mount of offence"), the name given to a part of the Mount of Olives, so called because idol temples were there erected in the time of Solomon, temples to the Zidonian Ashtoreth and to the "abominations" of Moab and Ammon.
a place near Pirathon (q.v.), in the tribe of Ephraim (Judg. 12:15 ).
only in Isaiah 14:13 , a mythic mountain of the Babylonians, regarded by them as the seat of the gods. It was situated in the far north, and in Babylonian inscriptions is described as a mountain called Im-Kharasak, "the mighty mountain of Bel, whose head reaches heaven, whose root is the holy deep." In their geography they are said to have identified it with mount El-wend, near Ecbatana.
( Joshua 13:19 ), a district in the east of Jordan, in the territory of Reuben. The "valley" here was probably the Ghor or valley of the Jordan, and hence the "mount" would be the hilly region in the north end of the Dead Sea. (See ZARETH-SHAHAR.)
Frequent references are found in Scripture to,
1. Mourning for the dead. Abraham mourned for Sarah ( Genesis 23:2 ); Jacob for Joseph ( Genesis 37:34 Genesis 37:35 ); the Egyptians for Jacob ( 50:3-10 ); Israel for Aaron ( Numbers 20:29 ), for Moses ( Deuteronomy 34:8 ), and for Samuel ( 1 Samuel 25:1 ); David for Abner ( 2 Samuel 3:31 2 Samuel 3:35 ); Mary and Martha for Lazarus ( John 11 ); devout men for Stephen ( Acts 8:2 ), etc.
3. Penitential mourning, by the Israelites on the day of atonement ( Leviticus 23:27 ; Acts 27:9 ); under Samuel's ministry ( 1 Samuel 7:6 ); predicted in Zechariah ( Zechariah 12:10 Zechariah 12:11 ); in many of the psalms (51, etc.). Mourning was expressed, (1) by weeping ( Genesis 35:8 , marg.; Luke 7:38 , etc.); (2) by loud lamentation ( Ruth 1:9 ; 1 Samuel 6:19 ; 2 Sam 3:31 ); (3) by the disfigurement of the person, as rending the clothes ( Genesis 37:29 Genesis 37:34 ; Matthew 26:65 ), wearing sackcloth ( Genesis 37:34 ; Psalms 35:13 ), sprinkling dust or ashes on the person ( 2 Samuel 13:19 ; Jeremiah 6:26 ; Job 2:12 ), shaving the head and plucking out the hair of the head or beard ( Leviticus 10:6 ; Job 1:20 ), neglect of the person or the removal of ornaments ( Exodus 33:4 ; Deuteronomy 21:12 Deuteronomy 21:13 ; 2 Sam 14:2 ; 19:24 ; Matthew 6:16 Matthew 6:17 ), fasting ( 2 Samuel 1:12 ), covering the upper lip ( Leviticus 13:45 ; Micah 3:7 ), cutting the flesh ( Jeremiah 16:6 Jeremiah 16:7 ), and sitting in silence ( Judges 20:26 ; 2 Sam 12:16 ; 13:31 ; Job 1:20 ). In the later times we find a class of mourners who could be hired to give by their loud lamentation the external tokens of sorrow ( 2 Chronicles 35:25 ; Jeremiah 9:17 ; Matthew 9:23 ). The period of mourning for the dead varied. For Jacob it was seventy days ( Genesis 50:3 ); for Aaron ( Numbers 20:29 ) and Moses ( Deuteronomy 34:8 ) thirty days; and for Saul only seven days ( 1 Samuel 31:13 ). In 2 Samuel 3:31-35 , we have a description of the great mourning for the death of Abner.
Heb. 'akhbar, "swift digger"), properly the dormouse, the field-mouse ( 1 Samuel 6:4 ). In Leviticus 11:29 , Isaiah 66:17 this word is used generically, and includes the jerboa (Mus jaculus), rat, hamster (Cricetus), which, though declared to be unclean animals, were eaten by the Arabs, and are still eaten by the Bedouins. It is said that no fewer than twenty-three species of this group ('akhbar=Arab. ferah) of animals inhabit Palestine. God "laid waste" the people of Ashdod by the terrible visitation of field-mice, which are like locusts in their destructive effects ( 1 Samuel 6:4 1 Samuel 6:11 1 Samuel 6:18 ). Herodotus, the Greek historian, accounts for the destruction of the army of Sennacherib ( 2 Kings 19:35 ) by saying that in the night thousands of mice invaded the camp and gnawed through the bow-strings, quivers, and shields, and thus left the Assyrians helpless. (See SENNACHERIB .)
(Heb. gez), rendered in Psalms 72:6 "mown grass." The expression "king's mowings" ( Amos 7:1 ) refers to some royal right of early pasturage, the first crop of grass for the cavalry (Compare 1 Kings 18:5 ).
a going forth.
1. One of the sons of Caleb ( 1 Chronicles 2:46 ).
an issuing of water, a city of Benjamin ( Joshua 18:26 ).
( Isaiah 3:19 ), veils, light and tremulous. Margin, "spangled ornaments."
Heb. bakah, "to weep;" rendered "Baca" (RSV, "weeping") in Psalms 84:6 . The plural form of the Hebrew bekaim is rendered "mulberry trees" in 2Sam 5:23,24and 1 Chronicles 14:14 1 Chronicles 14:15 . The tree here alluded to was probably the aspen or trembling poplar. "We know with certainty that the black poplar, the aspen, and the Lombardy poplar grew in Palestine. The aspen, whose long leaf-stalks cause the leaves to tremble with every breath of wind, unites with the willow and the oak to overshadow the watercourses of the Lebanon, and with the oleander and the acacia to adorn the ravines of Southern Palestine" (Kitto). By "the sound of a going in the tops of the mulberry trees" we are to understand a rustling among the trees like the marching of an army. This was the signal that the Lord himself would lead forth David's army to victory. (See .)
(Heb. pered), so called from the quick step of the animal or its power of carrying loads. It is not probable that the Hebrews bred mules, as this was strictly forbidden in the law ( Leviticus 19:19 ), although their use was not forbidden. We find them in common use even by kings and nobles ( 2 Samuel 18:9 ; 1 Kings 1:33 ; 2 Kings 5:17 ; Psalms 32:9 ). They are not mentioned, however, till the time of David, for the word rendered "mules" (RSV correctly, "hot springs") in Genesis 36:24 (yemim) properly denotes the warm springs of Callirhoe, on the eastern shore of the Dead Sea. In David's reign they became very common ( 2 Samuel 13:29 ; 1 Kings 10:25 ).
Mules are not mentioned in the New Testament. Perhaps they had by that time ceased to be used in Palestine.
Wilful murder was distinguished from accidental homicide, and was invariably visited with capital punishment ( Numbers 35:16 Numbers 35:18 Numbers 35:21 Numbers 35:31 ; Leviticus 24:17 ). This law in its principle is founded on the fact of man's having been made in the likeness of God ( Genesis 9:5 Genesis 9:6 ; John 8:44 ; 1 John 3:12 1 John 3:15 ). The Mosiac law prohibited any compensation for murder or the reprieve of the murderer ( Exodus 21:12 Exodus 21:14 ; Deuteronomy 19:11 Deuteronomy 19:13 ; 2 Sam 17:25 ; 20:10 ). Two witnesses were required in any capital case ( Numbers 35:19-30 ; Deuteronomy 17:6-12 ). If the murderer could not be discovered, the city nearest the scene of the murder was required to make expiation for the crime committed ( Deuteronomy 21:1-9 ). These offences also were to be punished with death, (1) striking a parent; (2) cursing a parent; (3) kidnapping ( Exodus 21:15-17 ; Deuteronomy 27:16 ).
of the Hebrews in the wilderness, called forth the displeasure of God, which was only averted by the earnest prayer of Moses ( Numbers 11:33 Numbers 11:34 ; 12 ; Numbers 14:27 Numbers 14:30 Numbers 14:31 ; 16:3 ; 21:4-6 ; Psalms 106:25 ). Forbidden by Paul ( 1 Corinthians 10:10 ).
Heb. deber, "destruction," a "great mortality", the fifth plague that fell upon the Egyptians ( Exodus 9:3 ). It was some distemper that resulted in the sudden and widespread death of the cattle. It was confined to the cattle of the Egyptians that were in the field ( 9:6 ).
Jubal was the inventor of musical instruments ( Genesis 4:21 ). The Hebrews were much given to the cultivation of music. Their whole history and literature afford abundant evidence of this. After the Deluge, the first mention of music is in the account of Laban's interview with Jacob ( Genesis 31:27 ). After their triumphal passage of the Red Sea, Moses and the children of Israel sang their song of deliverance ( Exodus 15 ).
But the period of Samuel, David, and Solomon was the golden age of Hebrew music, as it was of Hebrew poetry. Music was now for the first time systematically cultivated. It was an essential part of training in the schools of the prophets ( 1 Samuel 10:5 ; 19:19-24 ; 2 Kings 3:15 ; 1 Chronicles 25:6 ). There now arose also a class of professional singers ( 2 Samuel 19:35 ; Eccl 2:8 ). The temple, however, was the great school of music. In the conducting of its services large bands of trained singers and players on instruments were constantly employed ( 2 Samuel 6:5 ; 1 Chronicles 15 ; 16 ; 235 ;5; 25:1-6 ).
In private life also music seems to have held an important place among the Hebrews (Eccl 2:8 ; Amos 6:4-6 ; Isaiah 5:11 Isaiah 5:12 ; Isaiah 24:8 Isaiah 24:9 ; Psalms 137 ; Jeremiah 48:33 ; Luke 15:25 ).
Among instruments of music used by the Hebrews a principal place is given to stringed instruments. These were,
1. The kinnor, the "harp."
2. The nebel, "a skin bottle," rendered "psaltery."
3. The sabbeka, or "sackbut," a lute or lyre.
5. Minnim ( Psalms 150:4 ), rendered "stringed instruments;" in Psalms 45:8 , in the form minni , probably the apocopated (i.e., shortened) plural, rendered, Authorized Version, "whereby," and in the Revised Version "stringed instruments."
6. Machalath, in the titles of Psalms 53 and 88; supposed to be a kind of lute or guitar. Of wind instruments mention is made of,
9. The shophar, rendered "trumpet" ( Joshua 6:4 Joshua 6:6 Joshua 6:8 ). The word means "bright," and may have been so called from the clear, shrill sound it emitted. It was often used ( Exodus 19:13 ; Numbers 10:10 ; Judges 7:16 Judges 7:18 ; 1 Samuel 13:3 ).
10. The hatsotserah, or straight trumpet ( Psalms 98:6 ; Numbers 10:1-10 ). This name is supposed by some to be an onomatopoetic word, intended to imitate the pulse-like sound of the trumpet, like the Latin taratantara. Some have identified it with the modern trombone.
12. The sumponyah, rendered "dulcimer" ( Daniel 3:5 ), probably a sort of bagpipe.
13. The maskrokith'a ( Daniel 3:5 ), rendered "flute," but its precise nature is unknown. Of instruments of percussion mention is made of,
16. The tseltselim, "cymbals" ( 2 Samuel 6:5 ; Psalms 150:5 ), which are struck together and produce a loud, clanging sound. Metsilloth, "bells" on horses and camels for ornament, and metsiltayim, "cymbals" ( 1 Chronicles 13:8 ; Ezra 3:10 , etc.). These words are all derived from the same root, tsalal, meaning "to tinkle."
17. The menaan'im, used only in 2 Samuel 6:5 , rendered "cornets" (RSV, "castanets"); in the Vulgate, "sistra," an instrument of agitation.
18. The shalishim, mentioned only in 1 Samuel 18:6 , rendered "instruments of music" (marg. of RSV, "triangles or three-stringed instruments"). The words in Eccl 2:8 , "musical instruments, and that of all sorts," Authorized Version, are in the Revised Version "concubines very many."
(Heb. menatstseah), the precentor of the Levitical choir or orchestra in the temple, mentioned in the titles of fifty-five psalms, and in Habakkuk 3:19 , Revised Version. The first who held this office was Jeduthun ( 1 Chronicles 16:41 ), and the office appears to have been hereditary. Heman and Asaph were his two colleagues ( 2 Chronicles 35:15 ).
a plant of the genus sinapis, a pod-bearing, shrub-like plant, growing wild, and also cultivated in gardens. The little round seeds were an emblem of any small insignificant object. It is not mentioned in the Old Testament; and in each of the three instances of its occurrence in the New Testament ( Matthew 13:31 Matthew 13:32 ; Mark 4:31 Mark 4:32 ; Luke 13:18 Luke 13:19 ) it is spoken of only with reference to the smallness of its seed. The common mustard of Palestine is the Sinapis nigra. This garden herb sometimes grows to a considerable height, so as to be spoken of as "a tree" as compared with garden herbs.
occurring only in the title of Psalms 9 . Some interpret the words as meaning "on the death of Labben," some unknown person. Others render the word, "on the death of the son;" i.e., of Absalom ( 2 Samuel 18:33 ). Others again have taken the word as the name of a musical instrument, or as the name of an air to which the psalm was sung.
Grain in the East is usually thrashed by the sheaves being spread out on a floor, over which oxen and cattle are driven to and fro, till the grain is trodden out. Moses ordained that the ox was not to be muzzled while thrashing. It was to be allowed to eat both the grain and the straw ( Deuteronomy 25:4 ). (See AGRICULTURE .)
one of the chief towns of Lycia, in Asia Minor, about 2 1/2 miles from the coast ( Acts 27:5 ). Here Paul removed from the Adramyttian ship in which he had sailed from Caesarea, and entered into the Alexandrian ship, which was afterwards wrecked at Melita ( 27:39-44 ).
1. First mentioned as a principal ingredient in the holy anointing oil ( Exodus 30:23 ). It formed part of the gifts brought by the wise men from the east, who came to worship the infant Jesus ( Matthew 2:11 ). It was used in embalming ( John 19:39 ), also as a perfume ( Esther 2:12 ; Psalms 45:8 ; Proverbs 7:17 ). It was a custom of the Jews to give those who were condemned to death by crucifixion "wine mingled with myrrh" to produce insensibility. This drugged wine was probably partaken of by the two malefactors, but when the Roman soldiers pressed it upon Jesus "he received it not" ( Mark 15:23 ). (See GALL .) This was the gum or viscid white liquid which flows from a tree resembling the acacia, found in Africa and Arabia, the Balsamodendron myrrha of botanists. The "bundle of myrrh" in Cant 1:13 is rather a "bag" of myrrh or a scent-bag.
2. Another word lot is also translated "myrrh" ( Genesis 37:25 ; 43:11 ; RSV, marg., "or ladanum"). What was meant by this word is uncertain. It has been thought to be the chestnut, mastich, stacte, balsam, turpentine, pistachio nut, or the lotus. It is probably correctly rendered by the Latin word ladanum, the Arabic ladan, an aromatic juice of a shrub called the Cistus or rock rose, which has the same qualities, though in a slight degree, of opium, whence a decoction of opium is called laudanum. This plant was indigenous to Syria and Arabia.
( Isaiah 41:19 ; Nehemiah 8:15 ; Zechariah 1:8 ), Hebrew hadas, known in the East by the name as , the Myrtus communis of the botanist. "Although no myrtles are now found on the mount (of Olives), excepting in the gardens, yet they still exist in many of the glens about Jerusalem, where we have often seen its dark shining leaves and white flowers. There are many near Bethlehem and about Hebron, especially near Dewir Dan, the ancient Debir. It also sheds its fragrance on the sides of Carmel and of Tabor, and fringes the clefts of the Leontes in its course through Galilee. We meet with it all through Central Palestine" (Tristram).
the calling of the Gentiles into the Christian Church, so designated ( Ephesians 1:9 Ephesians 1:10 ; 3:8-11 ; Colossians 1:25-27 ); a truth undiscoverable except by revelation, long hid, now made manifest. The resurrection of the dead ( 1 Corinthians 15:51 ), and other doctrines which need to be explained but which cannot be fully understood by finite intelligence ( Matthew 13:11 ; Romans 11:25 ; 1 Corinthians 13:2 ); the union between Christ and his people symbolized by the marriage union ( Ephesians 5:31 Ephesians 5:32 ; comp 6:19 ); the seven stars and the seven candlesticks ( Revelation 1:20 ); and the woman clothed in scarlet ( 17:7 ), are also in this sense mysteries. The anti-Christian power working in his day is called by the apostle ( 2 Thessalonians 2:7 ) the "mystery of iniquity."