Easton's Bible Dictionary
Herodias — Hyssop
( Matthew 14:3-11 ; Mark 6:17-28 ; Luke 3:19 ), the daughter of Aristobulus and Bernice. While residing at Rome with her husband Herod Philip I. and her daughter, Herod Antipas fell in with her during one of his journeys to that city. She consented to leave her husband and become his wife. Some time after, Herod met John the Baptist, who boldly declared the marriage to be unlawful. For this he was "cast into prison," in the castle probably of Machaerus (q.v.), and was there subsequently beheaded.
a Christian at Rome whom Paul salutes and calls his "kinsman" ( Romans 16:11 ).
( Leviticus 11:19 ; Deuteronomy 14:18 ), ranked among the unclean birds. The Hebrew name is 'anaphah , and indicates that the bird so named is remarkable for its angry disposition. "The herons are wading-birds, peculiarly irritable, remarkable for their voracity, frequenting marshes and oozy rivers, and spread over the regions of the East." The Ardea russeta, or little golden egret, is the commonest species in Asia.
intelligence, a city ruled over by Sihon, king of the Amorites ( Joshua 3:10 ; 13:17 ). It was taken by Moses ( Numbers 21:23-26 ), and became afterwards a Levitical city ( Joshua 21:39 ) in the tribe of Reuben ( Numbers 32:37 ). After the Exile it was taken possession of by the Moabites ( Isaiah 15:4 ; Jeremiah 48:2 Jeremiah 48:34 Jeremiah 48:45 ). The ruins of this town are still seen about 20 miles east of Jordan from the north end of the Dead Sea. There are reservoirs in this district, which are probably the "fishpools" referred to in Cant 7:4 .
fatness, a town in the south of Judah ( Joshua 15:27 ).
dread, a descendant of Canaan, and the ancestor of the Hittites ( Genesis 10:18 ; Deuteronomy 7:1 ), who dwelt in the vicinity of Hebron ( Genesis 23:3 Genesis 23:7 ). The Hittites were a Hamitic race. They are called "the sons of Heth" ( Genesis 23:3 Genesis 23:5 Genesis 23:7 Genesis 23:10 Genesis 23:16 Genesis 23:18 Genesis 23:20 ).
wrapped up, a place on the north border of Palestine. The "way of Hethlon" ( Ezekiel 47:15 ; 48:1 ) is probably the pass at the end of Lebanon from the Mediterranean to the great plain of Hamath (q.v.), or the "entrance of Hamath."
whom Jehovah has strengthened.
1. Son of Ahaz ( 2 Kings 18:1 ; 2 Chr 29:1 ), whom he succeeded on the throne of the kingdom of Judah. He reigned twenty-nine years (B.C. 726-697). The history of this king is contained in 2 Kings 18:20 , Isaiah 3639 -39, and 2 Chronicles 2932 -32. He is spoken of as a great and good king. In public life he followed the example of his great-granfather Uzziah. He set himself to abolish idolatry from his kingdom, and among other things which he did for this end, he destroyed the "brazen serpent," which had been removed to Jerusalem, and had become an object of idolatrous worship ( Numbers 21:9 ). A great reformation was wrought in the kingdom of Judah in his day ( 2 Kings 18:4 ; 2 Chr 29:3-36 ). On the death of Sargon and the accession of his son Sennacherib to the throne of Assyria, Hezekiah refused to pay the tribute which his father had paid, and "rebelled against the king of Assyria, and served him not," but entered into a league with Egypt ( Isaiah 30 ; 31 ; 36:6-9 ). This led to the invasion of Judah by Sennacherib ( 2 Kings 18:13-16 ), who took forty cities, and besieged Jerusalem with mounds. Hezekiah yielded to the demands of the Assyrian king, and agreed to pay him three hundred talents of silver and thirty of gold ( 18:14 ). But Sennacherib dealt treacherously with Hezekiah ( Isaiah 33:1 ), and a second time within two years invaded his kingdom ( 2 Kings 18:17 ; 2 Chr 32:9 ; Isaiah 36 ). This invasion issued in the destruction of Sennacherib's army. Hezekiah prayed to God, and "that night the angel of the Lord went out, and smote in the camp of the Assyrians 185,000 men." Sennacherib fled with the shattered remnant of his forces to Nineveh, where, seventeen years after, he was assassinated by his sons Adrammelech and Sharezer ( 2 Kings 19:37 ). (See SENNACHERIB .) The narrative of Hezekiah's sickness and miraculous recovery is found in 2Kings 20:1, 2 Chronicles 32:24 , Isaiah 38:1 . Various ambassadors came to congratulate him on his recovery, and among them Merodach-baladan, the viceroy of Babylon ( 2 Chronicles 32:23 ; 2 Kings 20:12 ). He closed his days in peace and prosperity, and was succeeded by his son Manasseh. He was buried in the "chiefest of the sepulchres of the sons of David" ( 2 Chronicles 32:27-33 ). He had "after him none like him among all the kings of Judah, nor any that were before him" ( 2 Kings 18:5 ). (See ISAIAH .)
vision, the father of Tabrimon, and grandfather of Ben-hadad, king of Syria ( 1 Kings 15:18 ).
swine or strong.
1. The head of the seventeenth course of the priests ( 1 Chronicles 24:15 ).
2. Nehemiah 10:20 , one who sealed Nehemiah's covenant.
a Carmelite, one of David's warriors ( 1 Chronicles 11:37 ).
2. The older of the two sons of Pharez ( Genesis 46:12 ).
3. A plain in the south of Judah, west of Kadesh-barnea ( Joshua 15:3 ).
rejoicing of Jehovah, one of David's thirty-seven guards ( 2 Samuel 23:30 ).
called by the Accadians id Idikla; i.e., "the river of Idikla", the third of the four rivers of Paradise ( Genesis 2:14 ). Gesenius interprets the word as meaning "the rapid Tigris." The Tigris rises in the mountains of Armenia, 15 miles south of the source of the Euphrates, which, after pursuing a south-east course, it joins at Kurnah, about 50 miles above Bassorah. Its whole length is about 1,150 miles.
life of (i.e., from) God, a native of Bethel, who built (i.e., fortified) Jericho some seven hundred years after its destruction by the Israelites. There fell on him for such an act the imprecation of ( Joshua 6:26 ). He laid the foundation in his first-born, and set up the gates in his youngest son ( 1 Kings 16:34 ), i.e., during the progress of the work all his children died.
sacred city, a city of Phrygia, where was a Christian church under the care of Epaphras ( Colossians 4:12 Colossians 4:13 ). This church was founded at the same time as that of Colosse. It now bears the name of Pambuk-Kalek, i.e., "Cotton Castle", from the white appearance of the cliffs at the base of which the ruins are found.
in Psalms 92:3 means the murmuring tone of the harp. In Psalms 9:16 it is a musical sign, denoting probably a pause in the instrumental interlude. In Psalms 19:14 the word is rendered "meditation;" and in Lamentations 3:62 , "device" (RSV, "imagination").
an eminence, natural or artificial, where worship by sacrifice or offerings was made ( 1 Kings 13:32 ; 2 Kings 17:29 ). The first altar after the Flood was built on a mountain ( Genesis 8:20 ). Abraham also built an altar on a mountain ( Genesis 12:7 Genesis 12:8 ). It was on a mountain in Gilead that Laban and Jacob offered sacrifices ( 31:54 ). After the Israelites entered the Promised Land they were strictly enjoined to overthrow the high places of the Canaanites ( Exodus 34:13 ; Deuteronomy 7:5 ; Deuteronomy 12:2 Deuteronomy 12:3 ), and they were forbidden to worship the Lord on high places ( Deuteronomy 12:11-14 ), and were enjoined to use but one altar for sacrifices ( Leviticus 17:3 Leviticus 17:4 ; Deuteronomy 12 ; 16:21 ). The injunction against high places was, however, very imperfectly obeyed, and we find again and again mention made of them ( 2 Kings 14:4 ; ( 2 Kings 15:17 , etc.).
Aaron was the first who was solemnly set apart to this office ( Exodus 29:7 ; 30:23 ; Leviticus 8:12 ). He wore a peculiar dress, which on his death passed to his successor in office ( Exodus 29:29 Exodus 29:30 ). Besides those garments which he wore in common with all priests, there were four that were peculiar to himself as high priest:
1. The "robe" of the ephod, all of blue, of "woven work," worn immediately under the ephod. It was without seam or sleeves. The hem or skirt was ornamented with pomegranates and golden bells, seventy-two of each in alternate order. The sounding of the bells intimated to the people in the outer court the time when the high priest entered into the holy place to burn incense before the Lord ( Exodus 28 ).
2. The "ephod" consisted of two parts, one of which covered the back and the other the breast, which were united by the "curious girdle." It was made of fine twined linen, and ornamented with gold and purple. Each of the shoulder-straps was adorned with a precious stone, on which the names of the twelve tribes were engraved. This was the high priest's distinctive vestment ( 1 Samuel 2:28 ; 14:3 ; 21:9 ; 1 Samuel 23:6 1 Samuel 23:9 ; 30:7 ).
3. The "breastplate of judgment" ( Exodus 28:6-12 Exodus 28:25-28 ; 39:2-7 ) of "cunning work." It was a piece of cloth doubled, of one span square. It bore twelve precious stones, set in four rows of three in a row, which constituted the Urim and Thummim (q.v.). These stones had the names of the twelve tribes engraved on them. When the high priest, clothed with the ephod and the breastplate, inquired of the Lord, answers were given in some mysterious way by the Urim and Thummim ( 1 Samuel 14:3 1 Samuel 14:18 1 Samuel 14:19 ; 1 Samuel 23:2 1 Samuel 23:4 1 Samuel 23:9 1 Samuel 23:11 1 Samuel 23:12 ; 28:6 ; 2 Sam 5:23 ).
4. The "mitre," or upper turban, a twisted band of eight yards of fine linen coiled into a cap, with a gold plate in front, engraved with "Holiness to the Lord," fastened to it by a ribbon of blue. To the high priest alone it was permitted to enter the holy of holies, which he did only once a year, on the great Day of Atonement, for "the way into the holiest of all was not yet made manifest" ( Hebrews 9 ; 10 ). Wearing his gorgeous priestly vestments, he entered the temple before all the people, and then, laying them aside and assuming only his linen garments in secret, he entered the holy of holies alone, and made expiation, sprinkling the blood of the sin offering on the mercy seat, and offering up incense. Then resuming his splendid robes, he reappeared before the people ( Leviticus 16 ). Thus the wearing of these robes came to be identified with the Day of Atonement. The office, dress, and ministration of the high priest were typical of the priesthood of our Lord ( Hebrews 4:14 ; 7:25 ; 9:12 , etc.). It is supposed that there were in all eighty-three high priests, beginning with Aaron (B.C. 1657) and ending with Phannias (A.D. 70). At its first institution the office of high priest was held for life (but Compare 1 Kings 2:27 ), and was hereditary in the family of Aaron ( Numbers 3:10 ). The office continued in the line of Eleazar, Aaron's eldest son, for two hundred and ninety-six years, when it passed to Eli, the first of the line of Ithamar, who was the fourth son of Aaron. In this line it continued to Abiathar, whom Solomon deposed, and appointed Zadok, of the family of Eleazar, in his stead ( 1 Kings 2:35 ), in which it remained till the time of the Captivity. After the Return, Joshua, the son of Josedek, of the family of Eleazar, was appointed to this office. After him the succession was changed from time to time under priestly or political influences.
a raised road for public use. Such roads were not found in Palestine; hence the force of the language used to describe the return of the captives and the advent of the Messiah ( Isaiah 11:16 ; 35:8 ; 40:3 ; 62:10 ) under the figure of the preparation of a grand thoroughfare for their march.
During their possession of Palestine the Romans constructed several important highways, as they did in all countries which they ruled.
portion of Jehovah.
1. 1 Chronicles 6:54 .
2. 1 Chronicles 26:11 .
4. The father of Gemariah ( Jeremiah 29:3 ).
5. The father of the prophet ( Jeremiah 1:1 ).
6. The high priest in the reign of Josiah ( 1 Chronicles 6:13 ; Ezra 7:1 ). To him and his deputy ( 2 Kings 23:5 ), along with the ordinary priests and the Levites who had charge of the gates, was entrusted the purification of the temple in Jerusalem. While this was in progress, he discovered in some hidden corner of the building a book called the "book of the law" ( 2 Kings 22:8 ) and the "book of the covenant" ( 23:2 ). Some have supposed that this "book" was nothing else than the original autograph copy of the Pentateuch written by Moses ( Deuteronomy 31:9-26 ). This remarkable discovery occurred in the eighteenth year of Josiah's reign (B.C. 624), a discovery which permanently affected the whole subsequent history of Israel. (See JOSIAH; SHAPHAN .)
7. Nehemiah 12:7 .
8. Nehemiah 8:4 .
2. Heb. har, properly a mountain range rather than an individual eminence ( Exodus 24:4 Exodus 24:12 Exodus 24:13 Exodus 24:18 ; Numbers 14:40 Numbers 14:44 Numbers 14:45 ). In Deuteronomy 1:7 , Joshua 9:1 ; 10:40 ; 11:16 , it denotes the elevated district of Judah, Benjamin, and Ephraim, which forms the watershed between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
3. Heb. ma'aleh in 1 Samuel 9:11 . Authorized Version "hill" is correctly rendered in the Revised Version "ascent."
4. In Luke 9:37 the "hill" is the Mount of Transfiguration.
on the south of the Valley of Hinnom. It is so called from a tradition that the house of the high priest Caiaphas, when the rulers of the Jews resolved to put Christ to death, stood here.
Heb. 'ayalah ( 2 Samuel 22:34 ; Psalms 18:33 , etc.) and 'ayeleth ( Psalms 22 , title), the female of the hart or stag. It is referred to as an emblem of activity ( Genesis 49:21 ), gentleness ( Proverbs 5:19 ), feminine modesty (Cant 2:7 ; 3:5 ), earnest longing ( Psalms 42:1 ), timidity ( Psalms 29:9 ). In the title of Psalms 22 , the word probably refers to some tune bearing that name.
(Heb. tsir), that on which a door revolves. "Doors in the East turn rather on pivots than on what we term hinges. In Syria, and especially in the Hauran, there are many ancient doors, consisting of stone slabs with pivots carved out of the same piece inserted in sockets above and below, and fixed during the building of the house" ( Proverbs 26:14 ).
a deep, narrow ravine separating Mount Zion from the so-called "Hill of Evil Counsel." It took its name from "some ancient hero, the son of Hinnom." It is first mentioned in Joshua 15:8 . It had been the place where the idolatrous Jews burned their children alive to Moloch and Baal. A particular part of the valley was called Tophet, or the "fire-stove," where the children were burned. After the Exile, in order to show their abhorrence of the locality, the Jews made this valley the receptacle of the offal of the city, for the destruction of which a fire was, as is supposed, kept constantly burning there.
The Jews associated with this valley these two ideas, (1) that of the sufferings of the victims that had there been sacrificed; and (2) that of filth and corruption. It became thus to the popular mind a symbol of the abode of the wicked hereafter. It came to signify hell as the place of the wicked. "It might be shown by infinite examples that the Jews expressed hell, or the place of the damned, by this word. The word Gehenna [the Greek contraction of Hinnom] was never used in the time of Christ in any other sense than to denote the place of future punishment." About this fact there can be no question. In this sense the word is used eleven times in our Lord's discourses ( Matthew 23:33 ; Luke 12:5 ; Matthew 5:22 , etc.).
1. Generally "Huram," one of the sons of Bela ( 1 Chronicles 8:5 ).
2. Also "Huram" and "Horam," king of Tyre. He entered into an alliance with David, and assisted him in building his palace by sending him able workmen, and also cedar-trees and fir-trees from Lebanon ( 2 Samuel 5:11 ; 1 Chronicles 14:1 ). After the death of David he entered into a similar alliance with Solomon, and assisted him greatly in building the temple ( 1 Kings 5:1 ; 9:11 ; 2 Chr 2:3 ). He also took part in Solomon's traffic to the Eastern Seas ( 1 Kings 9:27 ; 10:11 ; 2 Chr 8:18 ; 9:10 ).
3. The "master workman" whom Hiram sent to Solomon. He was the son of a widow of Dan, and of a Tyrian father. In 2 Chronicles 2:13 "Huram my father" should be Huram Abi, the word "Abi" (rendered here "my father") being regarded as a proper name, or it may perhaps be a title of distinction given to Huram, and equivalent to "master." (Compare 1 Kings 7:14 ; 2 Chr 4:16 .) He cast the magnificent brazen works for Solomon's temple in clay-beds in the valley of Jordan, between Succoth and Zarthan.
a labourer employed on hire for a limited time ( Job 7:1 ; 14:6 ; Mark 1:20 ). His wages were paid as soon as his work was over ( Leviticus 19:13 ). In the time of our Lord a day's wage was a "penny" (q.v.) i.e., a Roman denarius ( Matthew 20:1-14 ).
to express contempt ( Job 27:23 ). The destruction of the temple is thus spoken of ( 1 Kings 9:8 ). ( Zechariah 10:8 ) speaks of the Lord gathering the house of Judah as it were with a hiss: "I will hiss for them." This expression may be "derived from the noise made to attract bees in hiving, or from the sound naturally made to attract a person's attention."
Palestine and Syria appear to have been originally inhabited by three different tribes.
1. The Semites, living on the east of the isthmus of Suez. They were nomadic and pastoral tribes.
2. The Phoenicians, who were merchants and traders; and
3. the Hittites, who were the warlike element of this confederation of tribes. They inhabited the whole region between the Euphrates and Damascus, their chief cities being Carchemish on the Euphrates, and Kadesh, now Tell Neby Mendeh, in the Orontes valley, about six miles south of the Lake of Homs. These Hittites seem to have risen to great power as a nation, as for a long time they were formidable rivals of the Egyptian and Assyrian empires. In the book of Joshua they always appear as the dominant race to the north of Galilee. Somewhere about the twenty-third century B.C. the Syrian confederation, led probably by the Hittites, arched against Lower Egypt, which they took possession of, making Zoan their capital. Their rulers were the Hyksos, or shepherd kings. They were at length finally driven out of Egypt. Rameses II. sought vengeance against the "vile Kheta," as he called them, and encountered and defeated them in the great battle of Kadesh, four centuries after Abraham. (See JOSHUA .) They are first referred to in Scripture in the history of Abraham, who bought from Ephron the Hittite the field and the cave of Machpelah ( Genesis 15:20 : 23:3-18 ). They were then settled at Kirjath-arba. From this tribe Esau took his first two wives ( 26:34 ; 36:2 ). They are afterwards mentioned in the usual way among the inhabitants of the Promised Land ( Exodus 23:28 ). They were closely allied to the Amorites, and are frequently mentioned along with them as inhabiting the mountains of Palestine. When the spies entered the land they seem to have occupied with the Amorites the mountain region of Judah ( Numbers 13:29 ). They took part with the other Canaanites against the Israelites ( Joshua 9:1 ; 11:3 ). After this there are few references to them in Scripture. Mention is made of "Ahimelech the Hittite" ( 1 Samuel 26:6 ), and of "Uriah the Hittite," one of David's chief officers ( 2 Samuel 23:39 ; 1 Chronicles 11:41 ). In the days of Solomon they were a powerful confederation in the north of Syria, and were ruled by "kings." They are met with after the Exile still a distinct people ( Ezra 9:1 ; Compare Nehemiah 13:23-28 ). The Hebrew merchants exported horses from Egypt not only for the kings of Israel, but also for the Hittites ( 1 Kings 10:28 1 Kings 10:29 ). From the Egyptian monuments we learn that "the Hittites were a people with yellow skins and 'Mongoloid' features, whose receding foreheads, oblique eyes, and protruding upper jaws are represented as faithfully on their own monuments as they are on those of Egypt, so that we cannot accuse the Egyptian artists of caricaturing their enemies. The Amorites, on the contrary, were a tall and handsome people. They are depicted with white skins, blue eyes, and reddish hair, all the characteristics, in fact, of the white race" (Sayce's The Hittites). The original seat of the Hittite tribes was the mountain ranges of Taurus. They belonged to Asia Minor, and not to Syria.
one of the original tribes scattered over Palestine, from Hermon to Gibeon in the south. The name is interpreted as "midlanders" or "villagers" ( Genesis 10:17 ; 1 Chronicles 1:15 ). They were probably a branch of the Hittites. At the time of Jacob's return to Canaan, Hamor the Hivite was the "prince of the land" ( Genesis 24:2-28 ).
They are next mentioned during the Conquest ( Joshua 9:7 ; 11:19 ). They principally inhabited the northern confines of Western Palestine ( Joshua 11:3 ; Judges 3:3 ). A remnant of them still existed in the time of Solomon ( 1 Kings 9:20 ).
an ancestor of the prophet ( Zephaniah 1:1 ).
( Nehemiah 10:17 ), one who sealed the covenant.
beloved, the Kenite, has been usually identified with Jethro (q.v.), Exodus 18:5 Exodus 18:27 ; Compare Numbers 10:29 Numbers 10:30 . In Judges 4:11 , the word rendered "father-in-law" means properly any male relative by marriage (Compare Genesis 19:14 , "son-in-law," A.V.), and should be rendered "brother-in-law," as in the RSV His descendants followed Israel to Canaan ( Numbers 10:29 ), and at first pitched their tents near Jericho, but afterwards settled in the south in the borders of Arad ( Judges 1:8-11 Judges 1:16 ).
hiding-place, a place to the north of Damascus, to which Abraham pursued Chedorlaomer and his confederates ( Genesis 14:15 ).
majesty of Jehovah.
2. Nehemiah 10:18 , a Levite who sealed the covenant.
in the highest sense belongs to God ( Isaiah 6:3 ; Revelation 15:4 ), and to Christians as consecrated to God's service, and in so far as they are conformed in all things to the will of God ( Romans 6:19 Romans 6:22 ; Ephesians 1:4 ; Titus 1:8 ; 1 Peter 1:15 ). Personal holiness is a work of gradual development. It is carried on under many hindrances, hence the frequent admonitions to watchfulness, prayer, and perseverance ( 1 Corinthians 1:30 ; 2 co 7:1 ; Ephesians 4:23 Ephesians 4:24 ). (See SANCTIFICATION .)
the third Person of the adorable Trinity.
His personality is proved (1) from the fact that the attributes of personality, as intelligence and volition, are ascribed to him ( John 14:17 John 14:26 ; 15:26 ; 1 Corinthians 2:10 1 Corinthians 2:11 ; 12:11 ). He reproves, helps, glorifies, intercedes ( John 16:7-13 ; Romans 8:26 ). (2) He executes the offices peculiar only to a person. The very nature of these offices involves personal distinction ( Luke 12:12 ; Acts 5:32 ; 15:28 ; 16:6 ; 28:25 ; 1 Corinthians 2:13 ; Hebrews 2:4 ; 3:7 ; 2 Pet 1:21 ).
His divinity is established (1) from the fact that the names of God are ascribed to him ( Exodus 17:7 ; Psalms 95:7 ; Compare Hebrews 3:7-11 ); and (2) that divine attributes are also ascribed to him, omnipresence ( Psalms 139:7 ; Ephesians 2:17 Ephesians 2:18 ; 1 Corinthians 12:13 ); omniscience ( 1 Corinthians 2:10 1 Corinthians 2:11 ); omnipotence ( Luke 1:35 ; Romans 8:11 ); eternity ( Hebrews 9:4 ). (3) Creation is ascribed to him ( Genesis 1:2 ; Job 26:13 ; Psalms 104:30 ), and the working of miracles ( Matthew 12:28 ; 1 Corinthians 12:9-11 ). (4) Worship is required and ascribed to him ( Isaiah 6:3 ; Acts 28:25 ; Romans 9:1 ; Revelation 1:4 ; Matthew 28:19 ).
the second or interior portion of the tabernacle. It was left in total darkness. No one was permitted to enter it except the high priest, and that only once a year. It contained the ark of the covenant only ( Exodus 25:10-16 ). It was in the form of a perfect cube of 20 cubits. (See TABERNACLE .)
one of the two portions into which the tabernacle was divided ( Exodus 26:31 ; 37:17-25 ; Hebrews 9:2 ). It was 20 cubits long and 10 in height and breadth. It was illuminated by the golden candlestick, as it had no opening to admit the light. It contained the table of showbread ( Exodus 25:23-29 ) and the golden altar of incense ( 30:1-11 ). It was divided from the holy of holies by a veil of the most costly materials and the brightest colours.
The arrangement of the temple (q.v.) was the same in this respect. In it the walls of hewn stone were wainscotted with cedar and overlaid with gold, and adorned with beautiful carvings. It was entered from the porch by folding doors overlaid with gold and richly embossed. Outside the holy place stood the great tank or "sea" of molten brass, supported by twelve oxen, three turned each way, capable of containing two thousand baths of water. Besides this there were ten lavers and the brazen altar of burnt sacrifice.
"Half a homer," a grain measure mentioned only in Hosea 3:2 .
1. Heb. ya'ar, occurs only 1 Samuel 14:25 1 Samuel 14:27 1 Samuel 14:29 ; Cant 5:1 , where it denotes the honey of bees. Properly the word signifies a forest or copse, and refers to honey found in woods.
3. Debash denotes bee-honey ( Judges 14:8 ); but also frequently a vegetable honey distilled from trees ( Genesis 43:11 ; Ezekiel 27:17 ). In these passages it may probably mean "dibs," or syrup of grapes, i.e., the juice of ripe grapes boiled down to one-third of its bulk.
5. "Wild honey" ( Matthew 3:4 ) may have been the vegetable honey distilled from trees, but rather was honey stored by bees in rocks or in trees ( Deuteronomy 32:13 ; Psalms 81:16 ; 1 Samuel 14:25-29 ). Canaan was a "land flowing with milk and honey" ( Exodus 3:8 ). Milk and honey were among the chief dainties in the earlier ages, as they are now among the Bedawin; and butter and honey are also mentioned among articles of food ( Isaiah 7:15 ). The ancients used honey instead of sugar ( Psalms 119:103 ; Proverbs 24:13 ); but when taken in great quantities it caused nausea, a fact referred to in Prov 25:16,17to inculcate moderation in pleasures. Honey and milk also are put for sweet discourse (Cant 4:11 ).
a cleft hoof as of neat cattle ( Exodus 10:26 ; Ezekiel 32:13 ); hence also of the horse, though not cloven ( Isaiah 5:28 ). The "parting of the hoof" is one of the distinctions between clean and unclean animals ( Leviticus 11:3 ; Deuteronomy 14:7 ).
1. Heb. hah, a "ring" inserted in the nostrils of animals to which a cord was fastened for the purpose of restraining them ( 2 Kings 19:28 ; Isaiah 37:28 Isaiah 37:29 ; Ezekiel 29:4 ; 38:4 ). "The Orientals make use of this contrivance for curbing their work-beasts...When a beast becomes unruly they have only to draw the cord on one side, which, by stopping his breath, punishes him so effectually that after a few repetitions he fails not to become quite tractable whenever he begins to feel it" (Michaelis). So God's agents are never beyond his control.
3. Vav, a "peg" on which the curtains of the tabernacle were hung ( Exodus 26:32 ).
4. Tsinnah, a fish-hooks ( Amos 4:2 ).
7. 'Agmon ( Job 41:2 , Heb. Text 40:26 ), incorrectly rendered in the Authorized Version. Properly a rush-rope for binding animals, as in Revised Version margin.
one of the three main elements of Christian character ( 1 Corinthians 13:13 ). It is joined to faith and love, and is opposed to seeing or possessing ( Romans 8:24 ; 1 John 3:2 ). "Hope is an essential and fundamental element of Christian life, so essential indeed, that, like faith and love, it can itself designate the essence of Christianity ( 1 Peter 3:15 ; Hebrews 10:23 ). In it the whole glory of the Christian vocation is centred ( Ephesians 1:18 ; 4:4 )." Unbelievers are without this hope ( Ephesians 2:12 ; 1 Thessalonians 4:13 ). Christ is the actual object of the believer's hope, because it is in his second coming that the hope of glory will be fulfilled ( 1 Timothy 1:1 ; Colossians 1:27 ; Titus 2:13 ). It is spoken of as "lively", i.e., a living, hope, a hope not frail and perishable, but having a perennial life ( 1 Peter 1:3 ). In Romans 5:2 the "hope" spoken of is probably objective, i.e., "the hope set before us," namely, eternal life (comp 12:12 ). In 1 John 3:3 the expression "hope in him" ought rather to be, as in the Revised Version, "hope on him," i.e., a hope based on God.
pugilist or client, one of the two sons of Eli, the high priest ( 1 Samuel 1:3 ; 2:34 ), who, because he was "very old," resigned to them the active duties of his office. By their scandalous conduct they brought down a curse on their father's house ( 1 Samuel 2:22 1 Samuel 2:12-27 1 Samuel 2:27-36 ; 3:11-14 ). For their wickedness they were called "sons of Belial," i.e., worthless men ( 2:12 ). They both perished in the disastrous battle with the Philistines at Aphek ( 4:11 ). (See PHINEHAS .)
1. One of the mountains of the chain of Seir or Edom, on the confines of Idumea ( Numbers 20:22-29 ; 33:37 ). It was one of the stations of the Israelites in the wilderness ( 33:37 ), which they reached in the circuitous route they were obliged to take because the Edomites refused them a passage through their territory. It was during the encampment here that Aaron died ( Numbers 33:37-41 ). (See AARON .) The Israelites passed this mountain several times in their wanderings. It bears the modern name of Jebel Harun, and is the highest and most conspicious of the whole range. It stands about midway between the Dead Sea and the Elanitic gulf. It has two summits, in the hallow between which it is supposed that Aaron died. Others, however, suppose that this mountain is the modern Jebel Madurah, on the opposite, i.e., the western, side of the Arabah.
desert or mountain of the dried-up ground, a general name for the whole mountain range of which Sinai was one of the summits ( Exodus 3:1 ; 17:6 ; 33:6 ; Psalms 106:19 , etc.). The modern name of the whole range is Jebel Musa. It is a huge mountain block, about 2 miles long by about 1 in breadth, with a very spacious plain at its north-east end, called the Er Rahah, in which the Israelites encamped for nearly a whole year. (See SINAI .)
consecrated, one of the fenced cities of Naphtali ( Joshua 19:38 ).
cave-men, a race of Troglodytes who dwelt in the limestone caves which abounded in Edom. Their ancestor was "Seir," who probably gave his name to the district where he lived. They were a branch of the Hivites ( Genesis 14:6 ; 36:20-30 ; 1 Chronicles 1:38 1 Chronicles 1:39 ). They were dispossessed by the descendants of Esau, and as a people gradually became extinct ( Deuteronomy 2:12-22 ).
banning; i.e., placing under a "ban," or devoting to utter destruction. After the manifestation of God's anger against the Israelites, on account of their rebellion and their murmurings when the spies returned to the camp at Kadesh, in the wilderness of Paran, with an evil report of the land, they quickly repented of their conduct, and presumed to go up "to the head of the mountain," seeking to enter the Promised Land, but without the presence of the Lord, without the ark of the convenant, and without Moses. The Amalekites and the Canaanites came down and "smote and discomfited them even unto Hormah" ( Numbers 14:45 ). This place, or perhaps the watch-tower commanding it, was originally called Zephath ( Judges 1:17 ), the modern Sebaiteh. Afterwards ( Numbers 21:1-3 ) Arad, the king of the Canaanites, at the close of the wanderings, when the Israelites were a second time encamped at Kadesh, "fought against them, and took some of them prisoners." But Israel vowed a vow unto the Lord utterly to destroy the cities of the Canaanites; they "banned" them, and hence the place was now called Hormah. But this "ban" was not fully executed till the time of Joshua, who finally conquered the king of this district, so that the ancient name Zephath became "Hormah" ( Joshua 12:14 ; Judges 1:17 ).
But the word is used also metaphorically to denote the projecting corners of the altar of burnt offerings ( Exodus 27:2 ) and of incense ( 30:2 ). The horns of the altar of burnt offerings were to be smeared with the blood of the slain bullock ( 29:12 ; Leviticus 4:7-18 ). The criminal, when his crime was accidental, found an asylum by laying hold of the horns of the altar ( 1 Kings 1:50 ; 2:28 ).
The word also denotes the peak or summit of a hill ( Isaiah 5:1 , where the word "hill" is the rendering of the same Hebrew word).
This word is used metaphorically also for strength ( Deuteronomy 33:17 ) and honour ( Job 16:15 ; Lamentations 2:3 ). Horns are emblems of power, dominion, glory, and fierceness, as they are the chief means of attack and defence with the animals endowed with them ( Daniel 8:5 Daniel 8:9 ; 1 Samuel 2:1 ; 1 Samuel 16:1 1 Samuel 16:13 ; 1 Kings 1:39 ; 22:11 ; Joshua 6:4 Joshua 6:5 ; Psalms 75:5 Psalms 75:10 ; 132:17 ; Luke 1:69 , etc.). The expression "horn of salvation," applied to Christ, means a salvation of strength, or a strong Saviour ( Luke 1:69 ). To have the horn "exalted" denotes prosperity and triumph ( Psalms 89:17 Psalms 89:24 ). To "lift up" the horn is to act proudly ( Zechariah 1:21 ).
Heb. tsir'ah, "stinging", ( Exodus 23:28 ; Deuteronomy 7:20 ; Joshua 24:12 ). The word is used in these passages as referring to some means by which the Canaanites were to be driven out from before the Israelites. Some have supposed that the word is used in a metaphorical sense as the symbol of some panic which would seize the people as a "terror of God" ( Genesis 35:5 ), the consternation with which God would inspire the Canaanites. In Palestine there are four species of hornets, differing from our hornets, being larger in size, and they are very abundant. They "attack human beings in a very furious manner." "The furious attack of a swarm of hornets drives cattle and horses to madness, and has even caused the death of the animals."
always referred to in the Bible in connection with warlike operations, except Isaiah 28:28 . The war-horse is described Job 39:19-25 . For a long period after their settlement in Canaan the Israelites made no use of horses, according to the prohibition, Deuteronomy 17:16 . David was the first to form a force of cavalry ( 2 Samuel 8:4 ). But Solomon, from his connection with Egypt, greatly multiplied their number ( 1 Kings 4:26 ; 1 Kings 10:26 1 Kings 10:29 ). After this, horses were freely used in Israel ( 1 Kings 22:4 ; 2 Kings 3:7 ; 1 Kings 9:21 1 Kings 9:33 ; 11:16 ). The furniture of the horse consisted simply of a bridle ( Isaiah 30:28 ) and a curb ( Psalms 32:9 ).
occurs only in Proverbs 30:15 (Heb. 'alukah); the generic name for any blood-sucking annelid. There are various species in the marshes and pools of Palestine. That here referred to, the Hoemopis, is remarkable for the coarseness of its bite, and is therefore not used for medical purposes. They are spoken of in the East with feelings of aversion and horror, because of their propensity to fasten on the tongue and nostrils of horses when they come to drink out of the pools. The medicinal leech (Hirudo medicinalis), besides other species of leeches, are common in the waters of Syria.
Heb. ba'al parash, "master of a horse." The "horsemen" mentioned Exodus 14:9 were "mounted men", i.e., men who rode in chariots. The army of Pharaoh consisted of a chariot and infantry force. We find that at a later period, however, the Egyptians had cavalry ( 2 Chronicles 12:3 ). (See HORSE .)
1. A place on the border of the tribe of Asher ( Joshua 19:29 ), a little to the south of Zidon.
2. A Levite of the family of Merari ( 1 Chronicles 16:38 ).
( Daniel 3:21 ), a tunic or undergarment.
salvation, the son of Beeri, and author of the book of prophecies bearing his name. He belonged to the kingdom of Israel. "His Israelitish origin is attested by the peculiar, rough, Aramaizing diction, pointing to the northern part of Palestine; by the intimate acquaintance he evinces with the localities of Ephraim ( 5:1 ; Daniel 6:8 Daniel 6:9 ; 12:12 ; 14:6 , etc.); by passages like 1:2 , where the kingdom is styled 'the land', and 7:5 , where the Israelitish king is designated as 'our' king." The period of his ministry (extending to some sixty years) is indicated in the superscription ( Hosea 1:1 Hosea 1:2 ). He is the only prophet of Israel who has left any written prophecy.
This book stands first in order among the "Minor Prophets." "The probable cause of the location of Hosea may be the thoroughly national character of his oracles, their length, their earnest tone, and vivid representations." This was the longest of the prophetic books written before the Captivity. Hosea prophesied in a dark and melancholy period of Israel's history, the period of Israel's decline and fall. Their sins had brought upon them great national disasters. "Their homicides and fornication, their perjury and theft, their idolatry and impiety, are censured and satirized with a faithful severity." He was a contemporary of Isaiah. The book may be divided into two parts, the first containing chapters 1-3, and symbolically representing the idolatry of Israel under imagery borrowed from the matrimonial relation. The figures of marriage and adultery are common in the Old Testament writings to represent the spiritual relations between Jehovah and the people of Israel. Here we see the apostasy of Israel and their punishment, with their future repentance, forgiveness, and restoration.
The second part, containing 4-14, is a summary of Hosea's discourses, filled with denunciations, threatenings, exhortations, promises, and revelations of mercy.
Quotations from Hosea are found in Matthew 2:15 ; 9:15 ; 12:7 ; Romans 9:25 Romans 9:26 . There are, in addition, various allusions to it in other places ( Luke 23:30 ; Revelation 6:16 , Compare Hosea 10:8 ; Romans 9:25 Romans 9:26 ; 1 Peter 2:10 , Compare Hosea 1:10 , etc.).
As regards the style of this writer, it has been said that "each verse forms a whole for itself, like one heavy toll in a funeral knell." "Inversions ( 7:8 ; Hosea 9:11 Hosea 9:13 ; 12: : 8 ), anacolutha ( 9:6 ; 12:8 , etc.), ellipses ( 9:4 ; 13:9 , etc.), paranomasias, and plays upon words, are very characteristic of ( Hosea 8:7 ; 9:15 ; 10:5 ; 11:5 ; 12:11 )."
2. 1 Chronicles 27:20 . The ruler of Ephraim in David's time.
3. The last king of Israel. He conspired against and slew his predecessor, Pekah ( Isaiah 7:16 ), but did not ascend the throne till after an interregnum of warfare of eight years ( 2 Kings 17:1 2 Kings 17:2 ). Soon after this he submitted to Shalmaneser, the Assyrian king, who a second time invaded the land to punish Hoshea, because of his withholding tribute which he had promised to pay. A second revolt brought back the Assyrian king Sargon, who besieged Samaria, and carried the ten tribes away beyond the Euphrates, B.C. 720 ( 2 Kings 17:5 2 Kings 17:6 ; 18:9-12 ). No more is heard of Hoshea. He disappeared like "foam upon the water" ( Hosea 10:7 ; 13:11 ).
In warfare, a troop or military force. This consisted at first only of infantry. Solomon afterwards added cavalry ( 1 Kings 4:26 ; 10:26 ). Every male Israelite from twenty to fifty years of age was bound by the law to bear arms when necessary ( Numbers 1:3 ; 26:2 ; 2 Chr 25:5 ).
Saul was the first to form a standing army ( 1 Samuel 13:2 ; 24:2 ). This example was followed by David ( 1 Chronicles 27:1 ), and Solomon ( 1 Kings 4:26 ), and by the kings of Israel and Judah ( 2 Chronicles 17:14 ; 26:11 ; 2 Kings 11:4 , etc.).
The sun, moon, and stars are so designated ( Genesis 2:1 ). When the Jews fell into idolatry they worshipped these ( Deuteronomy 4:19 ; 2 Kings 17:16 ; Deuteronomy 21:3 Deuteronomy 21:5 ; 23:5 ; Jeremiah 19:13 ; Zephaniah 1:5 ; Acts 7:42 ).
First found in Daniel 3:6 ; Daniel 4:19 Daniel 4:33 Daniel 5:5 . It is the rendering of the Chaldee shaah, meaning a "moment," a "look." It is used in the New Testament frequently to denote some determinate season ( Matthew 8:13 ; Luke 12:39 ).
With the ancient Hebrews the divisions of the day were "morning, evening, and noon-day" ( Psalms 55:17 , etc.). The Greeks, following the Babylonians, divided the day into twelve hours. The Jews, during the Captivity, learned also from the Babylonians this method of dividing time. When Judea became subject to the Romans, the Jews adopted the Roman mode of reckoning time. The night was divided into four watches ( Luke 12:38 ; Matthew 14:25 ; 13:25 ). Frequent allusion is also made to hours ( Matthew 25:13 ; 26:40 , etc.). (See DAY .)
An hour was the twelfth part of the day, reckoning from sunrise to sunset, and consequently it perpetually varied in length.
Till their sojourn in Egypt the Hebrews dwelt in tents. They then for the first time inhabited cities ( Genesis 47:3 ; Exodus 12:7 ; Hebrews 11:9 ). From the earliest times the Assyrians and the Canaanites were builders of cities. The Hebrews after the Conquest took possession of the captured cities, and seem to have followed the methods of building that had been pursued by the Canaanites. Reference is made to the stone ( 1 Kings 7:9 ; Isaiah 9:10 ) and marble ( 1 Chronicles 29:2 ) used in building, and to the internal wood-work of the houses ( 1 Kings 6:15 ; 7:2 ; 1 Kings 10:11 1 Kings 10:12 ; 2 Chr 3:5 ; Jeremiah 22:14 ). "Ceiled houses" were such as had beams inlaid in the walls to which wainscotting was fastened ( Ezra 6:4 ; Jeremiah 22:14 ; Haggai 1:4 ). "Ivory houses" had the upper parts of the walls adorned with figures in stucco with gold and ivory ( 1 Kings 22:39 ; 2 Chr 3:6 ; Psalms 45:8 ).
The roofs of the dwelling-houses were flat, and are often alluded to in Scripture ( 2 Samuel 11:2 ; Isaiah 22:1 ; Matthew 24:17 ). Sometimes tents or booths were erected on them ( 2 Samuel 16:22 ). They were protected by parapets or low walls ( Deuteronomy 22:8 ). On the house-tops grass sometimes grew ( Proverbs 19:13 ; 27:15 ; Psalms 129:6 Psalms 129:7 ). They were used, not only as places of recreation in the evening, but also sometimes as sleeping-places at night ( 1 Samuel 9:25 1 Samuel 9:26 ; 2 Sam 11:2 ; 16:22 ; Daniel 4:29 ; Job 27:18 ; Proverbs 21:9 ), and as places of devotion ( Jeremiah 32:29 ; 19:13 ).
circle, the second son of Aram ( Genesis 10:23 ), and grandson of Shem.
weasel, a prophetess; the wife of Shallum. She was consulted regarding the "book of the law" discovered by the high priest Hilkiah ( 2 Kings 22:14-20 ; 2 Chr 34:22-28 ). She resided in that part of Jerusalem called the Mishneh (A.V., "the college;" RSV, "the second quarter"), supposed by some to be the suburb between the inner and the outer wall, the second or lower city, Akra. Miriam ( Exodus 15:20 ) and Deborah ( Judges 4:4 ) are the only others who bear the title of "prophetess," for the word in Isaiah 8:3 means only the prophet's wife.
(Phil 2:8 ), seen in (1) his birth ( Galatians 4:4 ; Luke 2:7 ; John 1:46 ; Hebrews 2:9 ), (2) his circumstances, (3) his reputation ( Isaiah 53 ; Matthew 26:59 Matthew 26:67 ; Psalms 22:6 ; Matthew 26:68 ), (4) his soul ( Psalms 22:1 ; Matthew 4:1-11 ; Luke 22:44 ; Hebrews 2:17 Hebrews 2:18 ; 4:15 ), (5) his death ( Luke 23 ; John 19 ; Mark 15:24 Mark 15:25 ), (6) and his burial ( Isaiah 53:9 ; Matthew 27:57 Matthew 27:58 Matthew 27:60 ).
His humiliation was necessary (1) to execute the purpose of God ( Acts 2:23 Acts 2:24 ; Psalms 40:6-8 ), (2) fulfil the Old Testament types and prophecies, (3) satisfy the law in the room of the guilty ( Isaiah 53 ; Hebrews 9:12 Hebrews 9:15 ), procure for them eternal redemption, (4) and to show us an example.
a prominent Christian grace ( Romans 12:3 ; Romans 15:17 Romans 15:18 ; 1 Corinthians 3:5-7 ; 2 co 3:5 ; Phil 4:11-13 ). It is a state of mind well pleasing to God ( 1 Peter 3:4 ); it preserves the soul in tranquillity ( Psalms 69:32 Psalms 69:33 ), and makes us patient under trials ( Job 1:22 ).
Christ has set us an example of humility (Phil 2:6-8 ). We should be led thereto by a remembrance of our sins ( Lamentations 3:39 ), and by the thought that it is the way to honour ( Proverbs 16:18 ), and that the greatest promises are made to the humble ( Psalms 147:6 ; Isaiah 57:15 ; 66:2 ; 1 Peter 5:5 ). It is a "great paradox in Christianity that it makes humility the avenue to glory."
mentioned first in Genesis 10:9 in connection with Nimrod. Esau was "a cunning hunter" ( Genesis 25:27 ). Hunting was practised by the Hebrews after their settlement in the "Land of Promise" ( Leviticus 17:15 ; Proverbs 12:27 ). The lion and other ravenous beasts were found in Palestine ( 1 Samuel 17:34 ; 2 Sam 23:20 ; 1 Kings 13:24 ; Ezekiel 19:3-8 ), and it must have been necessary to hunt and destroy them. Various snares and gins were used in hunting ( Psalms 91:3 ; Amos 3:5 ; 2 Sam 23:20 ).
a hole, as of a viper, etc.
2. The husband of Miriam, Moses' sister ( Exodus 17:10-12 ). He was associated with Aaron in charge of the people when Moses was absent on Sinai ( Exodus 24:14 ). He was probably of the tribe of Judah, and grandfather of Bezaleel ( Exodus 31:2 ; 35:30 ; 1 Chronicles 2:19 ).
3. One of the five princes of Midian who were defeated and slain by the Israelites under the command of Phinehas ( Numbers 31:8 ).
linen-worker, one of David's heroes, a native of the valley of Mount Gaash ( 1 Chronicles 11:32 ).
i.e., the "house-band," connecting and keeping together the whole family. A man when betrothed was esteemed from that time a husband ( Matthew 1:16 Matthew 1:20 ; Luke 2:5 ). A recently married man was exempt from going to war for "one year" ( Deuteronomy 20:7 ; 24:5 ).
one whose business it is to cultivate the ground. It was one of the first occupations, and was esteemed most honourable ( Genesis 9:20 ; Genesis 26:12 Genesis 26:14 ; 37:7 , etc.). All the Hebrews, except those engaged in religious services, were husbandmen. (See AGRICULTURE .)
quick, "the Archite," "the king's friend" ( 1 Chronicles 27:33 ). When David fled from Jerusalem, on account of the rebellion of Absalom, and had reached the summit of Olivet, he there met Hushai, whom he sent back to Jerusalem for the purpose of counteracting the influence of Ahithophel, who had joined the ranks of Absalom ( 2 Samuel 15:32 2 Samuel 15:37 ; 16:16-18 ). It was by his advice that Absalom refrained from immediately pursuing after David. By this delay the cause of Absalom was ruined, for it gave David time to muster his forces.
In Numbers 6:4 (Heb. zag) it means the "skin" of a grape. In 2 Kings 4:42 (Heb. tsiqlon) it means a "sack" for grain, as rendered in the Revised Version. In Luke 15:16 , in the parable of the Prodigal Son, it designates the beans of the carob tree, or Ceratonia siliqua. From the supposition, mistaken, however, that it was on the husks of this tree that John the Baptist fed, it is called "St. John's bread" and "locust tree." This tree is in "February covered with innumerable purple-red pendent blossoms, which ripen in April and May into large crops of pods from 6 to 10 inches long, flat, brown, narrow, and bent like a horn (whence the Greek name keratia, meaning 'little horns'), with a sweetish taste when still unripe. Enormous quantities of these are gathered for sale in various towns and for exportation." "They were eaten as food, though only by the poorest of the poor, in the time of our Lord." The bean is called a "gerah," which is used as the name of the smallest Hebrew weight, twenty of these making a shekel.
occurs only Ephesians 5:19 and Colossians 3:16 . The verb to "sing an hymn" occurs Matthew 26:30 and Mark 14:26 . The same Greek word is rendered to "sing praises" Acts 16:25 (RSV, "sing hymns") and Hebrews 2:12 . The "hymn" which our Lord sang with his disciples at the last Supper is generally supposed to have been the latter part of the Hallel, comprehending Psalms 113118 -118. It was thus a name given to a number of psalms taken together and forming a devotional exercise.
The noun hymn is used only with reference to the services of the Greeks, and was distinguished from the psalm. The Greek tunes required Greek hymns. Our information regarding the hymnology of the early Christians is very limited.
one who puts on a mask and feigns himself to be what he is not; a dissembler in religion. Our Lord severely rebuked the scribes and Pharisees for their hypocrisy ( Matthew 6:2 Matthew 6:5 Matthew 6:16 ). "The hypocrite's hope shall perish" ( Job 8:13 ). The Hebrew word here rendered "hypocrite" rather means the "godless" or "profane," as it is rendered in Jeremiah 23:11 , i.e., polluted with crimes.
(Heb. 'ezob; LXX. hyssopos), first mentioned in Exodus 12:22 in connection with the institution of the Passover. We find it afterwards mentioned in Leviticus 14:4 Leviticus 14:6 Leviticus 14:52 ; Numbers 19:6 Numbers 19:18 ; Hebrews 9:19 . It is spoken of as a plant "springing out of the wall" ( 1 Kings 4:33 ). Many conjectures have been formed as to what this plant really was. Some contend that it was a species of marjoram (origanum), six species of which are found in Palestine. Others with more probability think that it was the caper plant, the Capparis spinosa of Linnaeus. This plant grew in Egypt, in the desert of Sinai, and in Palestine. It was capable of producing a stem three or four feet in length ( Matthew 27:48 ; Mark 15:36 . Compare John 19:29 ).