Easton's Bible Dictionary

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Hashub — Herodians

Hashub

intelligent.

1. A Levite of the family of Merari ( Nehemiah 11:15 ; 1 Chronicles 9:14 ).

2. Nehemiah 3:23 3:11 .

Hashubah

ibid., a descendant of David ( 1 Chronicles 3:20 ).

Hashum

opulent.

1. Ezra 2:19 ; Nehemiah 7:22 .

2. Stood on Ezra's left hand while he read the law ( Nehemiah 8:4 ).

Hasrah

poverty, "keeper of the wardrobe," i.e., of the sacerdotal vestments ( 2 Chronicles 34:22 ); called Harhas 2 Kings 22:14 . He was husband of the prophetess Huldah.

Hasupha

uncovered, one of the Nethinim ( Ezra 2:43 ; Nehemiah 7:46 ).

Hat

Chald. karb'ela, ( Daniel 3:21 ), properly mantle or pallium. The Revised Version renders it "tunic."

Hatach

verity, one of the eunuchs or chamberlains in the palace of Ahasuerus ( Esther 4:5 Esther 4:6 Esther 4:9 Esther 4:10 ).

Hathath

terror, son of Othniel ( 1 Chronicles 4:13 ).

Hatipha

captured, one of the Nethinim ( Ezra 2:54 ).

Hatita

exploration, one of the temple porters or janitors ( Ezra 2:42 ). He returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel.

Hatred

among the works of the flesh ( Galatians 5:20 ). Altogether different is the meaning of the word in Deuteronomy 21:15 ; Matthew 6:24 ; Luke 14:26 ; Romans 9:13 , where it denotes only a less degree of love.

Hattush

assembled.

1. A priest who returned with Zerubbabel ( Nehemiah 12:2 ).

2. Ezra 8:2 .

3. Nehemiah 3:10 .

4. Nehemiah 10:4 .

5. 1 Chronicles 3:22 .

Hauran

cave-land, mentioned only in Ezekiel 47:16 Ezekiel 47:18 . It was one of the ancient divisions of Bashan (q.v.), and lay on the south-east of Gaulanitis or the Jaulan, and on the south of Lejah, extending from the Arnon to the Hieromax. It was the most fertile region in Syria, and to this day abounds in the ruins of towns, many of which have stone doors and massive walls. It retains its ancient name. It was known by the Greeks and Romans as "Auranitis."

Haven

a harbour ( Psalms 107:30 ; Acts 27: : 12 ). The most famous on the coast of Palestine was that of Tyre ( Ezekiel 27:3 ). That of Crete, called "Fair Havens," is mentioned Acts 27:8 .

Havilah

the sand region.

1. A land mentioned in Genesis 2:11 rich in gold and bdellium and onyx stone. The question as to the locality of this region has given rise to a great diversity of opinion. It may perhaps be identified with the sandy tract which skirts Babylonia along the whole of its western border, stretching from the lower Euphrates to the mountains of Edom.

2. A district in Arabia-Felix. It is uncertain whether the tribe gave its name to this region or derived its name from it, and whether it was originally a Cushite ( Genesis 10:7 ) or a Joktanite tribe ( 10:29 ; comp 25:18 ), or whether there were both a Cushite and a Joktanite Havilah. It is the opinion of Kalisch, however, that Havilah "in both instances designates the same country, extending at least from the Persian to the Arabian Gulf, and on account of its vast extent easily divided into two distinct parts." This opinion may be well vindicated.

3. One of the sons of Cush ( Genesis 10:7 ).

4. A son of Joktan ( Genesis 10:29 ; 1 Chronicles 1:23 ).

Havoth-jair

hamlets of the enlightener a district in the east of Jordan.

1. Jair, the son of Manasseh, took some villages of Gilead and called them by this name ( Numbers 32:41 ).

2. Again, it is said that Jair "took all the tract of Argob," and called it Bashanhavoth-jair ( Deuteronomy 3:14 ). (See also Joshua 13:30 ; 1 Kings 4:13 ; 1 Chronicles 2:22 1 Chronicles 2:23 .)

Hawk

(Heb. netz, a word expressive of strong and rapid flight, and hence appropriate to the hawk). It is an unclean bird ( Leviticus 11:16 ; Deuteronomy 14:15 ). It is common in Syria and surrounding countries. The Hebrew word includes various species of Falconidae, with special reference perhaps to the kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), the hobby (Hypotriorchis subbuteo), and the lesser kestrel (Tin, Cenchris). The kestrel remains all the year in Palestine, but some ten or twelve other species are all migrants from the south. Of those summer visitors to Palestine special mention may be made of the Falco sacer and the Falco lanarius. (See NIGHT-HAWK.)

Hay

properly so called, was not in use among the Hebrews; straw was used instead. They cut the grass green as it was needed. The word rendered "hay" in Proverbs 27:25 means the first shoots of the grass. In Isaiah 15:6 the Revised Version has correctly "grass," where the Authorized Version has "hay."

Hazael

whom God beholds, an officer of Ben-hadad II., king of Syria, who ultimately came to the throne, according to the word of the Lord to Elijah ( 1 Kings 19:15 ), after he had put the king to death ( 2 Kings 8:15 ). His interview with Elisha is mentioned in 2 Kings 8 . The Assyrians soon after his accession to the throne came against him and defeated him with very great loss; and three years afterwards again invaded Syria, but on this occasion Hazael submitted to them. He then turned his arms against Israel, and ravaged "all the land of Gilead," etc. ( 2 Kings 10:33 ), which he held in a degree of subjection to him ( 2 Kings 13:3-7 2 Kings 13:22 ). He aimed at the subjugation also of the kingdom of Judah, when Joash obtained peace by giving him "all the gold that was found in the treasures of the house of the Lord, and in the king's house" ( 2 Kings 12:18 ; 2 Chr 24:24 ). He reigned about forty-six years (B.C.886-840), and was succeeded on the throne by his son Ben-hadad ( 2 Kings 13:22-25 ), who on several occasions was defeated by Jehoash, the king of Israel, and compelled to restore all the land of Israel his father had taken.

Hazar-addar

village of Addar, a place in the southern boundary of Palestine ( Numbers 34:4 ), in the desert to the west of Kadesh-barnea. It is called Adar in Joshua 15:3 .

Hazar-enan

village of fountains, a place on the north-east frontier of Palestine ( Numbers 34:9 Numbers 34:10 ). Some have identified it with Ayan ed-Dara in the heart of the central chain of Anti-Libanus. More probably, however, it has been identified with Kuryetein, about 60 miles east-north-east of Damascus. (Compare Ezekiel 47:17 ; 48:1 .)

Hazar-gaddah

village of fortune, a city on the south border of Judah ( Joshua 15:27 ), midway between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.

Hazar-hatticon

village of the midway, a place near Hamath in the confines of Hauran ( Ezekiel 47:16 ), probably on the north brow of Hermon.

Hazar-maveth

court of death, the third son of Joktan, and a region in Arabia-Felix settled by him ( Genesis 10:26 ; 1 Chronicles 1:20 ). It is probably the modern province of Hadramaut, situated on the Indian Ocean east of the modern Yemen.

Hazar-shual

village or enclosure of the jackal, a city on the south border of Judah ( Joshua 15:28 ; Nehemiah 11:27 ). It has been identified with the ruins of Saweh, half-way between Beersheba and Moladah.

Hazar-susah

village of the horse, the same as Sansannah, one of Solomon's "chariot cities" ( Joshua 15:31 ; 2 Chr 1:14 ), a depot in the south border of Judah.

Hazel

Heb. luz, ( Genesis 30:37 ), a nutbearing tree. The Hebrew word is rendered in the Vulgate by amygdalinus, "the almond-tree," which is probably correct. That tree flourishes in Syria.

Hazerim

villages, probably the name of the temporary villages in which the nomad Avites resided ( Deuteronomy 2:23 ).

Hazeroth

fenced enclosures consisting of "a low wall of stones in which thick bundles of thorny acacia are inserted, the tangled branches and long needle-like spikes forming a perfectly impenetrable hedge around the encampment" of tents and cattle which they sheltered. Such like enclosures abound in the wilderness of Paran, which the Israelites entered after leaving Sinai ( Numbers 11:35 ; 12:16 ; Numbers 33:17 Numbers 33:18 ). This third encampment of the Israelites has been identified with the modern 'Ain el-Hudhera, some 40 miles north-east of Sinai. Here Miriam (q.v.), being displeased that Moses had married a Cushite wife ( Numbers 12:1 ), induced Aaron to join with her in rebelling against Moses. God vindicated the authority of his "servant Moses," and Miriam was smitten with leprosy. Moses interceded for her, and she was healed ( Numbers 12:4-16 ). From this encampment the Israelites marched northward across the plateau of et-Tih, and at length reached KADESH.

Hazezon-tamar

pruning of the palm, the original name of the place afterwards called ENGEDI (q.v.), Genesis 14:7 ; called also HAZAZON-TAMAR ( 2 Chronicles 20:2 ).

Hazo

vision, one of the sons of Nahor ( Genesis 22:22 ).

Hazor

enclosed; fortified.

1. A stronghold of the Canaanites in the mountains north of Lake Merom ( Joshua 11:1-5 ). Jabin the king with his allied tribes here encountered Joshua in a great battle. Joshua gained a signal victory, which virtually completed his conquest of Canaan ( 11:10-13 ). This city was, however, afterwards rebuilt by the Canaanites, and was ruled by a king with the same hereditary name of Jabin. His army, under a noted leader of the name of Sisera, swept down upon the south, aiming at the complete subjugation of the country. This powerful army was met by the Israelites under Barak, who went forth by the advice of the prophetess Deborah. The result was one of the most remarkable victories for Israel recorded in the Old Testament ( Joshua 19:36 ; Judges 4:2 ; 1 Samuel 12:9 ). The city of Hazor was taken and occupied by the Israelites. It was fortified by Solomon to defend the entrance into the kingdom from Syria and Assyria. When Tiglath-pileser, the Assyrian king, invaded the land, this was one of the first cities he captured, carrying its inhabitants captive into Assyria ( 2 Kings 15:29 ). It has been identified with Khurbet Harrah, 2 1/2 miles south-east of Kedesh.

2. A city in the south of Judah ( Joshua 15:23 ). The name here should probably be connected with the word following, Ithnan, HAZOR-ITHNAN instead of "Hazor and Ithnan."

3. A district in Arabia ( Jeremiah 49:28-33 ), supposed by some to be Jetor, i.e., Ituraea.

4. "Kerioth and Hezron" ( Joshua 15: : 25 ) should be "Kerioth-hezron" (as in the RSV), the two names being joined together as the name of one place (e.g., like Kirjath-jearim), "the same is Hazor" (RSV). This place has been identified with el-Kuryetein, and has been supposed to be the home of Judas Iscariot. (See KERIOTH .)

Hazor-hadattah

New Hazor, a city in the south of Judah ( Joshua 15:25 ). It is probably identified with the ruins of el-Hazzarah, near Beit Jebrin.

Head-bands

(Heb. kishshurim), properly girdles or belts for the waist ( Isaiah 3:20 , RSV, "sashes;" Jeremiah 2:32 , rendered "attire", i.e., a girdle round the waist).

Head-dress

Not in common use among the Hebrews. It is first mentioned in Exodus 28:40 (A.V., "bonnets;" RSV, "head-tires"). It was used especially for purposes of ornament ( Job 29:14 ; Isaiah 3:23 ; 62:3 ). The Hebrew word here used, tsaniph , properly means a turban, folds of linen wound round the head. The Hebrew word peer , used in Isaiah 61:3 , there rendered "beauty" (A.V.) and "garland" (RSV), is a head-dress or turban worn by females ( Isaiah 3: : 20 , "bonnets"), priests ( Exodus 39:28 ), a bridegroom ( Isaiah 61:10 , "ornament;" RSV, "garland"). Ezekiel 16:10 and Jonah 2:5 are to be understood of the turban wrapped round the head. The Hebrew shebisim ( Isaiah 3:18 ), in the Authorized Version rendered "cauls," and marg. "networks," denotes probably a kind of netted head-dress. The "horn" (Heb. keren) mentioned in 1 Samuel 2:1 is the head-dress called by the Druses of Mount Lebanon the tantura.

Heap

When Joshua took the city of Ai ( Joshua 8 ), he burned it and "made it an heap [Heb. tel] for ever" ( 8:28 ). The ruins of this city were for a long time sought for in vain. It has been at length, however, identified with the mound which simply bears the name of "Tel." "There are many Tels in modern Palestine, that land of Tels, each Tel with some other name attached to it to mark the former site. But the site of Ai has no other name 'unto this day.' It is simply et-Tel, 'the heap' par excellence."

Heart

According to the Bible, the heart is the centre not only of spiritual activity, but of all the operations of human life. "Heart" and "soul" are often used interchangeably ( Deuteronomy 6:5 ; 26:16 ; Compare Matthew 22:37 ; Mark 12:30 Mark 12:33 ), but this is not generally the case.

The heart is the "home of the personal life," and hence a man is designated, according to his heart, wise ( 1 Kings 3:12 , etc.), pure ( Psalms 24:4 ; Matthew 5:8 , etc.), upright and righteous ( Genesis 20:5 Genesis 20:6 ; Psalms 11:2 ; 78:72 ), pious and good ( Luke 8:15 ), etc. In these and such passages the word "soul" could not be substituted for "heart."

The heart is also the seat of the conscience ( Romans 2:15 ). It is naturally wicked ( Genesis 8:21 ), and hence it contaminates the whole life and character ( Matthew 12:34 ; 15:18 ; Compare Eccl 8:11 ; Psalms 73:7 ). Hence the heart must be changed, regenerated (Ezek. 36:26 ; 11:19 ; Psalms 51:10-14 ), before a man can willingly obey God.

The process of salvation begins in the heart by the believing reception of the testimony of God, while the rejection of that testimony hardens the heart ( Psalms 95:8 ; Proverbs 28:14 ; 2 Chr. 36:13 ). "Hardness of heart evidences itself by light views of sin; partial acknowledgment and confession of it; pride and conceit; ingratitude; unconcern about the word and ordinances of God; inattention to divine providences; stifling convictions of conscience; shunning reproof; presumption, and general ignorance of divine things."

Hearth

Heb. ah ( Jeremiah 36:22 Jeremiah 36:23 ; RSV, "brazier"), meaning a large pot like a brazier, a portable furnace in which fire was kept in the king's winter apartment.

Heb. kiyor ( Zechariah 12:6 ; RSV, "pan"), a fire-pan.

Heb. moqed ( Psalms 102:3 ; RSV, "fire-brand"), properly a fagot.

Heb. yaqud ( Isaiah 30:14 ), a burning mass on a hearth.

He-ass

Heb. hamor, ( Genesis 12:16 ), the general designation of the donkey used for carrying burdens ( Genesis 42:26 ) and for ploughing ( Isaiah 30:24 ). It is described in Gen Genesis 19:26 . (See ASS .)

Heath

Heb. 'arar, ( Jeremiah 17:6 ; 48:6 ), a species of juniper called by the Arabs by the same name ('arar), the Juniperus sabina or savin. "Its gloomy, stunted appearance, with its scale-like leaves pressed close to its gnarled stem, and cropped close by the wild goats, as it clings to the rocks about Petra, gives great force to the contrast suggested by the prophet, between him that trusteth in man, naked and destitute, and the man that trusteth in the Lord, flourishing as a tree planted by the waters" (Tristram, Natural History of the Bible).

Heathen

(Heb. plural goyum). At first the word goyim denoted generally all the nations of the world ( Genesis 18:18 ; Compare Galatians 3:8 ). The Jews afterwards became a people distinguished in a marked manner from the other goyim . They were a separate people ( Leviticus 20:23 ; 26:14-45 ; Deuteronomy 28 ), and the other nations, the Amorites, Hittites, etc., were the goyim , the heathen, with whom the Jews were forbidden to be associated in any way ( Joshua 23:7 ; 1 Kings 11:2 ). The practice of idolatry was the characteristic of these nations, and hence the word came to designate idolaters ( Psalms 106:47 ; Jeremiah 46:28 ; Lamentations 1:3 ; Isaiah 36:18 ), the wicked ( Psalms 9:5 Psalms 9:15 Psalms 9:17 ).

The corresponding Greek word in the New Testament, ethne , has similar shades of meaning. In Acts 22:21 , Galatians 3:14 , it denotes the people of the earth generally; and in Matthew 6:7 , an idolater. In modern usage the word denotes all nations that are strangers to revealed religion.

Heave offering

Heb. terumah, ( Exodus 29:27 ) means simply an offering, a present, including all the offerings made by the Israelites as a present. This Hebrew word is frequently employed. Some of the rabbis attach to the word the meaning of elevation, and refer it to the heave offering, which consisted in presenting the offering by a motion up and down, distinguished from the wave offering, which consisted in a repeated movement in a horizontal direction, a "wave offering to the Lord as ruler of earth, a heave offering to the Lord as ruler of heaven." The right shoulder, which fell to the priests in presenting thank offerings, was called the heave shoulder ( Leviticus 7:34 ; Numbers 6:20 ). The first fruits offered in harvest-time ( Numbers 15:20 Numbers 15:21 ) were heave offerings.

Heaven

1. Definitions. The phrase "heaven and earth" is used to indicate the whole universe ( Genesis 1:1 ; Jeremiah 23:24 ; Acts 17:24 ). According to the Jewish notion there were three heavens, (a) The firmament, as "fowls of the heaven" ( Genesis 2:19 ; Genesis 7:3 Genesis 7:23 ; Psalms 8:8 , etc.), "the eagles of heaven" ( Lamentations 4:19 ), etc. (b) The starry heavens ( Deuteronomy 17:3 ; Jeremiah 8:2 ; Matthew 24:29 ). (c) "The heaven of heavens," or "the third heaven" ( Deuteronomy 10:14 ; 1 Kings 8:27 ; Psalms 115:16 ; 148:4 ; 2 co 12:2 ).

2. Meaning of words in the original, (a) The usual Hebrew word for "heavens" is shamayim , a plural form meaning "heights," "elevations" ( Genesis 1:1 ; 2:1 ). (b) The Hebrew word marom is also used ( Psalms 68:18 ; 93:4 ; 102:19 , etc.) as equivalent to shamayim , "high places," "heights." (c) Heb. galgal, literally a "wheel," is rendered "heaven" in Psalms 77:18 (RSV, "whirlwind"). (d) Heb. shahak, rendered "sky" ( Deuteronomy 33:26 ; Job 37:18 ; Psalms 18:11 ), plural "clouds" ( Job 35:5 ; 36:28 ; Psalms 68:34 , marg. "heavens"), means probably the firmament. (e) Heb. rakia is closely connected with (d), and is rendered "firmamentum" in the Vulgate, whence our "firmament" ( Genesis 1:6 ; Deuteronomy 33:26 , etc.), regarded as a solid expanse.

3. Metaphorical meaning of term. Isaiah 14:13 Isaiah 14:14 ; "doors of heaven" ( Psalms 78:23 ); heaven "shut" ( 1 Kings 8:35 ); "opened" ( Ezekiel 1:1 ). (See 1 Chronicles 21:16 .)

4. Spiritual meaning. The place of the everlasting blessedness of the righteous; the abode of departed spirits. (a) Christ calls it his "Father's house" ( John 14:2 ). (b) It is called "paradise" ( Luke 23:43 ; 2 co 12:4 ; Revelation 2:7 ). (c) "The heavenly Jerusalem" ( Galatians 4: : 26 ; Hebrews 12:22 ; Revelation 3:12 ). (d) The "kingdom of heaven" ( Matthew 25:1 ; James 2:5 ). (e) The "eternal kingdom" ( 2 Peter 1:11 ). (f) The "eternal inheritance" ( 1 Peter 1:4 ; Hebrews 9:15 ). (g) The "better country" ( Hebrews 11:14 Hebrews 11:16 ). (h) The blessed are said to "sit down with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob," and to be "in Abraham's bosom" ( Luke 16:22 ; Matthew 8:11 ); to "reign with Christ" ( 2 Timothy 2:12 ); and to enjoy "rest" ( Hebrews 4:10 Hebrews 4:11 ). In heaven the blessedness of the righteous consists in the possession of "life everlasting," "an eternal weight of glory" ( 2 Corinthians 4:17 ), an exemption from all sufferings for ever, a deliverance from all evils ( 2 Corinthians 5:1 2 Corinthians 5:2 ) and from the society of the wicked ( 2 Timothy 4:18 ), bliss without termination, the "fulness of joy" for ever ( Luke 20:36 ; 2 co Luke 4:16 Luke 4:18 ; 1 Peter 1:4 ; 5:10 ; 1 John 3:2 ). The believer's heaven is not only a state of everlasting blessedness, but also a "place", a place "prepared" for them ( John 14:2 ).

Heber

passing over.

1. Son of Beriah and grandson of Asher ( Genesis 46:17 ; 1 Chronicles 7:31 1 Chronicles 7:32 ).

2. The Kenite ( Judges 4:11 Judges 4:17 ; 5:24 ), a descendant of Hobab. His wife Jael received Sisera (q.v.) into her tent and then killed him.

3. 1 Chronicles 4:18 .

4. A Benjamite ( 1 Chronicles 8:17 ).

5. A Gadite ( 5:13 ). (See EBER .)

Hebrew

a name applied to the Israelites in Scripture only by one who is a foreigner ( Genesis 39:14 Genesis 39:17 ; 41:12 , etc.), or by the Israelites when they speak of themselves to foreigners ( 40:15 ; Exodus 1:19 ), or when spoken of an contrasted with other peoples ( Genesis 43:32 ; Exodus 1:3 Exodus 1:7 Exodus 1:15 ; Deuteronomy 15:12 ). In the New Testament there is the same contrast between Hebrews and foreigners ( Acts 6:1 ; Philippians 3:5 ).

Derivation.

1. The name is derived, according to some, from Eber ( Genesis 10:24 ), the ancestor of Abraham. The Hebrews are "sons of Eber" ( 10:21 ).

2. Others trace the name of a Hebrew root-word signifying "to pass over," and hence regard it as meaning "the man who passed over," viz., the Euphrates; or to the Hebrew word meaning "the region" or "country beyond," viz., the land of Chaldea. This latter view is preferred. It is the more probable origin of the designation given to Abraham coming among the Canaanites as a man from beyond the Euphrates ( Genesis 14:13 ).

3. A third derivation of the word has been suggested, viz., that it is from the Hebrew word 'abhar , "to pass over," whence 'ebher , in the sense of a "sojourner" or "passer through" as distinct from a "settler" in the land, and thus applies to the condition of Abraham ( Hebrews 11:13 ).

Hebrew language

the language of the Hebrew nation, and that in which the Old Testament is written, with the exception of a few portions in Chaldee. In the Old Testament it is only spoken of as "Jewish" ( 2 Kings 18:26 2 Kings 18:28 ; Isaiah 36:11 Isaiah 36:13 ; 2 Chr 32:18 ). This name is first used by the Jews in times subsequent to the close of the Old Testament.

It is one of the class of languages called Semitic, because they were chiefly spoken among the descendants of Shem.

When Abraham entered Canaan it is obvious that he found the language of its inhabitants closely allied to his own. ( Isaiah 19:18 ) calls it "the language of Canaan." Whether this language, as seen in the earliest books of the Old Testament, was the very dialect which Abraham brought with him into Canaan, or whether it was the common tongue of the Canaanitish nations which he only adopted, is uncertain; probably the latter opinion is the correct one. For the thousand years between Moses and the Babylonian exile the Hebrew language underwent little or no modification. It preserves all through a remarkable uniformity of structure. From the first it appears in its full maturity of development. But through intercourse with Damascus, Assyria, and Babylon, from the time of David, and more particularly from the period of the Exile, it comes under the influence of the Aramaic idiom, and this is seen in the writings which date from this period. It was never spoken in its purity by the Jews after their return from Babylon. They now spoke Hebrew with a large admixture of Aramaic or Chaldee, which latterly became the predominant element in the national language.

The Hebrew of the Old Testament has only about six thousand words, all derived from about five hundred roots. Hence the same word has sometimes a great variety of meanings. So long as it was a living language, and for ages after, only the consonants of the words were written. This also has been a source of difficulty in interpreting certain words, for the meaning varies according to the vowels which may be supplied. The Hebrew is one of the oldest languages of which we have any knowledge. It is essentially identical with the Phoenician language. (See MOABITE STONE .) The Semitic languages, to which class the Hebrew and Phoenician belonged, were spoken over a very wide area: in Babylonia, Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine and Arabia, in all the countries from the Mediterranean to the borders of Assyria, and from the mountains of Armenia to the Indian Ocean. The rounded form of the letters, as seen in the Moabite stone, was probably that in which the ancient Hebrew was written down to the time of the Exile, when the present square or Chaldean form was adopted.

Hebrew of the Hebrews

one whose parents are both Hebrews (Phil 3:5 ; 2 co 11:22 ); a genuine Hebrew.

Hebrews

( Acts 6:1 ) were the Hebrew-speaking Jews, as distinguished from those who spoke Greek. (See GREEKS .)

Hebrews, Epistle to

1. Its canonicity. All the results of critical and historical research to which this epistle has been specially subjected abundantly vindicate its right to a place in the New Testament canon among the other inspired books.

2. Its authorship. A considerable variety of opinions on this subject has at different times been advanced. Some have maintained that its author was Silas, Paul's companion. Others have attributed it to Clement of Rome, or Luke, or Barnabas, or some unknown Alexandrian Christian, or Apollos; but the conclusion which we think is best supported, both from internal and external evidence, is that Paul was its author. There are, no doubt, many difficulties in the way of accepting it as Paul's; but we may at least argue with Calvin that there can be no difficulty in the way of "embracing it without controversy as one of the apostolical epistles."

3. Date and place of writing. It was in all probability written at Rome, near the close of Paul's two years' imprisonment ( Hebrews 13:19 Hebrews 13:24 ). It was certainly written before the destruction of Jerusalem ( 13:10 ).

4. To whom addressed. Plainly it was intended for Jewish converts to the faith of the gospel, probably for the church at Jerusalem. The subscription of this epistle is, of course, without authority. In this case it is incorrect, for obviously Timothy could not be the bearer of it ( 13:23 ).

5. Its design was to show the true end and meaning of the Mosaic system, and its symbolical and transient character. It proves that the Levitical priesthood was a "shadow" of that of Christ, and that the legal sacrifices prefigured the great and all-perfect sacrifice he offered for us. It explains that the gospel was designed, not to modify the law of Moses, but to supersede and abolish it. Its teaching was fitted, as it was designed, to check that tendency to apostatize from Christianity and to return to Judaism which now showed itself among certain Jewish Christians. The supreme authority and the transcendent glory of the gospel are clearly set forth, and in such a way as to strengthen and confirm their allegiance to Christ.

6. It consists of two parts: (a) doctrinal ( (1-10:18), ), (b) and practical (10:19-ch. 13). There are found in it many references to portions of the Old Testament. It may be regarded as a treatise supplementary to the Epistles to the Romans and Galatians, and as an inspired commentary on the book of Leviticus.

Hebron

a community; alliance.

1. A city in the south end of the valley of Eshcol, about midway between Jerusalem and Beersheba, from which it is distant about 20 miles in a straight line. It was built "seven years before Zoan in Egypt" ( Genesis 13:18 ; Numbers 13:22 ). It still exists under the same name, and is one of the most ancient cities in the world. Its earlier name was Kirjath-arba ( Genesis 23:2 ; Joshua 14:15 ; 15:3 ). But "Hebron would appear to have been the original name of the city, and it was not till after Abraham's stay there that it received the name Kirjath-arba, who [i.e., Arba] was not the founder but the conqueror of the city, having led thither the tribe of the Anakim, to which he belonged. It retained this name till it came into the possession of Caleb, when the Israelites restored the original name Hebron" (Keil, Com.). The name of this city does not occur in any of the prophets or in the New Testament. It is found about forty times in the Old. It was the favorite home of Abraham. Here he pitched his tent under the oaks of Mamre, by which name it came afterwards to be known; and here Sarah died, and was buried in the cave of Machpelah ( Genesis 23:17-20 ), which he bought from Ephron the Hittite. From this place the patriarch departed for Egypt by way of Beersheba ( 37:14 ; 46:1 ). It was taken by Joshua and given to Caleb ( Joshua 10:36 Joshua 10:37 ; 12:10 ; 14:13 ). It became a Levitical city and a city of refuge ( 20:7 ; 21:11 ). When David became king of Judah this was his royal residence, and he resided here for seven and a half years ( 2 Samuel 5:5 ); and here he was anointed as king over all Israel ( 2 Samuel 2:1-4 2 Samuel 2:11 ; 1 Kings 2:11 ). It became the residence also of the rebellious Absalom ( 2 Samuel 15:10 ), who probably expected to find his chief support in the tribe of Judah, now called el-Khulil. In one part of the modern city is a great mosque, which is built over the grave of Machpelah. The first European who was permitted to enter this mosque was the Prince of Wales in 1862. It was also visited by the Marquis of Bute in 1866, and by the late Emperor Frederick of Germany (then Crown-Prince of Prussia) in 1869. One of the largest oaks in Palestine is found in the valley of Eshcol, about 3 miles north of the town. It is supposed by some to be the tree under which Abraham pitched his tent, and is called "Abraham's oak." (See OAK .)

2. The third son of Kohath the Levite ( Exodus 6:18 ; 1 Chronicles 6:2 1 Chronicles 6:18 ).

3. 1 Chronicles 2:42 1 Chronicles 2:43 .

4. A town in the north border of Asher ( Joshua 19:28 ).

Hegai

eunuch, had charge of the harem of Ahasuerus ( Esther 2:8 ).

Heifer

Heb. 'eglah, ( Deuteronomy 21:4 Deuteronomy 21:6 ; Jeremiah 46:20 ). Untrained to the yoke ( Hosea 10:11 ); giving milk ( Isaiah 7:21 ); ploughing ( Judges 14:18 ); treading out grain ( Jeremiah 50:11 ); unsubdued to the yoke an emblem of Judah ( Isaiah 15:5 ; Jeremiah 48:34 ).

Heb. parah ( Genesis 41:2 ; Numbers 19:2 ). Bearing the yoke ( Hosea 4:16 ); "heifers of Bashan" ( Amos 4:1 ), metaphorical for the voluptuous females of Samaria. The ordinance of sacrifice of the "red heifer" described in Numbers 19:1-10 ; Compare Hebrews 9:13 .

Heir

Under the patriarchs the property of a father was divided among the sons of his legitimate wives ( Genesis 21:10 ; 24:36 ; 25:5 ), the eldest son getting a larger portion than the rest. The Mosaic law made specific regulations regarding the transmission of real property, which are given in detail in Deuteronomy 21:17 ; Numbers 27:8 ; 36:6 ; 27:9-11 . Succession to property was a matter of right and not of favour. Christ is the "heir of all things" ( Hebrews 1:2 ; Colossians 1:15 ). Believers are heirs of the "promise," "of righteousness," "of the kingdom," "of the world," "of God," "joint heirs" with Christ ( Galatians 3:29 ; Hebrews 6:17 ; 11:7 ; James 2:5 ; Romans 4:13 ; 8:17 ).

Helah

rust, ( 1 Chronicles 4:5 1 Chronicles 4:7 ), one of the wives of Ashur.

Helam

place of abundance, a place on the east of Jordan and west of the Euphrates where David gained a great victory over the Syrian army ( 2 Samuel 10:16 ), which was under the command of Shobach. Some would identify it with Alamatta, near Nicephorium.

Helbah

fatness, a town of the tribe of Asher ( Judges 1:31 ), in the plain of Phoenicia.

Helbon

fat; i.e., "fertile", ( Ezekiel 27: : 18 only), a place whence wine was brought to the great market of Tyre. It has been usually identified with the modern Aleppo, called Haleb by the native Arabs, but is more probably to be found in one of the villages in the Wady Helbon, which is celebrated for its grapes, on the east slope of Anti-Lebanon, north of the river Barada (Abana).

Heldai

wordly.

1. 1 Chronicles 27:15 ; called also Heleb ( 2 Samuel 23:29 ); one of David's captains.

2. Zechariah 6:10 , one who returned from Babylon.

Heleb

fatness, one of David's warriors ( 2 Samuel 23:29 ).

Heled

this world, ( 1 Chronicles 11:30 ); called Heleb ( 2 Samuel 23:29 ).

Helek

a portion, ( Joshua 17:2 ), descended from Manasseh.

Helem

a stroke, great-grandson of Asher ( 1 Chronicles 7:35 ).

Heleph

exchange, a city on the north border of Naphtali ( Joshua 19:33 ).

Helez

strong, or loin (?)

1. One of Judah's posterity ( 1 Chronicles 2:39 ).

2. One of David's warriors ( 2 Samuel 23:26 ).

Heli

elevation, father of Joseph in the line of our Lord's ancestry ( Luke 3:23 ).

Helkai

smooth-tongued, one of the chief priests in the time of Joiakim ( Nehemiah 12:15 ).

Helkath

smoothness, a town of Asher, on the east border ( Joshua 19:25 ; 21:31 ); called also Hukok ( 1 Chronicles 6:75 ).

Helkath-hazzurim

plot of the sharp blades, or the field of heroes, ( 2 Samuel 2:16 ). After the battle of Gilboa, so fatal to Saul and his house, David, as divinely directed, took up his residence in Hebron, and was there anointed king over Judah. Among the fugitives from Gilboa was Ish-bosheth, the only surviving son of Saul, whom Abner, Saul's uncle, took across the Jordan to Mahanaim, and there had him proclaimed king. Abner gathered all the forces at his command and marched to Gibeon, with the object of wresting Judah from David. Joab had the command of David's army of trained men, who encamped on the south of the pool, which was on the east of the hill on which the town of Gibeon was built, while Abner's army lay on the north of the pool. Abner proposed that the conflict should be decided by twelve young men engaging in personal combat on either side. So fiercely did they encounter each other that "they caught every man his fellow by the head, and thrust his sword in his fellow's side; so they fell down together: wherefore that place was called Helkath-hazzurim." The combat of the champions was thus indecisive, and there followed a severe general engagement between the two armies, ending in the total rout of the Israelites under Abner. The general result of this battle was that "David waxed stronger and stronger, and the house of Saul waxed weaker and weaker" ( 2 Samuel 3:1 ). (See GIBEON .)

Hell

derived from the Saxon helan, to cover; hence the covered or the invisible place. In Scripture there are three words so rendered:

1. Sheol, occurring in the Old Testament sixty-five times. This word sheol is derived from a root-word meaning "to ask," "demand;" hence insatiableness ( Proverbs 30:15 Proverbs 30:16 ). It is rendered "grave" thirty-one times ( Genesis 37:35 ; 42:38 ; Genesis 44:29 Genesis 44:31 ; 1 Samuel 2:6 , etc.). The Revisers have retained this rendering in the historical books with the original word in the margin, while in the poetical books they have reversed this rule. In thirty-one cases in the Authorized Version this word is rendered "hell," the place of disembodied spirits. The inhabitants of sheol are "the congregation of the dead" ( Proverbs 21:16 ). It is (a) the abode of the wicked ( Numbers 16:33 ; Job 24:19 ; Psalms 9:17 ; 31:17 , etc.); (b) of the good ( Psalms 16:10 ; 30:3 ; 49:15 ; 86:13 , etc.). Sheol is described as deep ( Job 11:8 ), dark ( Job 10:21 Job 10:22 ), with bars ( 17:16 ). The dead "go down" to it ( Numbers 16:30 Numbers 16:33 ; Ezek. Numbers 31:15 Numbers 31:16 Numbers 31:17 ).

2. The Greek word hades of the New Testament has the same scope of signification as sheol of the Old Testament. It is a prison ( 1 Peter 3:19 ), with gates and bars and locks ( Matthew 16:18 ; Revelation 1:18 ), and it is downward ( Matthew 11:23 ; Luke 10:15 ). The righteous and the wicked are separated. The blessed dead are in that part of hades called paradise ( Luke 23:43 ). They are also said to be in Abraham's bosom ( Luke 16:22 ).

3. Gehenna, in most of its occurrences in the Greek New Testament, designates the place of the lost ( Matthew 23:33 ). The fearful nature of their condition there is described in various figurative expressions ( Matthew 8:12 ; 13:42 ; 22:13 ; 25:30 ; Luke 16:24 , etc.). (See HINNOM .)

Helmet

(Heb. kob'a), a cap for the defence of the head ( 1 Samuel 17:5 1 Samuel 17:38 ). In the New Testament the Greek equivalent is used ( Ephesians 6:17 ; 1 Thessalonians 5:8 ). (See ARMS .)

Helon

strong, father of Eliab, who was "captain of the children of Zebulun" ( Numbers 1:9 ; 2:7 ).

Help-meet

(Heb. 'ezer ke-negdo; i.e., "a help as his counterpart" = a help suitable to him), a wife ( Genesis 2:18-20 ).

Helps

( 1 Corinthians 12:28 ) may refer to help (i.e., by interpretation) given to him who speaks with tongues, or more probably simply help which Christians can render to one another, such as caring for the poor and needy, etc.

Hem

of a garment, the fringe of a garment. The Jews attached much importance to these, because of the regulations in Numbers 15:38 Numbers 15:39 . These borders or fringes were in process of time enlarged so as to attract special notice ( Matthew 23:5 ). The hem of Christ's garment touched ( 9:20 ; 14:36 ; Luke 8:44 ).

Heman

faithful.

1. 1 Kings 4:31 ; 1 Chronicles 2:6 , a son of Zerah, noted for his wisdom.

2. Grandson of Samuel ( 1 Chronicles 6:33 ; 15:17 ), to whom the 88th Psalm probably was inscribed. He was one of the "seers" named in 2 Chronicles 29:14 2 Chronicles 29:30 , and took a leading part in the administration of the sacred services.

Hemath

a Kenite ( 1 Chronicles 2:55 ), the father of the house of Rechab.

Hemlock

1. Heb. rosh ( Hosea 10:4 ; rendered "gall" in Deuteronomy 29:18 ; 32:32 ; Psalms 69:21 ; Jeremiah 9:15 ; 23:15 ; "poison," Job 20:16 ; "venom," Deuteronomy 32:33 ). "Rosh is the name of some poisonous plant which grows quickly and luxuriantly; of a bitter taste, and therefore coupled with wormwood ( Deuteronomy 29:18 ; Lamentations 3:19 ). Hence it would seem to be not the hemlock cicuta, nor the colocynth or wild gourd, nor lolium darnel, but the poppy so called from its heads" (Gesenius, Lex.).

2. Heb. la'anah, generally rendered "wormwood" (q.v.), Deuteronomy 29:18 , Text 17; Proverbs 5:4 ; Jeremiah 9:15 ; 23:15 . Once it is rendered "hemlock" ( Amos 6:12 ; RSV, "wormwood"). This Hebrew word is from a root meaning "to curse," hence the accursed.

Hen

common in later times among the Jews in Palestine ( Matthew 23:37 ; Luke 13:34 ). It is noticeable that this familiar bird is only mentioned in these passages in connection with our Lord's lamentation over the impenitence of Jerusalem.

Hena

one of the cities of Mesopotamia destroyed by sennacherib ( 2 Kings 18:34 ; 19:13 ). It is identified with the modern Anah, lying on the right bank of the Euphrates, not far from Sepharvaim.

Henadad

favour of Hadad, the name of a Levite after the Captivity ( Ezra 3:9 ).

Henoch

See ENOCH .

Hepher

a well or stream.

1. A royal city of the Canaanites taken by ( Joshua 12:17 ).

2. The youngest son of Gilead ( Numbers 26:32 ; 27:1 ).

3. The second son of Asher ( 1 Chronicles 4:6 ).

4. One of David's heroes ( 1 Chronicles 11:36 ).

Hephzibah

my delight is in her.

1. The wife of Hezekiah and mother of king Manasseh ( 2 Kings 21:1 ).

2. A symbolical name of Zion, as representing the Lord's favour toward her ( Isaiah 62:4 ).

Herb

1. Heb. 'eseb, any green plant; herbage ( Genesis 1:11 Genesis 1:12 Genesis 1:29 Genesis 1:30 ; 2:5 ; 3:18 , etc.); comprehending vegetables and all green herbage ( Amos 7:1 Amos 7:2 ).

2. Yarak , green; any green thing; foliage of trees ( 2 Kings 19:26 ; Psalms 37:2 ); a plant; herb ( Deuteronomy 11:10 ).

3. Or , meaning "light" In Isaiah 26:19 it means "green herbs;" in 2 Kings 4:39 probably the fruit of some plant.

4. Merorim , plural, "bitter herbs," eaten by the Israelites at the Passover ( Exodus 12:8 ; Numbers 9:11 ). They were bitter plants of various sorts, and referred symbolically to the oppression in Egypt.

Herd

Genesis 13:5 ; Deuteronomy 7:14 . (See CATTLE .)

Herdsman

In Egypt herdsmen were probably of the lowest caste. Some of Joseph's brethren were made rulers over Pharaoh's cattle ( Genesis 47:6 Genesis 47:17 ). The Israelites were known in Egypt as "keepers of cattle;" and when they left it they took their flocks and herds with them ( Exodus 12:38 ). Both David and Saul came from "following the herd" to occupy the throne ( 1 Samuel 9 ; 11:5 ; Psalms 78:70 ). David's herd-masters were among his chief officers of state. The daughters also of wealthy chiefs were wont to tend the flocks of the family ( Genesis 29:9 ; Exodus 2:16 ). The "chief of the herdsmen" was in the time of the monarchy an officer of high rank ( 1 Samuel 21:7 ; Compare 1 Chronicles 27:29 ). The herdsmen lived in tents ( Isaiah 38:12 ; Jeremiah 6:3 ); and there were folds for the cattle ( Numbers 32:16 ), and watch-towers for the herdsmen, that he might therefrom observe any coming danger ( Micah 4:8 ; Nahum 3:8 ).

Heres

sun.

1. "Mount Heres" ( Judges 1:35 ), Heb. Har-heres, i.e., "sun-mountain;" probably identical with Irshemesh in Joshua 19:41 .

2. Isaiah 19:18 , marg. (See ON .)

Heresy

from a Greek word signifying (1) a choice, (2) the opinion chosen, and (3) the sect holding the opinion. In the Acts of the Apostles ( 5:17 ; 15:5 ; Isaiah 24:5 Isaiah 24:14 ; 26:5 ) it denotes a sect, without reference to its character. Elsewhere, however, in the New Testament it has a different meaning attached to it. Paul ranks "heresies" with crimes and seditions ( Galatians 5:20 ). This word also denotes divisions or schisms in the church ( 1 Corinthians 11:19 ). In Titus 3:10 a "heretical person" is one who follows his own self-willed "questions," and who is to be avoided. Heresies thus came to signify self-chosen doctrines not emanating from God ( 2 Peter 2:1 ).

Hermas

Mercury, a Roman Christian to whom Paul sends greetings ( Romans 16: : 14 ). Some suppose him to have been the author of the celebrated religious romance called The Shepherd, but it is very probable that that work is the production of a later generation.

Hermes

Mercury, a Roman Christian ( Romans 16:14 ).

Hermogenes

Mercury-born, at one time Paul's fellow-labourer in Asia Minor, who, however, afterwards abandoned him, along with one Phygellus, probably on account of the perils by which they were beset ( 2 Timothy 1:15 ).

Hermon

a peak, the eastern prolongation of the Anti-Lebanon range, reaching to the height of about 9,200 feet above the Mediterranean. It marks the north boundary of Palestine ( Deuteronomy 3:8 Deuteronomy 4:48 ; Joshua 11:3 Joshua 11:17 ; 13:11 ; 12:1 ), and is seen from a great distance. It is about 40 miles north of the Sea of Galilee. It is called "the Hermonites" ( Psalms 42:6 ) because it has more than one summit. The Sidonians called it Sirion, and the Amorites Shenir ( Deuteronomy 3:9 ; Cant 4:8 ). It is also called Baal-hermon ( Judges 3:3 ; 1 Chronicles 5:23 ) and Sion ( Deuteronomy 4:48 ). There is every probability that one of its three summits was the scene of the transfiguration (q.v.). The "dew of Hermon" is referred to ( Psalms 89: : 12 ). Its modern name is Jebel-esh-Sheikh, "the chief mountain." It is one of the most conspicuous mountains in Palestine or Syria. "In whatever part of Palestine the Israelite turned his eye northward, Hermon was there, terminating the view. From the plain along the coast, from the Jordan valley, from the heights of Moab and Gilead, from the plateau of Bashan, the pale, blue, snow-capped cone forms the one feature in the northern horizon."

Our Lord and his disciples climbed this "high mountain apart" one day, and remained on its summit all night, "weary after their long and toilsome ascent." During the night "he was transfigured before them; and his face did shine as the sun." The next day they descended to Caesarea Philippi.

Hermonites, the

( Psalms 42:6 Psalms 42:7 ) = "the Hermons", i.e., the three peaks or summits of Hermon, which are about a quarter of a mile apart.

Herod Agrippa I.

son of Aristobulus and Bernice, and grandson of Herod the Great. He was made tetrarch of the provinces formerly held by Lysanias II., and ultimately possessed the entire kingdom of his grandfather, Herod the Great, with the title of king. He put the apostle James the elder to death, and cast Peter into prison ( Luke 3:1 ; Acts 12:1-19 ). On the second day of a festival held in honour of the emperor Claudius, he appeared in the great theatre of Caesarea. "The king came in clothed in magnificent robes, of which silver was the costly brilliant material. It was early in the day, and the sun's rays fell on the king, so that the eyes of the beholders were dazzled with the brightness which surrounded him. Voices here and there from the crowd exclaimed that it was the apparition of something divine. And when he spoke and made an oration to them, they gave a shout, saying, 'It is the voice of a god, and not of a man.' But in the midst of this idolatrous ostentation an angel of God suddenly smote him. He was carried out of the theatre a dying man." He died (A.D. 44) of the same loathsome malady which slew his grandfather ( Acts 12:21-23 ), in the fifty-fourth year of his age, having reigned four years as tetrarch and three as king over the whole of Palestine. After his death his kingdom came under the control of the prefect of Syria, and Palestine was now fully incorporated with the empire.

Herod Antipas

Herod's son by Malthace ( Matthew 14:1 ; Luke 3:1 Luke 3:19 ; 9:7 ; Acts 13:1 ). (See ANTIPAS .)

Herod Archelaus

( Matthew 2:22 ), the brother of Antipas (q.v.).

Herod Arippa II.

the son of Herod Agrippa I. and Cypros. The emperor Claudius made him tetrarch of the provinces of Philip and Lysanias, with the title of king ( Acts 25:13 ; Acts 26:2 Acts 26:7 ). He enlarged the city of Caesarea Philippi, and called it Neronias, in honour of Nero. It was before him and his sister that Paul made his defence at Caesarea ( Acts 25:12-27 ). He died at Rome A.D. 100, in the third year of the emperor Trajan.

Herod Philip I.

( Mark 6:17 ), the son of Herod the Great by Mariamne, the daughter of Simon, the high priest. He is distinguished from another Philip called "the tetrarch." He lived at Rome as a private person with his wife Herodias and his daughter Salome.

Herod Philip II.

the son of Herod the Great and Cleopatra of Jerusalem. He was "tetrarch" of Batanea, Iturea, Trachonitis, and Auranitis. He rebuilt the city of Caesarea Philippi, calling it by his own name to distinguish it from the Caesarea on the sea-coast which was the seat of the Roman government. He married Salome, the daughter of Herodias ( Matthew 16:13 ; Mark 8:27 ; Luke 3:1 ).

Herod the Great

( Matthew 2:1-22 ; Luke 1:5 ; Acts 23:35 ), the son of Antipater, an Idumaean, and Cypros, an Arabian of noble descent. In the year B.C. 47 Julius Caesar made Antipater, a "wily Idumaean," procurator of Judea, who divided his territories between his four sons, Galilee falling to the lot of Herod, who was afterwards appointed tetrarch of Judea by Mark Antony (B.C. 40), and also king of Judea by the Roman senate.

He was of a stern and cruel disposition. "He was brutish and a stranger to all humanity." Alarmed by the tidings of one "born King of the Jews," he sent forth and "slew all the children that were in Bethlehem, and in all the coasts thereof, from two years old and under" ( Matthew 2:16 ). He was fond of splendour, and lavished great sums in rebuilding and adorning the cities of his empire. He rebuilt the city of Caesarea (q.v.) on the coast, and also the city of Samaria (q.v.), which he called Sebaste, in honour of Augustus. He restored the ruined temple of Jerusalem, a work which was begun B.C. 20, but was not finished till after Herod's death, probably not till about A.D. 50 ( John 2:20 ). After a troubled reign of thirty-seven years, he died at Jericho amid great agonies both of body and mind, B.C. 4, i.e., according to the common chronology, in the year in which Jesus was born.

After his death his kingdom was divided among three of his sons. Of these, Philip had the land east of Jordan, between Caesarea Philippi and Bethabara, Antipas had Galilee and Peraea, while Archelaus had Judea and Samaria.

Herodians

a Jewish political party who sympathized with ( Mark 3:6 ; 12:13 ; Matt, 22:16 ; Luke 20:20 ) the Herodian rulers in their general policy of government, and in the social customs which they introduced from Rome. They were at one with the Sadducees in holding the duty of submission to Rome, and of supporting the Herods on the throne. (Compare Mark 8:15 ; Matthew 16:6 .)