Easton's Bible Dictionary

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Glede — Gutter

Glede

an Old English name for the common kite, mentioned only in Deuteronomy 14:13 (Heb. ra'ah), the Milvus ater or black kite. The Hebrew word does not occur in the parallel passage in ( Leviticus 11:14 , da'ah, rendered "vulture;" in RSV, "kite"). It was an unclean bird. The Hebrew name is from a root meaning "to see," "to look," thus designating a bird with a keen sight. The bird intended is probably the buzzard, of which there are three species found in Palestine. (See VULTURE .)

Glorify

1. To make glorious, or cause so to appear ( John 12:28 ; John 13:31 John 13:32 ; John 17:4 John 17:5 ).

2. Spoken of God to "shew forth his praise" ( 1 Corinthians 6:20 ; 10:31 ).

Glory

(Heb. kabhod; Gr. doxa).

1. Abundance, wealth, treasure, and hence honour ( Psalms 49:12 ); glory ( Genesis 31:1 ; Matthew 4:8 ; Revelation 21:24 Revelation 21:26 ).

2. Honour, dignity ( 1 Kings 3:13 ; Hebrews 2:7 1 Peter 1:24 ); of God ( Psalms 19:1 ; 29:1 ); of the mind or heart ( Genesis 49:6 ; Psalms 7:5 ; Acts 2:46 ).

3. Splendour, brightness, majesty ( Genesis 45:13 ; Isaiah 4:5 ; Acts 22:11 ; 2 co 3:7 ); of Jehovah ( Isaiah 59:19 ; 60:1 ; 2 th. 1:9 ).

4. The glorious moral attributes, the infinite perfections of God ( Isaiah 40:5 ; Acts 7:2 ; Romans 1:23 ; 9:23 ; Ephesians 1:12 ). Jesus is the "brightness of the Father's glory" ( Hebrews 1:3 ; John 1:14 ; 2:11 ).

5. The bliss of heaven ( Romans 2:7 Romans 2:10 ; 5:2 ; 8:18 ; Hebrews 2:10 ; 1 Peter 5:1 1 Peter 5:10 ).

6. The phrase "Give glory to God" ( Joshua 7:19 ; Jeremiah 13:16 ) is a Hebrew idiom meaning, "Confess your sins." The words of the Jews to the blind man, "Give God the praise" ( John 9:24 ), are an adjuration to confess. They are equivalent to, "Confess that you are an impostor," "Give God the glory by speaking the truth;" for they denied that a miracle had been wrought.

Glutton

( Deuteronomy 21:20 ), Heb. zolel, from a word meaning "to shake out," "to squander;" and hence one who is prodigal, who wastes his means by indulgence. In Proverbs 23:21 , the word means debauchees or wasters of their own body. In Proverbs 28:7 , the word (pl.) is rendered Authorized Version "riotous men;" Revised Version, "gluttonous." Matthew 11:19 , Luke 7:34 , Greek phagos, given to eating, gluttonous.

Gnash

Heb. harak, meaning "to grate the teeth", ( Job 16:9 ; Psalms 112:10 ; Lamentations 2:16 ), denotes rage or sorrow. (See also Acts 7:54 ; Mark 9:18 .)

Gnat

only in Matthew 23:24 , a small two-winged stinging fly of the genus Culex, which includes mosquitoes. Our Lord alludes here to the gnat in a proverbial expression probably in common use, "who strain out the gnat;" the words in the Authorized Version, "strain at a gnat," being a mere typographical error, which has been corrected in the Revised Version. The custom of filtering wine for this purpose was common among the Jews. It was founded on Leviticus 11:23 . It is supposed that the "lice," Exodus 8:16 (marg. RSV, "sand-flies"), were a species of gnat.

Goad

(Heb. malmad, only in Judges 3: : 31 ), an instrument used by ploughmen for guiding their oxen. Shamgar slew six hundred Philistines with an ox-goad. "The goad is a formidable weapon. It is sometimes ten feet long, and has a sharp point. We could now see that the feat of Shamgar was not so very wonderful as some have been accustomed to think."

In 1 Samuel 13:21 , a different Hebrew word is used, dorban , meaning something pointed. The expression ( Acts 9:5 , omitted in the RSV), "It is hard for thee to kick against the pricks", i.e., against the goad, was proverbial for unavailing resistance to superior power.

Goat

1. Heb. 'ez, the she-goat ( Genesis 15:9 ; 30:35 ; 31:38 ). This Hebrew word is also used for the he-goat ( Exodus 12:5 ; Leviticus 4:23 ; Numbers 28:15 ), and to denote a kid ( Genesis 38:17 Genesis 38:20 ). Hence it may be regarded as the generic name of the animal as domesticated. It literally means "strength," and points to the superior strength of the goat as compared with the sheep.

2. Heb. 'attud, only in plural; rendered "rams" ( Genesis 31:10 Genesis 31:12 ); he-goats ( Numbers 7:17-88 ; Isaiah 1:11 ); goats ( Deuteronomy 32:14 ; Psalms 50:13 ). They were used in sacrifice ( Psalms 66:15 ). This word is used metaphorically for princes or chiefs in Isaiah 14:9 , and in Zechariah 10:3 as leaders. (Compare Jeremiah 50:8 .)

3. Heb. gedi, properly a kid. Its flesh was a delicacy among the Hebrews ( Genesis 27:9 Genesis 27:14 Genesis 27:17 ; Judges 6:19 ).

4. Heb. sa'ir, meaning the "shaggy," a hairy goat, a he-goat ( 2 Chronicles 29:23 ); "a goat" ( Leviticus 4:24 ); "satyr" ( Isaiah 13:21 ); "devils" ( Leviticus 17:7 ). It is the goat of the sin-offering ( Leviticus 9:3 Leviticus 9:15 ; 10:16 ).

5. Heb. tsaphir, a he-goat of the goats ( 2 Chronicles 29:21 ). In Dan 8:5,8it is used as a symbol of the Macedonian empire.

6. Heb. tayish, a "striker" or "butter," rendered "he-goat" ( Genesis 30:35 ; 32:14 ).

7. Heb. 'azazel (q.v.), the "scapegoat" ( Leviticus 16:8 Leviticus 16:10 Leviticus 16:26 ).

8. There are two Hebrew words used to denote the undomesticated goat:, Yael , only in plural mountain goats ( 1 Samuel 24:2 ; Job 39:1 ; Ps.104:18). It is derived from a word meaning "to climb." It is the ibex, which abounded in the mountainous parts of Moab. And 'akko , only in Deuteronomy 14:5 , the wild goat. Goats are mentioned in the New Testament in Matthew 25:32 Matthew 25:33 ; Hebrews 9:12 Hebrews 9:13 Hebrews 9:19 ; 10:4 . They represent oppressors and wicked men ( Ezekiel 34:17 ; 39:18 ; Matthew 25:33 ). Several varieties of the goat were familiar to the Hebrews. They had an important place in their rural economy on account of the milk they afforded and the excellency of the flesh of the kid. They formed an important part of pastoral wealth ( Genesis 31:10 Genesis 31:12 Genesis 32:14 ; 1 Samuel 25:2 ).

Goath

a lowing, a place near Jerusalem, mentioned only in Jeremiah 31:39 .

Gob

a pit, a place mentioned in 2 Samuel 21:18 2 Samuel 21:19 ; called also Gezer, in 1 Chronicles 20:4 .

Goblet

a laver or trough for washing garments. In Cant 7:2 , a bowl or drinking vessel, a bowl for mixing wine; in Exodus 24:6 , a sacrificial basin. (See CUP .)

God

(A.S. and Dutch God; Dan. Gud; Ger. Gott), the name of the Divine Being. It is the rendering (1) of the Hebrew 'El , from a word meaning to be strong; (2) of 'Eloah_, plural _'Elohim . The singular form, Eloah , is used only in poetry. The plural form is more commonly used in all parts of the Bible, The Hebrew word Jehovah (q.v.), the only other word generally employed to denote the Supreme Being, is uniformly rendered in the Authorized Version by "LORD," printed in small capitals. The existence of God is taken for granted in the Bible. There is nowhere any argument to prove it. He who disbelieves this truth is spoken of as one devoid of understanding ( Psalms 14:1 ).

The arguments generally adduced by theologians in proof of the being of God are:

1. The a priori argument, which is the testimony afforded by reason.

2. The a posteriori argument, by which we proceed logically from the facts of experience to causes. These arguments are, (a) The cosmological, by which it is proved that there must be a First Cause of all things, for every effect must have a cause. (b) The teleological, or the argument from design. We see everywhere the operations of an intelligent Cause in nature. (c) The moral argument, called also the anthropological argument, based on the moral consciousness and the history of mankind, which exhibits a moral order and purpose which can only be explained on the supposition of the existence of God. Conscience and human history testify that "verily there is a God that judgeth in the earth." The attributes of God are set forth in order by Moses in Exodus 34:6 Exodus 34:7 . (see also Deuteronomy 6:4 ; 10:17 ; Numbers 16:22 ; Exodus 15:11 ; 33:19 ; Isaiah 44:6 ; Habakkuk 3:6 ; Psalms 102:26 ; Job 34:12 .) They are also systematically classified in Revelation 5:12 and 7:12 . God's attributes are spoken of by some as absolute, i.e., such as belong to his essence as Jehovah, Jah, etc.; and relative, i.e., such as are ascribed to him with relation to his creatures. Others distinguish them into communicable, i.e., those which can be imparted in degree to his creatures: goodness, holiness, wisdom, etc.; and incommunicable, which cannot be so imparted: independence, immutability, immensity, and eternity. They are by some also divided into natural attributes, eternity, immensity, etc.; and moral, holiness, goodness, etc.

Godhead

( Acts 17:29 ; Romans 1:20 ; Colossians 2:9 ), the essential being or the nature of God.

Godliness

the whole of practical piety ( 1 Timothy 4:8 ; 2 Pet 1:6 ). "It supposes knowledge, veneration, affection, dependence, submission, gratitude, and obedience." In 1 Timothy 3:16 it denotes the substance of revealed religion.

Goel

in Hebrew the participle of the verb gaal , "to redeem." It is rendered in the Authorized Version "kinsman," Numbers 5:8 ; Ruth 3:12 ; Ruth 4:1 Ruth 4:6 Ruth 4:8 ; "redeemer," Job 19:25 ; "avenger," Numbers 35:12 ; Deuteronomy 19:6 , etc. The Jewish law gave the right of redeeming and repurchasing, as well as of avenging blood, to the next relative, who was accordingly called by this name. (See REDEEMER .)

Gog

1. A Reubenite ( 1 Chronicles 5:4 ), the father of Shimei.

2. The name of the leader of the hostile party described in Ezek. 38,39, as coming from the "north country" and assailing the people of Israel to their own destruction. This prophecy has been regarded as fulfilled in the conflicts of the Maccabees with Antiochus, the invasion and overthrow of the Chaldeans, and the temporary successes and destined overthrow of the Turks. But "all these interpretations are unsatisfactory and inadequate. The vision respecting Gog and Magog in the Apocalypse ( Revelation 20:8 ) is in substance a reannouncement of this prophecy of Ezekiel. But while Ezekiel contemplates the great conflict in a more general light as what was certainly to be connected with the times of the Messiah, and should come then to its last decisive issues, John, on the other hand, writing from the commencement of the Messiah's times, describes there the last struggles and victories of the cause of Christ. In both cases alike the vision describes the final workings of the world's evil and its results in connection with the kingdom of God, only the starting-point is placed further in advance in the one case than in the other." It has been supposed to be the name of a district in the wild north-east steppes of Central Asia, north of the Hindu-Kush, now a part of Turkestan, a region about 2,000 miles north-east of Nineveh.

Golan

exile, a city of Bashan ( Deuteronomy 4:43 ), one of the three cities of refuge east of Jordan, about 12 miles north-east of the Sea of Galilee ( Joshua 20:8 ). There are no further notices of it in Scripture. It became the head of the province of Gaulanitis, one of the four provinces into which Bashan was divided after the Babylonish captivity, and almost identical with the modern Jaulan, in Western Hauran, about 39 miles in length and 18 in breath.

Gold

1. Heb. zahab, so called from its yellow colour ( Exodus 25:11 ; 1 Chronicles 28:18 ; 2 Chr 3:5 ).

2. Heb. segor, from its compactness, or as being enclosed or treasured up; thus precious or "fine gold" ( 1 Kings 6:20 ; 7:49 ).

3. Heb. paz, native or pure gold ( Job 28:17 ; Psalms 19:10 ; 21:3 , etc.).

4. Heb. betzer, "ore of gold or silver" as dug out of the mine ( Job 36:19 , where it means simply riches).

5. Heb. kethem, i.e., something concealed or separated ( Job 28:16 Job 28:19 ; Psalms 45:9 ; Proverbs 25:12 ). Rendered "golden wedge" in Isaiah 13:12 .

6. Heb. haruts, i.e., dug out; poetic for gold ( Proverbs 8:10 ; 16:16 ; Zechariah 9:3 ). Gold was known from the earliest times ( Genesis 2:11 ). It was principally used for ornaments ( Genesis 24:22 ). It was very abundant ( 1 Chronicles 22:14 ; Nahum 2:9 ; Daniel 3:1 ). Many tons of it were used in connection with the temple ( 2 Chronicles 1:15 ). It was found in Arabia, Sheba, and Ophir ( 1 Kings 9:28 ; 10:1 ; Job 28:16 ), but not in Palestine. In Daniel 2:38 , the Babylonian Empire is spoken of as a "head of gold" because of its great riches; and Babylon was called by ( Isaiah 14:4 ) the "golden city" (RSV marg., "exactress," adopting the reading marhebah , instead of the usual word madhebah ).

Golden calf

( Exodus 32:4 Exodus 32:8 ; Deuteronomy 9:16 ; Nehemiah 9:18 ). This was a molten image of a calf which the idolatrous Israelites formed at Sinai. This symbol was borrowed from the custom of the Egyptians. It was destroyed at the command of Moses ( Exodus 32:20 ). (See AARON; MOSES .)

Goldsmith

( Nehemiah 3:8 Nehemiah 3:32 ; Isaiah 40:19 ; 41:7 ; 46:6 ). The word so rendered means properly a founder or finer.

Golgotha

the common name of the spot where Jesus was crucified. It is interpreted by the evangelists as meaning "the place of a skull" ( Matthew 27:33 ; Mark 15:22 ; John 19:17 ). This name represents in Greek letters the Aramaic word Gulgaltha, which is the Hebrew Gulgoleth ( Numbers 1:2 ; 1 Chronicles 23:3 1 Chronicles 23:24 ; 2 Kings 9:35 ), meaning "a skull." It is identical with the word Calvary (q.v.). It was a little knoll rounded like a bare skull. It is obvious from the evangelists that it was some well-known spot outside the gate (Compare Hebrews 13:12 ), and near the city ( Luke 23:26 ), containing a "garden" ( John 19:41 ), and on a thoroughfare leading into the country. Hence it is an untenable idea that it is embraced within the present "Church of the Holy Sepulchre." The hillock above Jeremiah's Grotto, to the north of the city, is in all probability the true site of Calvary. The skull-like appearance of the rock in the southern precipice of the hillock is very remarkable.

Goliath

great.

1. A famous giant of Gath, who for forty days openly defied the armies of Israel, but was at length slain by David with a stone from a sling ( 1 Samuel 17:4 ). He was probably descended from the Rephaim who found refuge among the Philistines after they were dispersed by the Ammonites ( Deuteronomy 2:20 Deuteronomy 2:21 ). His height was "six cubits and a span," which, taking the cubit at 21 inches, is equal to 10 1/2 feet. David cut off his head ( 1 Samuel 17:51 ) and brought it to Jerusalem, while he hung the armour which he took from him in his tent. His sword was preserved at Nob as a religious trophy ( 21:9 ). David's victory over Goliath was the turning point in his life. He came into public notice now as the deliverer of Israel and the chief among Saul's men of war ( 18:5 ), and the devoted friend of Jonathan.

2. In 2 Samuel 21:19 there is another giant of the same name mentioned as slain by Elhanan. The staff of his apear "was like a weaver's beam." The Authorized Version interpolates the words "the brother of" from 1 Chronicles 20:5 , where this giant is called Lahmi.

Gomer

complete; vanishing.

1. The daughter of Diblaim, who (probably in vision only) became the wife of ( Hosea 1:3 ).

2. The eldest son of Japheth, and father of Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah ( Genesis 10:2 Genesis 10:3 ), whose descendants formed the principal branch of the population of South-eastern Europe. He is generally regarded as the ancestor of the Celtae and the Cimmerii, who in early times settled to the north of the Black Sea, and gave their name to the Crimea, the ancient Chersonesus Taurica. Traces of their presence are found in the names Cimmerian Bosphorus, Cimmerian Isthmus, etc. In the seventh century B.C. they were driven out of their original seat by the Scythians, and overran western Asia Minor, whence they were afterwards expelled. They subsequently reappear in the times of the Romans as the Cimbri of the north and west of Europe, whence they crossed to the British Isles, where their descendants are still found in the Gaels and Cymry. Thus the whole Celtic race may be regarded as descended from Gomer.

Gomorrah

submersion, one of the five cities of the plain of Siddim (q.v.) which were destroyed by fire ( Genesis 10:19 ; 13:10 ; Genesis 19:24 Genesis 19:28 ). These cities probably stood close together, and were near the northern extremity of what is now the Dead Sea. This city is always mentioned next after Sodom, both of which were types of impiety and wickedness ( Genesis 18:20 ; Romans 9:29 ). Their destruction is mentioned as an "ensample unto those that after should live ungodly" ( 2 Peter 2:6 ; Jude 1:4-7 ). Their wickedness became proverbial ( Deuteronomy 32:32 ; Isaiah 1:9 Isaiah 1:10 ; Jeremiah 23:14 ). But that wickedness may be exceeded ( Matthew 10:15 ; Mark 6:11 ). (See DEAD SEA).

Goodly trees

boughs of, were to be carried in festive procession on the first day of the feast of Tabernacles ( Leviticus 23:40 ). This was probably the olive tree ( Nehemiah 8:15 ), although no special tree is mentioned.

Goodness

in man is not a mere passive quality, but the deliberate preference of right to wrong, the firm and persistent resistance of all moral evil, and the choosing and following of all moral good.

Goodness of God

a perfection of his character which he exercises towards his creatures according to their various circumstances and relations ( Psalms 145:8 Psalms 145:9 ; 103:8 ; 1 John 4:8 ). Viewed generally, it is benevolence; as exercised with respect to the miseries of his creatures it is mercy, pity, compassion, and in the case of impenitent sinners, long-suffering patience; as exercised in communicating favour on the unworthy it is grace. "Goodness and justice are the several aspects of one unchangeable, infinitely wise, and sovereign moral perfection. God is not sometimes merciful and sometimes just, but he is eternally infinitely just and merciful." God is infinitely and unchangeably good ( Zephaniah 3:17 ), and his goodness is incomprehensible by the finite mind ( Romans 11: : 3536 ,36). "God's goodness appears in two things, giving and forgiving."

Gopher

a tree from the wood of which Noah was directed to build the ark ( Genesis 6:14 ). It is mentioned only there. The LXX. render this word by "squared beams," and the Vulgate by "planed wood." Other versions have rendered it "pine" and "cedar;" but the weight of authority is in favour of understanding by it the cypress tree, which grows abundantly in Chaldea and Armenia.

Goshen

1. A district in Egypt where Jacob and his family settled, and in which they remained till the Exodus ( Genesis 45:10 ; Genesis 46:28 Genesis 46:29 Genesis 46:31 , etc.). It is called "the land of Goshen" ( 47:27 ), and also simply "Goshen" ( 46:28 ), and "the land of Rameses" ( 47:11 ; Exodus 12:37 ), for the towns Pithom and Rameses lay within its borders; also Zoan or Tanis ( Psalms 78:12 ). It lay on the east of the Nile, and apparently not far from the royal residence. It was "the best of the land" ( Genesis 47:6 Genesis 47:11 ), but is now a desert. It is first mentioned in Joseph's message to his father. It has been identified with the modern Wady Tumilat, lying between the eastern part of the Delta and the west border of Palestine. It was a pastoral district, where some of the king's cattle were kept ( Genesis 47:6 ). The inhabitants were not exclusively Israelites ( Exodus 3:22 ; 11:2 ; Exodus 12:35 Exodus 12:36 ).

2. A district in Palestine ( Joshua 10:41 ; 11:16 ). It was a part of the maritime plain of Judah, and lay between Gaza and Gibeon.

3. A town in the mountains of Judah ( Joshua 15:51 ).

Gospel

a word of Anglo-Saxon origin, and meaning "God's spell", i.e., word of God, or rather, according to others, "good spell", i.e., good news. It is the rendering of the Greek evangelion , i.e., "good message." It denotes (1) "the welcome intelligence of salvation to man as preached by our Lord and his followers.

1. It was afterwards transitively applied to each of the four histories of our Lord's life, published by those who are therefore called 'Evangelists', writers of the history of the gospel (the evangelion).

2. The term is often used to express collectively the gospel doctrines; and 'preaching the gospel' is often used to include not only the proclaiming of the good tidings, but the teaching men how to avail themselves of the offer of salvation, the declaring of all the truths, precepts, promises, and threatenings of Christianity." It is termed "the gospel of the grace of God" ( Acts 20:24 ), "the gospel of the kingdom" ( Matthew 4:23 ), "the gospel of Christ" ( Romans 1:16 ), "the gospel of peace ( Ephesians 6:15 ), "the glorious gospel," "the everlasting gospel," "the gospel of salvation" ( Ephesians 1:13 ).

Gospels

The central fact of Christian preaching was the intelligence that the Saviour had come into the world ( Matthew 4:23 ; Romans 10:15 ); and the first Christian preachers who called their account of the person and mission of Christ by the term evangelion_ (= good message) were called _evangelistai (= evangelists) ( Ephesians 4:11 ; Acts 21:8 ).

There are four historical accounts of the person and work of Christ: "the first by Matthew, announcing the Redeemer as the promised King of the kingdom of God; the second by Mark, declaring him 'a prophet, mighty in deed and word'; the third by Luke, of whom it might be said that he represents Christ in the special character of the Saviour of sinners ( Luke 7:36 ; 15:18 ); the fourth by John, who represents Christ as the Son of God, in whom deity and humanity become one. The ancient Church gave to Matthew the symbol of the lion, to Mark that of a man, to Luke that of the ox, and to John that of the eagle: these were the four faces of the cherubim" ( Ezekiel 1:10 ).

Date. The Gospels were all composed during the latter part of the first century, and there is distinct historical evidence to show that they were used and accepted as authentic before the end of the second century.

Mutual relation. "If the extent of all the coincidences be represented by 100, their proportionate distribution will be: Matthew, Mark, and Luke, 53; Matthew and Luke, 21; Matthew and Mark, 20; Mark and Luke, 6. Looking only at the general result, it may be said that of the contents of the synoptic Gospels [i.e., the first three Gospels] about two-fifths are common to the three, and that the parts peculiar to one or other of them are little more than one-third of the whole."

Origin. Did the evangelists copy from one another? The opinion is well founded that the Gospels were published by the apostles orally before they were committed to writing, and that each had an independent origin. (See MATTHEW, GOSPEL OF .)

Gourd

1. Jonah's gourd ( Jonah 4:6-10 ), bearing the Hebrew name kikayon (found only here), was probably the kiki of the Egyptians, the croton. This is the castor-oil plant, a species of ricinus, the palma Christi, so called from the palmate division of its leaves. Others with more probability regard it as the cucurbita the el-keroa of the Arabs, a kind of pumpkin peculiar to the East. "It is grown in great abundance on the alluvial banks of the Tigris and on the plain between the river and the ruins of Nineveh." At the present day it is trained to run over structures of mud and brush to form boots to protect the gardeners from the heat of the noon-day sun. It grows with extraordinary rapidity, and when cut or injured withers away also with great rapidity.

2. Wild gourds ( 2 Kings 4:38-40 ), Heb. pakkuoth, belong to the family of the cucumber-like plants, some of which are poisonous. The species here referred to is probably the colocynth (Cucumis colocynthus). The LXX. render the word by "wild pumpkin." It abounds in the desert parts of Syria, Egypt, and Arabia. There is, however, another species, called the Cucumis prophetarum, from the idea that it afforded the gourd which "the sons of the prophets" shred by mistake into their pottage.

Government of God

See PROVIDENCE .

Governments

( 1 Corinthians 12:28 ), the powers which fit a man for a place of influence in the church; "the steersman's art; the art of guiding aright the vessel of church or state."

Governor

1. Heb. nagid, a prominent, conspicuous person, whatever his capacity: as, chief of the royal palace ( 2 Chronicles 28:7 ; Compare 1 Kings 4:6 ), chief of the temple ( 1 Chronicles 9:11 ; Jeremiah 20:1 ), the leader of the Aaronites ( 1 Chronicles 12:27 ), keeper of the sacred treasury ( 26:24 ), captain of the army ( 13:1 ), the king ( 1 Samuel 9:16 ), the Messiah ( Daniel 9:25 ).

2. Heb. nasi, raised; exalted. Used to denote the chiefs of families ( Numbers 3:24 Numbers 3:30 Numbers 3:32 Numbers 3:35 ); also of tribes ( 2:3 ; 7:2 ; 3:32 ). These dignities appear to have been elective, not hereditary.

3. Heb. pakid, an officer or magistrate. It is used of the delegate of the high priest ( 2 Chronicles 24:11 ), the Levites ( Nehemiah 11:22 ), a military commander ( 2 Kings 25:19 ), Joseph's officers in Egypt ( Genesis 41:34 ).

4. Heb. shallit, one who has power, who rules ( Genesis 42:6 ; Ezra 4:20 ; Eccl 8:8 ; Daniel 2:15 ; 5:29 ).

5. Heb. aluph, literally one put over a thousand, i.e., a clan or a subdivision of a tribe. Used of the "dukes" of Edom ( Genesis 36 ), and of the Jewish chiefs ( Zechariah 9:7 ).

6. Heb. moshel, one who rules, holds dominion. Used of many classes of rulers ( Genesis 3:16 ; 24:2 ; 45:8 ; Psalms 105:20 ); of the Messiah ( Micah 5:2 ); of God ( 1 Chronicles 29:12 ; Psalms 103:19 ).

7. Heb. sar, a ruler or chief; a word of very general use. It is used of the chief baker of Pharaoh ( Genesis 40:16 ); of the chief butler ( 40:2 , etc. See also Genesis 47:6 ; Exodus 1:11 ; Daniel 1:7 ; Judges 10:18 ; 1 Kings 22:26 ; 20:15 ; 2 Kings 1:9 ; 2 Sam 24:2 ). It is used also of angels, guardian angels ( Daniel 10:13 Daniel 10:20 Daniel 10:21 ; 12:1 ; 10:13 ; 8:25 ).

8. Pehah, whence pasha , i.e., friend of the king; adjutant; governor of a province ( 2 Kings 18:24 ; Isaiah 36:9 ; Jeremiah 51: : 57 ; Ezekiel 23:6 Ezekiel 23:23 ; Daniel 3:2 ; Esther 3: : 12 ), or a perfect ( Nehemiah 3:7 ; 5:14 ; Ezra 5:3 ; Haggai 1:1 ). This is a foreign word, Assyrian, which was early adopted into the Hebrew idiom ( 1 Kings 10:15 ).

9. The Chaldean word segan is applied to the governors of the Babylonian satrapies ( Daniel 3:2 Daniel 3:27 ; 6:7 ); the prefects over the Magi ( 2:48 ). The corresponding Hebrew word segan is used of provincial rulers ( Jeremiah 51:23 Jeremiah 51:28 Jeremiah 51:57 ); also of chiefs and rulers of the people of Jerusalem ( Ezra 9:2 ; Nehemiah 2:16 ; Nehemiah 4:14 Nehemiah 4:19 ; Nehemiah 5:7 Nehemiah 5:17 ; 7:5 ; 12:40 ). In the New Testament there are also different Greek words rendered thus.

10. Meaning an ethnarch ( 2 Corinthians 11:32 ), which was an office distinct from military command, with considerable latitude of application.

11. The procurator of Judea under the Romans ( Matthew 27:2 ). (Compare Luke 2:2 , where the verb from which the Greek word so rendered is derived is used.)

12. Steward ( Galatians 4:2 ).

13. Governor of the feast ( John 2:9 ), who appears here to have been merely an intimate friend of the bridegroom, and to have presided at the marriage banquet in his stead.

14. A director, i.e., helmsman; Lat. gubernator, ( James 3:4 ).

Gozan

a region in Central Asia to which the Israelites were carried away captive ( 2 Kings 17:6 ; 1 Chronicles 5:26 ; 2 Kings 19:12 ; Isaiah 37:12 ). It was situated in Mesopotamia, on the river Habor ( 2 Kings 17:6 ; 18:11 ), the Khabur, a tributary of the Euphrates. The "river of Gozan" ( 1 Chronicles 5:26 ) is probably the upper part of the river flowing through the province of Gozan, now Kizzel-Ozan.

Grace

1. Of form or person ( Proverbs 1:9 ; 3:22 ; Psalms 45:2 ).

2. Favour, kindness, friendship ( Genesis 6:8 ; 18:3 ; 19:19 ; 2 Tim 1:9 ).

3. God's forgiving mercy ( Romans 11:6 ; Ephesians 2:5 ).

4. The gospel as distinguished from the law ( John 1:17 ; Romans 6:14 ; 1 Peter 5:12 ).

5. Gifts freely bestowed by God; as miracles, prophecy, tongues ( Romans 15:15 ; 1 Corinthians 15:10 ; Ephesians 3:8 ).

6. Christian virtues ( 2 Corinthians 8:7 ; 2 Pet 3:18 ).

7. The glory hereafter to be revealed ( 1 Peter 1:13 ).

Grace, means of

an expression not used in Scripture, but employed (1) to denote those institutions ordained by God to be the ordinary channels of grace to the souls of men. These are the Word, Sacraments, and Prayer.

1. But in popular language the expression is used in a wider sense to denote those exercises in which we engage for the purpose of obtaining spiritual blessing; as hearing the gospel, reading the Word, meditation, self-examination, Christian conversation, etc.

Graft

the process of inoculating fruit-trees ( Romans 11:17-24 ). It is peculiarly appropriate to olive-trees. The union thus of branches to a stem is used to illustrate the union of true believers to the true Church.

Grain

used, in Amos 9:9 , of a small stone or kernel; in Matthew 13:31 , of an individual seed of mustard; in John John 15:37 , of wheat. The Hebrews sowed only wheat, barley, and spelt; rye and oats are not mentioned in Scripture.

Grape

the fruit of the vine, which was extensively cultivated in Palestine. Grapes are spoken of as "tender" (Cant John 2:13 John 2:15 ), "unripe" ( Job 15:33 ), "sour" ( Isaiah 18:5 ), "wild" ( Isaiah 5:2 Isaiah 5:4 ). (See Revelation 14:18 ; Micah 7:1 ; Jeremiah 6:9 ; Ezekiel 18:2 , for figurative use of the word.) (SeeVINE .)

Grass

1. Heb. hatsir, ripe grass fit for mowing ( 1 Kings 18:5 ; Job 40:15 ; Psalms 104:14 ). As the herbage rapidly fades under the scorching sun, it is used as an image of the brevity of human life ( Isaiah 40:6 Isaiah 40:7 ; Psalms 90:5 ). In Numbers 11:5 this word is rendered "leeks."

2. Heb. deshe', green grass ( Genesis 1:11 Genesis 1:12 ; Isaiah 66:14 ; Deuteronomy 32:2 ). "The sickly and forced blades of grass which spring up on the flat plastered roofs of houses in the East are used as an emblem of speedy destruction, because they are small and weak, and because, under the scorching rays of the sun, they soon wither away" ( 2 Kings 19:26 ; Psalms 129:6 ; Isaiah 37:27 ). The dry stalks of grass were often used as fuel for the oven ( Matthew 6:30 ; 13:30 ; Luke 12:28 ).

Grasshopper

belongs to the class of neuropterous insects called Gryllidae. This insect is not unknown in Palestine.

In Judges 6:5 ; 7:12 ; Job 39:30 ; Jeremiah 46:23 , where the Authorized Version has "grasshopper," the Revised Version more correctly renders the Hebrew word ('arbeh) by "locust." This is the case also in Amos 7:1 ; Nahum 3:17 , where the Hebrew word gob is used; and in Leviticus 11:22 ; Numbers 13:33 ; Eccl 12:5 ; Isaiah 40:22 , where hagab is used. In all these instances the proper rendering is probably "locust" (q.v.).

Grate

a network of brass for the bottom of the great altar of sacrifice ( Exodus 27:4 ; 35:16 ; Exodus 38:4 Exodus 38:5 Exodus 38:30 ).

Grave

Among the ancient Hebrews graves were outside of cities in the open field ( Luke 7:12 ; John 11:30 ). Kings ( 1 Kings 2:10 ) and prophets ( 1 Samuel 25:1 ) were generally buried within cities. Graves were generally grottoes or caves, natural or hewn out in rocks ( Isaiah 22:16 ; Matthew 27:60 ). There were family cemeteries ( Genesis 47:29 ; 50:5 ; 2 Sam 19:37 ). Public burial-places were assigned to the poor ( Jeremiah 26:23 ; 2 Kings 23:6 ). Graves were usually closed with stones, which were whitewashed, to warn strangers against contact with them ( Matthew 23:27 ), which caused ceremonial pollution ( Numbers 19:16 ).

There were no graves in Jerusalem except those of the kings, and according to tradition that of the prophetess Huldah.

Graven image

Deuteronomy 27:15 ; Psalms 97:7 (Heb. pesel), refers to the household gods of idolaters. "Every nation and city had its own gods...Yet every family had its separate household or tutelary god."

Graving

1. Heb. hatsabh. Job 19:24 , rendered "graven," but generally means hewn stone or wood, in quarry or forest.

2. Heb. harush. Jeremiah 17:1 , rendered "graven," and indicates generally artistic work in metal, wood, and stone, effected by fine instruments.

3. Heb. haqaq. Ezekiel 4:1 , engraving a plan or map, rendered "pourtray;" Job 19:23 , "written."

4. Heb. pasal points rather to the sculptor's or the carver's art ( Isaiah 30:22 ; 40:19 ; 41:7 ; 44:12-15 ).

5. Pathah refers to intaglio work, the cutting and engraving of precious stones ( Exodus 28:9-11 Exodus 28:21 ; Zechariah 3:9 ; Cant Zechariah 1:10 Zechariah 1:11 ).

6. Heret. In Exodus 32:4 rendered "graving tool;" and in Isaiah 8:1 , "a pen."

Greaves

only in 1 Samuel 17:6 , a piece of defensive armour (q.v.) reaching from the foot to the knee; from French greve, "the shin." They were the Roman cothurni.

Grecians

Hellenists, Greek-Jews; Jews born in a foreign country, and thus did not speak Hebrew ( Acts 6:1 ; 9:29 ), nor join in the Hebrew services of the Jews in Palestine, but had synagogues of their own in Jerusalem. Joel 3:6 =Greeks.

Greece

orginally consisted of the four provinces of Macedonia, Epirus, Achaia, and Peleponnesus. In Acts 20:2 it designates only the Roman province of Macedonia. Greece was conquered by the Romans B.C. 146. After passing through various changes it was erected into an independent monarchy in 1831.

Moses makes mention of Greece under the name of Javan ( Genesis 10:2-5 ); and this name does not again occur in the Old Testament till the time of ( Joel 3:6 ). Then the Greeks and Hebrews first came into contact in the Tyrian slave-market. Prophetic notice is taken of Greece in Daniel 8:21 .

The cities of Greece were the special scenes of the labours of the apostle Paul.

Greek

Found only in the New Testament, where a distinction is observed between "Greek" and "Grecian" (q.v.). The former is (1) a Greek by race ( Acts 16:1-3 ; 18:17 ; Romans 1:14 ), or (2) a Gentile as opposed to a Jew ( Romans 2:9 Romans 2:10 ). The latter, meaning properly "one who speaks Greek," is a foreign Jew opposed to a home Jew who dwelt in Palestine.

The word "Grecians" in Acts 11:20 should be "Greeks," denoting the heathen Greeks of that city, as rendered in the Revised Version according to the reading of the best manuscripts ("Hellenes").

Greyhound

( Proverbs 30:31 ), the rendering of the Hebrew zarzir mothnayim , meaning literally "girded as to the lions." Some (Gesen.; RSV marg.) render it "war-horse." The LXX. and Vulgate versions render it "cock." It has been by some interpreters rendered also "stag" and "warrior," as being girded about or panoplied, and "wrestler." The greyhound, however, was evidently known in ancient times, as appears from Egyptian monuments.

Grind

( Exodus 32:20 ; Deuteronomy 9:21 ; Judges 16:21 ), to crush small (Heb. tahan); to oppress the poor ( Isaiah 3:5 ). The hand-mill was early used by the Hebrews ( Numbers 11:8 ). It consisted of two stones, the upper ( Deuteronomy 24:6 ; 2 Sam 11:21 ) being movable and slightly concave, the lower being stationary. The grinders mentioned Eccl 12:3 are the teeth. (See MILL .)

Grizzled

party-coloured, as goats ( Genesis 31:10 Genesis 31:12 ), horses ( Zechariah 6:3 Zechariah 6:6 ).

Grove

1. Heb. 'asherah, properly a wooden image, or a pillar representing Ashtoreth, a sensual Canaanitish goddess, probably usually set up in a grove ( 2 Kings 21:7 ; 23:4 ). In the Revised Version the word "Asherah" (q.v.) is introduced as a proper noun, the name of the wooden symbol of a goddess, with the plurals Asherim ( Exodus 34:13 ) and Asheroth ( Judges 3:13 ). The LXX. have rendered asherah in 2 Chronicles 15:16 by "Astarte." The Vulgate has done this also in Judges 3:7 .

2. Heb. 'eshel ( Genesis 21:33 ). In 1 Samuel 22:6 and 31:13 the Authorized Version renders this word by "tree." In all these passages the Revised Version renders by "tamarisk tree." It has been identified with the Tamariscus orientalis, five species of which are found in Palestine.

3. The Heb. word 'elon, uniformly rendered in the Authorized Version by "plain," properly signifies a grove or plantation. In the Revised Version it is rendered, pl., "oaks" ( Genesis 13:18 ; 14:13 ; 18:1 ; 12:6 ; Deuteronomy 11:30 ; Joshua 19:33 ). In the earliest times groves are mentioned in connection with religious worship. The heathen consecrated groves to particular gods, and for this reason they were forbidden to the Jews ( Jeremiah 17:3 ; Ezekiel 20:28 ).

Guard

1. Heb. tabbah (properly a "cook," and in a secondary sense "executioner," because this office fell to the lot of the cook in Eastern countries), the bodyguard of the kings of Egypt ( Genesis 37:36 ) and Babylon ( 2 Kings 25:8 ; Jeremiah 40:1 ; Daniel 2:14 ).

2. Heb. rats, properly a "courier," one whose office was to run before the king's chariot ( 2 Samuel 15:1 ; 1 Kings 1:5 ). The couriers were also military guards ( 1 Samuel 22:17 ; 2 Kings 10:25 ). They were probably the same who under David were called Pelethites ( 1 Kings 14:27 ; 2 Sam 15:1 ).

3. Heb. mishmereth, one who watches ( Nehemiah 4:22 ), or a watch-station ( 7:3 ; 12:9 ; Job 7:12 ). In the New Testament ( Mark 6:27 ) the Authorized Version renders the Greek spekulator by "executioner," earlier English versions by "hangman," the Revised Version by "soldier of his guard." The word properly means a "pikeman" or "halberdier," of whom the bodyguard of kings and princes was composed. In Matthew 27:65 Matthew 27:66 ; 28:11 , the Authorized Version renders the Greek kustodia by "watch," and the Revised Version by "guard," the Roman guard, which consisted of four soldiers, who were relieved every three hours ( Acts 12:4 ). The "captain of the guard" mentioned Acts 28:16 was the commander of the Praetorian troops, whose duty it was to receive and take charge of all prisoners from the provinces.

Guest-chamber

the spare room on the upper floor of an Eastern dwelling ( Mark 14:14 ; Luke 22:11 ). In Luke 2:7 the word is translated "inn" (q.v.).

Gur

a whelp, a place near Ibleam where Jehu's servants overtook and mortally wounded king Ahaziah ( 2 Kings 9:27 ); an ascent from the plain of Jezreel.

Gur-baal

sojourn of Baal, a place in Arabia ( 2 Chronicles 26:7 ) where there was probably a temple of Baal.

Gutter

Heb. tsinnor, ( 2 Samuel 5:8 ). This Hebrew word occurs only elsewhere in Psalms 42:7 in the plural, where it is rendered "waterspouts." It denotes some passage through which water passed; a water-course.

In Gen 30:38,41the Hebrew word rendered "gutters" is rahat , and denotes vessels overflowing with water for cattle ( Exodus 2:16 ); drinking-troughs.