Easton's Bible Dictionary

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Doleful creatures — Dye

Doleful creatures

(occurring only Isaiah 13:21 . Heb. ochim, i.e., "shrieks;" hence "howling animals"), a general name for screech owls (howlets), which occupy the desolate palaces of Babylon. Some render the word "hyaenas."

Door-keeper

This word is used in Psalms 84:10 (RSV marg., "stand at the threshold of," etc.), but there it signifies properly "sitting at the threshold in the house of God." The psalmist means that he would rather stand at the door of God's house and merely look in, than dwell in houses where iniquity prevailed.

Persons were appointed to keep the street door leading into the interior of the house ( John 18:16 John 18:17 ; Acts 12:13 ). Sometimes females held this post.

Door-posts

The Jews were commanded to write the divine name on the posts (mezuzoth') of their doors ( Deuteronomy 6:9 ). The Jews, misunderstanding this injunction, adopted the custom of writing on a slip of parchment these verses ( Deuteronomy 6:4-9 , and 11:13-21 ), which they enclosed in a reed or cylinder and fixed on the right-hand door-post of every room in the house.

Doors

moved on pivots of wood fastened in sockets above and below ( Proverbs 26:14 ). They were fastened by a lock ( Judges 3:23 Judges 3:25 ; Cant 5:5 ) or by a bar ( Judges 16:3 ; Job 38:10 ). In the interior of Oriental houses, curtains were frequently used instead of doors.

The entrances of the tabernacle had curtains ( Exodus 26:31-33 Exodus 26:36 ). The "valley of Achor" is called a "door of hope," because immediately after the execution of Achan the Lord said to Joshua, "Fear not," and from that time Joshua went forward in a career of uninterrupted conquest. Paul speaks of a "door opened" for the spread of the gospel ( 1 Corinthians 16:9 ; 2 co 2:12 ; Colossians 4:3 ). Our Lord says of himself, "I am the door" ( John 10:9 ). John ( Revelation 4:1 ) speaks of a "door opened in heaven."

Dophkah

knocking, an encampment of the Israelites in the wilderness ( Numbers 33:12 ). It was in the desert of Sin, on the eastern shore of the western arm of the Red Sea, somewhere in the Wady Feiran.

Dor

dwelling, the Dora of the Romans, an ancient royal city of the Canaanites ( Joshua 11:1 Joshua 11:2 ; 12:23 ). It was the most southern settlement of the Phoenicians on the coast of Syria. The original inhabitants seem never to have been expelled, although they were made tributary by David. It was one of Solomon's commissariat districts ( Judges 1:27 ; 1 Kings 4:11 ). It has been identified with Tantura (so named from the supposed resemblance of its tower to a tantur, i.e., "a horn"). This tower fell in 1895, and nothing remains but debris and foundation walls, the remains of an old Crusading fortress. It is about 8 miles north of Caesarea, "a sad and sickly hamlet of wretched huts on a naked sea-beach."

Dorcas

a female antelope, or gazelle, a pious Christian widow at Joppa whom Peter restored to life ( Acts 9:36-41 ). She was a Hellenistic Jewess, called Tabitha by the Jews and Dorcas by the Greeks.

Dothan

two wells, a famous pasture-ground where Joseph found his brethren watching their flocks. Here, at the suggestion of Judah, they sold him to the Ishmaelite merchants ( Genesis 37:17 ). It is mentioned on monuments in B.C. 1600.

It was the residence of Elisha ( 2 Kings 6:13 ), and the scene of a remarkable vision of chariots and horses of fire surrounding the mountain on which the city stood. It is identified with the modern Tell-Dothan, on the south side of the plain of Jezreel, about 12 miles north of Samaria, among the hills of Gilboa. The "two wells" are still in existence, one of which bears the name of the "pit of Joseph" (Jubb Yusuf).

Dough

(batsek, meaning "swelling," i.e., in fermentation). The dough the Israelites had prepared for baking was carried away by them out of Egypt in their kneading-troughs ( Exodus 12:34 Exodus 12:39 ). In the process of baking, the dough had to be turned ( Hosea 7:8 ).

Dove

In their wild state doves generally build their nests in the clefts of rocks, but when domesticated "dove-cots" are prepared for them (Cant 2:14 ; Jeremiah 48:28 ; Isaiah 60:8 ). The dove was placed on the standards of the Assyrians and Babylonians in honour, it is supposed, of Semiramis ( Jeremiah 25:38 ; Vulg., "fierceness of the dove;" Compare Jeremiah 46:16 ; 50:16 ). Doves and turtle-doves were the only birds that could be offered in sacrifice, as they were clean according to the Mosaic law ( Genesis 15:9 ; Leviticus 5:7 ; 12:6 ; Luke 2:24 ). The dove was the harbinger of peace to Noah ( Genesis 8:8 Genesis 8:10 ). It is often mentioned as the emblem of purity ( Psalms 68:13 ). It is a symbol of the Holy Spirit ( Genesis 1:2 ; Matthew 3:16 ; Mark 1:10 ; Luke 3:22 ; John 1:32 ); also of tender and devoted affection (Cant 1:15 ; 2:14 ). David in his distress wished that he had the wings of a dove, that he might fly away and be at rest ( Psalms 55:6-8 ). There is a species of dove found at Damascus "whose feathers, all except the wings, are literally as yellow as gold" ( 68:13 ).

Doves dung

( 2 Kings 6:25 ) has been generally understood literally. There are instances in history of the dung of pigeons being actually used as food during a famine. Compare also the language of Rabshakeh to the Jews ( 2 Kings 18:27 ; Isaiah 36:12 ). This name, however, is applied by the Arabs to different vegetable substances, and there is room for the opinion of those who think that some such substance is here referred to, as, e.g., the seeds of a kind of millet, or a very inferior kind of pulse, or the root of the ornithogalum, i.e., bird-milk, the star-of-Bethlehem.

Dowry

(mohar; i.e., price paid for a wife, Genesis 34:12 ; Exodus 22:17 ; 1 Samuel 18:25 ), a nuptial present; some gift, as a sum of money, which the bridegroom offers to the father of his bride as a satisfaction before he can receive her. Jacob had no dowry to give for his wife, but he gave his services ( Genesis 29:18 ; 30:20 ; 34:12 ).

Dragon

1. Heb. tannim, plural of tan. The name of some unknown creature inhabiting desert places and ruins ( Job 30:29 ; Psalms 44:19 ; Isaiah 13:22 ; 34:13 ; 43:20 ; Jeremiah 10:22 ; Micah 1:8 ; Malachi 1:3 ); probably, as translated in the Revised Version, the jackal (q.v.).

2. Heb. tannin. Some great sea monster ( Jeremiah 51:34 ). In Isaiah 51:9 it may denote the crocodile. In Genesis 1:21 (Heb. plural tanninim) the Authorized Version renders "whales," and the Revised Version "sea monsters." It is rendered "serpent" in Exodus 7:9 . It is used figuratively in Psalms 74:13 ; Ezekiel 29:3 . In the New Testament the word "dragon" is found only in Revelation 12:3 Revelation 12:4 Revelation 12:7 Revelation 12:9 Revelation 12:16 Revelation 12:17 , etc., and is there used metaphorically of "Satan." (See WHALE .)

Dragon well

( Nehemiah 2:13 ), supposed by some to be identical with the Pool of Gihon.

Dram

The Authorized Version understood the word 'adarkonim ( 1 Chronicles 29:7 ; Ezra 8:27 ), and the similar word darkomnim ( Ezra 2:69 ; Nehemiah 7:70 ), as equivalent to the Greek silver coin the drachma. But the Revised Version rightly regards it as the Greek dareikos, a Persian gold coin (the daric) of the value of about 1 pound, 2s., which was first struck by Darius, the son of Hystaspes, and was current in Western Asia long after the fall of the Persian empire. (See DARIC .)

Draught-house

( 2 Kings 10:27 ). Jehu ordered the temple of Baal to be destroyed, and the place to be converted to the vile use of receiving offal or ordure. (Compare Matthew 15:17 .)

Drawer of water

( Deuteronomy 29:11 ; Joshua 9:21 Joshua 9:23 ), a servile employment to which the Gibeonites were condemned.

Dream

God has frequently made use of dreams in communicating his will to men. The most remarkable instances of this are recorded in the history of Jacob ( Genesis 28:12 ; 31:10 ), Laban ( 31:24 ), Joseph ( 37:9-11 ), Gideon (Judg. 7), and Solomon ( 1 Kings 3:5 ). Other significant dreams are also recorded, such as those of Abimelech ( Genesis 20:3-7 ), Pharaoh's chief butler and baker ( 40:5 ), Pharaoh ( 41:1-8 ), the Midianites ( Judges 7:13 ), Nebuchadnezzar ( Daniel 2:1 ; Daniel 4:10 Daniel 4:18 ), the wise men from the east ( Matthew 2:12 ), and Pilate's wife ( 27:19 ).

To Joseph "the Lord appeared in a dream," and gave him instructions regarding the infant Jesus ( Matthew 1:20 ; Matthew 2:12 Matthew 2:13 Matthew 2:19 ). In a vision of the night a "man of Macedonia" stood before Paul and said, "Come over into Macedonia and help us" ( Acts 16:9 ; see also 18:9 ; 27:23 ).

Dredge

( Job 24:6 ). See CORN .

Dregs

( Psalms 75:8 ; Isaiah 51:17 Isaiah 51:22 ), the lees of wine which settle at the bottom of the vessel.

Dress

1. Materials used. The earliest and simplest an apron of fig-leaves sewed together ( Genesis 3:7 ); then skins of animals ( 3:21 ). Elijah's dress was probably the skin of a sheep ( 2 Kings 1:8 ). The Hebrews were early acquainted with the art of weaving hair into cloth ( Exodus 26:7 ; 35:6 ), which formed the sackcloth of mourners. This was the material of John the Baptist's robe ( Matthew 3:4 ). Wool was also woven into garments ( Leviticus 13:47 ; Deuteronomy 22:11 ; Ezekiel 34:3 ; Job 31:20 ; Proverbs 27:26 ). The Israelites probably learned the art of weaving linen when they were in Egypt ( 1 Chronicles 4:21 ). Fine linen was used in the vestments of the high priest ( Exodus 28:5 ), as well as by the rich ( Genesis 41:42 ; Proverbs 31:22 ; Luke 16:19 ). The use of mixed material, as wool and flax, was forbidden ( Leviticus 19:19 ; Deuteronomy 22:11 ).

2. Colour. The prevailing colour was the natural white of the material used, which was sometimes rendered purer by the fuller's art ( Psalms 104:1 Psalms 104:2 ; Isaiah 63:3 ; Mark 9:3 ). The Hebrews were acquainted with the art of dyeing ( Genesis 37:3 Genesis 37:23 ). Various modes of ornamentation were adopted in the process of weaving ( Exodus 28:6 ; Exodus 26:1 Exodus 26:31 ; 35:25 ), and by needle-work ( Judges 5:30 ; Psalms 45:13 ). Dyed robes were imported from foreign countries, particularly from Phoenicia ( Zephaniah 1:8 ). Purple and scarlet robes were the marks of the wealthy ( Luke 16:19 ; 2 Sam 1:24 ).

3. Form. The robes of men and women were not very much different in form from each other. (a) The "coat" (kethoneth), of wool, cotton, or linen, was worn by both sexes. It was a closely-fitting garment, resembling in use and form our shirt ( John 19:23 ). It was kept close to the body by a girdle ( John 21:7 ). A person wearing this "coat" alone was described as naked ( 1 Samuel 19:24 ; Isaiah 20:2 ; 2 Kings 6:30 ; John 21:7 ); deprived of it he would be absolutely naked. (b) A linen cloth or wrapper (sadin) of fine linen, used somewhat as a night-shirt ( Mark 14:51 ). It is mentioned in Judg. Mark 14:12 Mark 14:13 , and rendered there "sheets." (c) An upper tunic (meil), longer than the "coat" ( 1 Samuel 2:19 ; 24:4 ; 28:14 ). In 1 Samuel 28:14 it is the mantle in which Samuel was enveloped; in 1 Samuel 24:4 it is the "robe" under which Saul slept. The disciples were forbidden to wear two "coats" ( Matthew 10:10 ; Luke 9:3 ). (d) The usual outer garment consisted of a piece of woollen cloth like a Scotch plaid, either wrapped round the body or thrown over the shoulders like a shawl, with the ends hanging down in front, or it might be thrown over the head so as to conceal the face ( 2 Samuel 15:30 ; Esther 6:12 ). It was confined to the waist by a girdle, and the fold formed by the overlapping of the robe served as a pocket ( 2 Kings 4:39 ; Psalms 79:12 ; Haggai 2:12 ; Proverbs 17:23 ; 21:14 ). Female dress. The "coat" was common to both sexes (Cant 5:3 ). But peculiar to females were (1) the "veil" or "wimple," a kind of shawl ( Ruth 3:15 ; rendered "mantle," RSV, Isaiah 3:22 ); (2) the "mantle," also a species of shawl ( Isaiah 3:22 ); (3) a "veil," probably a light summer dress ( Genesis 24:65 ); (4) a "stomacher," a holiday dress ( Isaiah 3:24 ). The outer garment terminated in an ample fringe or border, which concealed the feet ( Isaiah 47:2 ; Jeremiah 13:22 ). The dress of the Persians is described in Daniel 3:21 . The reference to the art of sewing are few, inasmuch as the garments generally came forth from the loom ready for being worn, and all that was required in the making of clothes devolved on the women of a family ( Proverbs 31:22 ; Acts 9:39 ). Extravagance in dress is referred to in Jeremiah 4:30 ; Ezek. 16:10 ; Zephaniah 1:8 (RSV, "foreign apparel"); 1 Timothy 2:9 ; 1 Peter 3:3 . Rending the robes was expressive of grief ( Genesis 37:29 Genesis 37:34 ), fear ( 1 Kings 21:27 ), indignation ( 2 Kings 5:7 ), or despair ( Judges 11:35 ; Esther 4:1 ). Shaking the garments, or shaking the dust from off them, was a sign of renunciation ( Acts 18:6 ); wrapping them round the head, of awe ( 1 Kings 19:13 ) or grief ( 2 Samuel 15:30 ; casting them off, of excitement ( Acts 22:23 ); laying hold of them, of supplication ( 1 Samuel 15:27 ). In the case of travelling, the outer garments were girded up ( 1 Kings 18:46 ). They were thrown aside also when they would impede action ( Mark 10:50 ; John 13:4 ; Acts 7:58 ).

Drink

The drinks of the Hebrews were water, wine, "strong drink," and vinegar. Their drinking vessels were the cup, goblet or "basin," the "cruse" or pitcher, and the saucer.

To drink water by measure ( Ezekiel 4:11 ), and to buy water to drink ( Lamentations 5:4 ), denote great scarcity. To drink blood means to be satiated with slaughter.

The Jews carefully strained their drinks through a sieve, through fear of violating the law of Leviticus 11:20 Leviticus 11:23 Leviticus 11:41 Leviticus 11:42 . (See Matthew 23:24 . "Strain at" should be "strain out.")

Drink, strong

(Heb. shekar'), an intoxicating liquor ( Judges 13:4 ; Luke 1:15 ; Isaiah 5:11 ; Micah 2:11 ) distilled from corn, honey, or dates. The effects of the use of strong drink are referred to in Psalms 107:27 ; Isaiah 24:20 ; 49:26 ; 51:17-22 . Its use prohibited, Proverbs 20:1 . (See WINE .)

Drink-offering

consisted of wine ( Numbers 15:5 ; Hosea 9:4 ) poured around the altar ( Exodus 30:9 ). Joined with meat-offerings ( Numbers 6:15 Numbers 6:17 ; 2 Kings 16:13 ; Joel 1:9 Joel 1:13 ; 2:14 ), presented daily ( Exodus 29:40 ), on the Sabbath ( Numbers 28:9 ), and on feast-days ( 28:14 ). One-fourth of an hin of wine was required for one lamb, one-third for a ram, and one-half for a bullock ( Numbers 15:5 ; Numbers 28:7 Numbers 28:14 ). "Drink offerings of blood" ( Psalms 16:4 ) is used in allusion to the heathen practice of mingling the blood of animals sacrificed with wine or water, and pouring out the mixture in the worship of the gods, and the idea conveyed is that the psalmist would not partake of the abominations of the heathen.

Dromedary

( Isaiah 60:6 ), an African or Arabian species of camel having only one hump, while the Bactrian camel has two. It is distinguished from the camel only as a trained saddle-horse is distinguished from a cart-horse. It is remarkable for its speed ( Jeremiah 2:23 ). Camels are frequently spoken of in partriarchal times ( Genesis 12:16 ; 24:10 ; 30:43 ; 31:17 , etc.). They were used for carrying burdens ( Genesis 37:25 ; Judges 6:5 ), and for riding ( Genesis 24:64 ). The hair of the camel falls off of itself in spring, and is woven into coarse cloths and garments ( Matthew 3:4 ). (See CAMEL .)

Dropsy

mentioned only in Luke 14:2 . The man afflicted with it was cured by Christ on the Sabbath.

Dross

the impurities of silver separated from the one in the process of melting ( Proverbs 25:4 ; 26:23 ; Psalms 119:119 ). It is also used to denote the base metal itself, probably before it is smelted, in Isaiah 1:22 Isaiah 1:25 .

Drought

From the middle of May to about the middle of August the land of Palestine is dry. It is then the "drought of summer" ( Genesis 31:40 ; Psalms 32:4 ), and the land suffers ( Deuteronomy 28:23 : Psalms 102:4 ), vegetation being preserved only by the dews ( Haggai 1:11 ). (See DEW .)

Drown

( Exodus 15:4 ; Amos 8:8 ; Hebrews 11:29 ). Drowning was a mode of capital punishment in use among the Syrians, and was known to the Jews in the time of our Lord. To this he alludes in Matthew 18:6 .

Drunk

The first case of intoxication on record is that of Noah ( Genesis 9:21 ). The sin of drunkenness is frequently and strongly condemned ( Romans 13:13 ; 1 Corinthians 6:9 1 Corinthians 6:10 ; Ephesians 5:18 ; 1 Thessalonians 5:7 1 Thessalonians 5:8 ). The sin of drinking to excess seems to have been not uncommon among the Israelites.

The word is used figuratively, when men are spoken of as being drunk with sorrow, and with the wine of God's wrath ( Isaiah 63:6 ; Jeremiah 51:57 ; Ezekiel 23:33 ). To "add drunkenness to thirst" ( Deuteronomy 29:19 , A.V.) is a proverbial expression, rendered in the Revised Version "to destroy the moist with the dry", i.e., the well-watered equally with the dry land, meaning that the effect of such walking in the imagination of their own hearts would be to destroy one and all.

Drusilla

third and youngest daughter of Herod Agrippa I. ( Acts 12:1-4 Acts 12:20-23 ). Felix, the Roman procurator of Judea, induced her to leave her husband, Azizus, the king of Emesa, and become his wife. She was present with Felix when Paul reasoned of "righteousness, temperance, and judgment to come" ( Acts 24:24 ). She and her son perished in the eruption of Mount Vesuvius, A.D. 79.

Duke

derived from the Latin dux, meaning "a leader;" Arabic, "a sheik." This word is used to denote the phylarch or chief of a tribe ( Genesis 36:15-43 ; Exodus 15:15 ; 1 Chronicles 1:51-54 ).

Dulcimer

(Heb. sumphoniah), a musical instrument mentioned in Daniel 3:5 Daniel 3:15 , along with other instruments there named, as sounded before the golden image. It was not a Jewish instrument. In the margin of the Revised Version it is styled the "bag-pipe." Luther translated it "lute," and Grotius the "crooked trumpet." It is probable that it was introduced into Babylon by some Greek or Western-Asiatic musician. Some Rabbinical commentators render it by "organ," the well-known instrument composed of a series of pipes, others by "lyre." The most probable interpretation is that it was a bag-pipe similar to the zampagna of Southern Europe.

Dumah

silence, (Compare Psalms 94:17 ), the fourth son of Ishmael; also the tribe descended from him; and hence also the region in Arabia which they inhabited ( Genesis 25:14 ; 1 Chronicles 1:30 ).

There was also a town of this name in Judah ( Joshua 15:52 ), which has been identified with ed-Domeh, about 10 miles southwest of Hebron. The place mentioned in the "burden" of the prophet ( Isaiah 21:11 ) is Edom or Idumea.

Dumb

from natural infirmity ( Exodus 4:11 ); not knowing what to say ( Proverbs 31:8 ); unwillingness to speak ( Psalms 39:9 ; Leviticus 10:3 ). Christ repeatedly restored the dumb ( Matthew 9:32 Matthew 9:33 ; Luke 11:14 ; Matthew 12:22 ) to the use of speech.

Dung

1. Used as manure ( Luke 13:8 ); collected outside the city walls ( Nehemiah 2:13 ). Of sacrifices, burned outside the camp ( Exodus 29:14 ; Leviticus 4:11 ; 8:17 ; Numbers 19:5 ). To be "cast out as dung," a figurative expression ( 1 Kings 14:10 ; 2 Kings 9:37 ; Jeremiah 8:2 ; Psalms 18:42 ), meaning to be rejected as unprofitable.

2. Used as fuel, a substitute for firewood, which was with difficulty procured in Syria, Arabia, and Egypt ( Ezekiel 4:12-15 ), where cows' and camels' dung is used to the present day for this purpose.

Dungeon

different from the ordinary prison in being more severe as a place of punishment. Like the Roman inner prison ( Acts 16:24 ), it consisted of a deep cell or cistern ( Jeremiah 38:6 ). To be shut up in, a punishment common in Egypt ( Genesis 39:20 ; 40:3 ; 41:10 ; 42:19 ). It is not mentioned, however, in the law of Moses as a mode of punishment. Under the later kings imprisonment was frequently used as a punishment ( 2 Chronicles 16:10 ; Jeremiah 20:2 ; 32:2 ; 33:1 ; 37:15 ), and it was customary after the Exile ( Matthew 11:2 ; Luke 3:20 ; Acts 5:18 Acts 5:21 ; Matthew 18:30 ).

Dung-gate

( Nehemiah 2:13 ), a gate of ancient Jerusalem, on the south-west quarter. "The gate outside of which lay the piles of sweepings and offscourings of the streets," in the valley of Tophet.

Dung-hill

to sit on a, was a sign of the deepest dejection ( 1 Samuel 2:8 ; Psalms 113:7 ; Lamentations 4:5 ).

Dura

the circle, the plain near Babylon in which Nebuchadnezzar set up a golden image, mentioned in Daniel 3:1 . The place still retains its ancient name. On one of its many mounds the pedestal of what must have been a colossal statue has been found. It has been supposed to be that of the golden image.

Dust

Storms of sand and dust sometimes overtake Eastern travellers. They are very dreadful, many perishing under them. Jehovah threatens to bring on the land of Israel, as a punishment for forsaking him, a rain of "powder and dust" ( Deuteronomy 28:24 ).

To cast dust on the head was a sign of mourning ( Joshua 7:6 ); and to sit in dust, of extreme affliction ( Isaiah 47:1 ). "Dust" is used to denote the grave ( Job 7:21 ). "To shake off the dust from one's feet" against another is to renounce all future intercourse with him ( Matthew 10:14 ; Acts 13:51 ). To "lick the dust" is a sign of abject submission ( Psalms 72:9 ); and to throw dust at one is a sign of abhorrence ( 2 Samuel 16:13 ; Compare Acts 22:23 ).

Dwarf

a lean or emaciated person ( Leviticus 21:20 ).

Dwell

Tents were in primitive times the common dwellings of men. Houses were afterwards built, the walls of which were frequently of mud ( Job 24:16 ; Matthew 6:19 Matthew 6:20 ) or of sun-dried bricks.

God "dwells in light" ( 1 Timothy 6:16 ; 1 John 1:7 ), in heaven ( Psalms 123:1 ), in his church ( Psalms 9:11 ; 1 John 4:12 ). Christ dwelt on earth in the days of his humiliation ( John 1:14 ). He now dwells in the hearts of his people ( Ephesians 3:17-19 ). The Holy Spirit dwells in believers ( 1 Corinthians 3:16 ; 2 Tim 1:14 ). We are exhorted to "let the word of God dwell in us richly" ( Colossians 3:16 ; Psalms 119:11 ).

Dwell deep occurs only in Jeremiah 49:8 , and refers to the custom of seeking refuge from impending danger, in retiring to the recesses of rocks and caverns, or to remote places in the desert.

Dwellings

The materials used in buildings were commonly bricks, sometimes also stones ( Leviticus 14:40 Leviticus 14:42 ), which were held together by cement ( Jeremiah 43:9 ) or bitumen ( Genesis 11:3 ). The exterior was usually whitewashed ( Leviticus 14:41 ; Ezekiel 13:10 ; Matthew 23:27 ). The beams were of sycamore ( Isaiah 9:10 ), or olive-wood, or cedar ( 1 Kings 7:2 ; Isaiah 9:10 ).

The form of Eastern dwellings differed in many respects from that of dwellings in Western lands. The larger houses were built in a quadrangle enclosing a court-yard ( Luke 5:19 ; 2 Sam 17:18 ; Nehemiah 8:16 ) surrounded by galleries, which formed the guest-chamber or reception-room for visitors. The flat roof, surrounded by a low parapet, was used for many domestic and social purposes. It was reached by steps from the court. In connection with it ( 2 Kings 23:12 ) was an upper room, used as a private chamber ( 2 Samuel 18:33 ; Daniel 6:11 ), also as a bedroom ( 2 Kings 23:12 ), a sleeping apartment for guests ( 2 Kings 4:10 ), and as a sick-chamber ( 1 Kings 17:19 ). The doors, sometimes of stone, swung on morticed pivots, and were generally fastened by wooden bolts. The houses of the more wealthy had a doorkeeper or a female porter ( John 18:16 ; Acts 12:13 ). The windows generally opened into the courtyard, and were closed by a lattice (Judg. 5:28 ). The interior rooms were set apart for the female portion of the household.

The furniture of the room ( 2 Kings 4:10 ) consisted of a couch furnished with pillows ( Amos 6:4 ; Ezekiel 13:20 ); and besides this, chairs, a table and lanterns or lamp-stands ( 2 Kings 4:10 ).

Dye

The art of dyeing is one of great antiquity, although no special mention is made of it in the Old Testament. The Hebrews probably learned it from the Egyptians (see Exodus 26:1 ; 28:5-8 ), who brought it to great perfection. In New Testament times Thyatira was famed for its dyers ( Acts 16:14 ). (See COLOUR .)