Easton's Bible Dictionary
Confection — Cyrus
( Exodus 30:35 , "ointment" in ver. 25; RSV, "perfume"). The Hebrew word so rendered is derived from a root meaning to compound oil and perfume.
only in 1 Samuel 8:13 , those who make confections, i.e., perfumers, who compound species and perfumes.
(1) An open profession of faith ( Luke 12:8 ).
(Heb. kahal), the Hebrew people collectively as a holy community ( Numbers 15:15 ). Every circumcised Hebrew from twenty years old and upward was a member of the congregation. Strangers resident in the land, if circumcised, were, with certain exceptions ( Exodus 12:19 ; Numbers 9:14 ; Deuteronomy 23:1-3 ), admitted to the privileges of citizenship, and spoken of as members of the congregation ( Exodus 12:19 ; Numbers 9:14 ; 15:15 ). The congregation were summonded together by the sound of two silver trumpets, and they met at the door of the tabernacle ( Numbers 10:3 ). These assemblies were convened for the purpose of engaging in solemn religious services ( Exodus 12:27 ; Numbers 25:6 ; Joel 2:15 ), or of receiving new commandments ( Exodus 19:7 Exodus 19:8 ). The elders, who were summonded by the sound of one trumpet ( Numbers 10:4 ), represented on various occasions the whole congregation ( Exodus 3:16 ; 12:21 ; 17:5 ; 24:1 ).
After the conquest of Canaan, the people were assembled only on occasions of the highest national importance (Judg. 20; 2 Chronicles 30:5 ; 34:29 ; 1 Samuel 10:17 ; 2 Sam 5:1-5 ; 1 Kings 12:20 ; 2 Kings 11:19 ; 21:24 ; 23:30 ). In subsequent times the congregation was represented by the Sanhedrim; and the name synagogue, applied in the Septuagint version exclusively to the congregation, came to be used to denote the places of worship established by the Jews. (See CHURCH .)
In Acts 13:43 , where alone it occurs in the New Testament, it is the same word as that rendered "synagogue" (q.v.) in ver. 42, and is so rendered in ver. 43 in RSV
( Isaiah 14:13 ), has been supposed to refer to the place where God promised to meet with his people ( Exodus 25:22 ; Exodus 29:42 Exodus 29:43 ) i.e., the mount of the Divine presence, Mount Zion. But here the king of Babylon must be taken as expressing himself according to his own heathen notions, and not according to those of the Jews. The "mount of the congregation" will therefore in this case mean the northern mountain, supposed by the Babylonians to be the meeting-place of their gods. In the Babylonian inscriptions mention is made of a mountain which is described as "the mighty mountain of Bel, whose head rivals heaven, whose root is the holy deep." This mountain was regarded in their mythology as the place where the gods had their seat.
that faculty of the mind, or inborn sense of right and wrong, by which we judge of the moral character of human conduct. It is common to all men. Like all our other faculties, it has been perverted by the Fall ( John 16:2 ; Acts 26:9 ; Romans 2:15 ). It is spoken of as "defiled" ( Titus 1:15 ), and "seared" ( 1 Timothy 4:2 ). A "conscience void of offence" is to be sought and cultivated ( Acts 24:16 ; Romans 9:1 ; 2 co 1:12 ; 1 Timothy 1:5 1 Timothy 1:19 ; 1 Peter 3:21 ).
the devoting or setting apart of anything to the worship or service of God. The race of Abraham and the tribe of Levi were thus consecrated ( Exodus 13:2 Exodus 13:12 Exodus 13:15 ; Numbers 3:12 ). The Hebrews devoted their fields and cattle, and sometimes the spoils of war, to the Lord ( Leviticus 27:28 Leviticus 27:29 ). According to the Mosaic law the first-born both of man and beast were consecrated to God.
In the New Testament, Christians are regarded as consecrated to the Lord ( 1 Peter 2:9 ).
a name for the Messiah in common use among the Jews, probably suggested by Isaiah 12:1 ; 49:13 . The Greek word thus rendered ( Luke 2:25 , paraklesis) is kindred to that translated "Comforter" in John 14:16 , etc., parakletos.
a cluster of stars, or stars which appear to be near each other in the heavens, and which astronomers have reduced to certain figures (as the "Great Bear," the "Bull," etc.) for the sake of classification and of memory. In Isaiah 13:10 , where this word only occurs, it is the rendering of the Hebrew kesil , i.e., "fool." This was the Hebrew name of the constellation Orion ( Job 9:9 ; 38:31 ), a constellation which represented Nimrod, the symbol of folly and impiety. The word some interpret by "the giant" in this place, "some heaven-daring rebel who was chained to the sky for his impiety."
a state of mind in which one's desires are confined to his lot whatever it may be ( 1 Timothy 6:6 ; 2 co 9:8 ). It is opposed to envy ( James 3:16 ), avarice ( Hebrews 13:5 ), ambition ( Proverbs 13:10 ), anxiety ( Matthew 6:25 Matthew 6:34 ), and repining ( 1 Corinthians 10:10 ). It arises from the inward disposition, and is the offspring of humility, and of an intelligent consideration of the rectitude and benignity of divine providence ( Psalms 96:1 Psalms 96:2 ; 145 ), the greatness of the divine promises ( 2 Peter 1:4 ), and our own unworthiness ( Genesis 32:10 ); as well as from the view the gospel opens up to us of rest and peace hereafter ( Romans 5:2 ).
generally the goings out and in of social intercourse ( Ephesians 2:3 ; 4:22 ; RSV, "manner of life"); one's deportment or course of life. This word is never used in Scripture in the sense of verbal communication from one to another ( Psalms 50:23 ; Hebrews 13:5 ). In Phil 1:27 and 3:20 , a different Greek word is used. It there means one's relations to a community as a citizen, i.e., citizenship.
the turning of a sinner to God ( Acts 15:3 ). In a general sense the heathen are said to be "converted" when they abandon heathenism and embrace the Christian faith; and in a more special sense men are converted when, by the influence of divine grace in their souls, their whole life is changed, old things pass away, and all things become new ( Acts 26:18 ). Thus we speak of the conversion of the Philippian jailer ( 16:19-34 ), of Paul ( 9:1-22 ), of the Ethiopian treasurer ( 8:26-40 ), of Cornelius (10), of Lydia ( 16:13-15 ), and others. (See REGENERATION .)
a meeting of a religious character as distinguished from congregation, which was more general, dealing with political and legal matters. Hence it is called an "holy convocation." Such convocations were the Sabbaths ( Leviticus 23:2 Leviticus 23:3 ), the Passover ( Exodus 12:16 ; Leviticus 23:7 Leviticus 23:8 ; Numbers 28:25 ), Pentecost ( Leviticus 23:21 ), the feast of Trumpets ( Leviticus 23:24 ; Numbers 29:1 ), the feast of Weeks ( Numbers 28:26 ), and the feast of Tabernacles ( Leviticus 23:35 Leviticus 23:36 ). The great fast, the annual day of atonement, was "the holy convocation" ( Leviticus 23:27 ; Numbers 29:7 ).
a person employed to perform culinary service. In early times among the Hebrews cooking was performed by the mistress of the household ( Genesis 18:2-6 ; Judges 6:19 ), and the process was very expeditiously performed ( Genesis 27:3 Genesis 27:4 Genesis 27:9 Genesis 27:10 ). Professional cooks were afterwards employed ( 1 Samuel 8:13 ; 9:23 ). Few animals, as a rule, were slaughtered (other than sacrifices), except for purposes of hospitality ( Genesis 18:7 ; Luke 15:23 ). The paschal lamb was roasted over a fire ( Exodus 12:8 Exodus 12:9 ; 2 Chr 35:13 ). Cooking by boiling was the usual method adopted ( Leviticus 8:31 ; Exodus 16:23 ). No cooking took place on the Sabbath day ( Exodus 35:3 ).
(written Cos in the RSV), a small island, one of the Sporades in the Aegean Sea, in the north-west of Rhodes, off the coast of Caria. Paul on his return from his third missionary journey, passed the night here after sailing from Miletus ( Acts 21:1 ). It is now called Stanchio.
derived from the Greek kupros (the island of Cyprus), called "Cyprian brass," occurs only in the Authorized Version in Ezra 8:27 . Elsewhere the Hebrew word (nehosheth) is improperly rendered "brass," and sometimes "steel" ( 2 Samuel 22:35 ; Jeremiah 15:12 ). The "bow of steel" ( Job 20:24 ; Psalms 18:34 ) should have been "bow of copper" (or "brass," as in the RSV). The vessels of "fine copper" of Ezra 8:27 were probably similar to those of "bright brass" mentioned in 1 Kings 7:45 ; Daniel 10:6 .
Tubal-cain was the first artificer in brass and iron ( Genesis 4:22 ). Hiram was noted as a worker in brass ( 1 Kings 7:14 ). Copper abounded in Palestine ( Deuteronomy 8:9 ; Isaiah 60:17 ; 1 Chronicles 22:3 1 Chronicles 22:14 ). All sorts of vessels in the tabernacle and the temple were made of it ( Leviticus 6:28 ; Numbers 16:39 ; 2 Chr 4:16 ; Ezra 8:27 ); also weapons of war ( 1 Samuel 17:5 1 Samuel 17:6 1 Samuel 17:38 ; 2 Sam 21:16 ). Iron is mentioned only four times ( Genesis 4:22 ; Leviticus 26:19 ; Numbers 31:22 ; 35:16 ) in the first four books of Moses, while copper (rendered "brass") is mentioned forty times. (See BRASS .)
We find mention of Alexander (q.v.), a "coppersmith" of Ephesus ( 2 Timothy 4:14 ).
This Hebrew word, untranslated, denotes a round vessel used as a measure both for liquids and solids. It was equal to one homer, and contained ten ephahs in dry and ten baths in liquid measure ( Ezekiel 45:14 ). The Rabbins estimated the cor at forty-five gallons, while Josephus estimated it at about eighty-seven. In 1 Kings 4:22 ; 5:11 ; 2 Chr 2:10 ; 27:5 , the original word is rendered "measure."
Heb. ramoth, meaning "heights;" i.e., "high-priced" or valuable things, or, as some suppose, "that which grows high," like a tree ( Job 28:18 ; Ezekiel 27:16 ), according to the Rabbins, red coral, which was in use for ornaments.
The coral is a cretaceous marine product, the deposit by minute polypous animals of calcareous matter in cells in which the animal lives. It is of numberless shapes as it grows, but usually is branched like a tree. Great coral reefs and coral islands abound in the Red Sea, whence probably the Hebrews derived their knowledge of it. It is found of different colours, white, black, and red. The red, being esteemed the most precious, was used, as noticed above, for ornamental purposes.
a Hebrew word adopted into the Greek of the New Testament and left untranslated. It occurs only once ( Mark 7:11 ). It means a gift or offering consecrated to God. Anything over which this word was once pronounced was irrevocably dedicated to the temple. Land, however, so dedicated might be redeemed before the year of jubilee ( Leviticus 27:16-24 ). Our Lord condemns the Pharisees for their false doctrine, inasmuch as by their traditions they had destroyed the commandment which requires children to honour their father and mother, teaching them to find excuse from helping their parents by the device of pronouncing "Corban" over their goods, thus reserving them to their own selfish use.
frequently used in its proper sense, for fastening a tent ( Exodus 35:18 ; 39:40 ), yoking animals to a cart ( Isaiah 5:18 ), binding prisoners ( Judges 15:13 ; Psalms 2:3 ; 129:4 ), and measuring ground ( 2 Samuel 82 ;2; Psalms 78:55 ). Figuratively, death is spoken of as the giving way of the tent-cord ( Job 4:21 . "Is not their tent-cord plucked up?" RSV). To gird one's self with a cord was a token of sorrow and humiliation. To stretch a line over a city meant to level it with the ground ( Lamentations 2:8 ). The "cords of sin" are the consequences or fruits of sin ( Proverbs 5:22 ). A "threefold cord" is a symbol of union (Eccl 4:12 ). The "cords of a man" ( Hosea 11:4 ) means that men employ, in inducing each other, methods such as are suitable to men, and not "cords" such as oxen are led by. ( Isaiah 5:18 ) says, "Woe unto them that draw iniquity with cords of vanity, and sin as it were with a cart rope." This verse is thus given in the Chaldee paraphrase: "Woe to those who begin to sin by little and little, drawing sin by cords of vanity: these sins grow and increase till they are strong and are like a cart rope." This may be the true meaning. The wicked at first draw sin with a slender cord; but by-and-by their sins increase, and they are drawn after them by a cart rope. Henderson in his commentary says: "The meaning is that the persons described were not satisfied with ordinary modes of provoking the Deity, and the consequent ordinary approach of his vengeance, but, as it were, yoked themselves in the harness of iniquity, and, putting forth all their strength, drew down upon themselves, with accelerated speed, the load of punishment which their sins deserved."
Heb. gad, ( Exodus 16:31 ; Numbers 11:7 ), seed to which the manna is likened in its form and colour. It is the Coriandrum sativum of botanists, an umbelliferous annual plant with a round stalk, about two feet high. It is widely cultivated in Eastern countries and in the south of Europe for the sake of its seeds, which are in the form of a little ball of the size of a peppercorn. They are used medicinally and as a spice. The Greek name of this plant is korion or koriannon, whence the name "coriander."
a Grecian city, on the isthmus which joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. It is about 48 miles west of Athens. The ancient city was destroyed by the Romans (B.C. 146), and that mentioned in the New Testament was quite a new city, having been rebuilt about a century afterwards and peopled by a colony of freedmen from Rome. It became under the Romans the seat of government for Southern Greece or Achaia ( Acts 18:12-16 ). It was noted for its wealth, and for the luxurious and immoral and vicious habits of the people. It had a large mixed population of Romans, Greeks, and Jews. When Paul first visited the city (A.D. 51 or 52), Gallio, the brother of Seneca, was proconsul. Here Paul resided for eighteen months ( 18:1-18 ). Here he first became aquainted with Aquila and Priscilla, and soon after his departure Apollos came to it from Ephesus. After an interval he visited it a second time, and remained for three months ( 20:3 ). During this second visit his Epistle to the Romans was written (probably A.D. 55). Although there were many Jewish converts at Corinth, yet the Gentile element prevailed in the church there.
Some have argued from 2 Corinthians 12:14 ; 13:1 , that Paul visited Corinth a third time (i.e., that on some unrecorded occasion he visited the city between what are usually called the first and second visits). But the passages referred to only indicate Paul's intention to visit Corinth (Compare 1 Corinthians 16:5 , where the Greek present tense denotes an intention), an intention which was in some way frustrated. We can hardly suppose that such a visit could have been made by the apostle without more distinct reference to it.
was written from Ephesus ( 1 Corinthians 16:8 ) about the time of the Passover in the third year of the apostle's sojourn there ( Acts 19:10 ; 20:31 ), and when he had formed the purpose to visit Macedonia, and then return to Corinth (probably A.D. 57).
The news which had reached him, however, from Corinth frustrated his plan. He had heard of the abuses and contentions that had arisen among them, first from Apollos ( Acts 19:1 ), and then from a letter they had written him on the subject, and also from some of the "household of Chloe," and from Stephanas and his two friends who had visited him ( 1 Corinthians 1:11 ; 16:17 ). Paul thereupon wrote this letter, for the purpose of checking the factious spirit and correcting the erroneous opinions that had sprung up among them, and remedying the many abuses and disorderly practices that prevailed. Titus and a brother whose name is not given were probably the bearers of the letter ( 2 Corinthians 2:13 ; 2 Corinthians 8:6 2 Corinthians 8:16-18 ).
The epistle may be divided into four parts:
1. The apostle deals with the subject of the lamentable divisions and party strifes that had arisen among them (1co. 1-4).
2. He next treats of certain cases of immorality that had become notorious among them. They had apparently set at nought the very first principles of morality (5; 6).
3. In the third part he discusses various questions of doctrine and of Christian ethics in reply to certain communications they had made to him. He especially rectifies certain flagrant abuses regarding the celebration of the Lord's supper (7-14).
4. The concluding part (15; 16) contains an elaborate defense of the doctrine of the resurrection of the dead, which had been called in question by some among them, followed by some general instructions, intimations, and greetings. This epistle "shows the powerful self-control of the apostle in spite of his physical weakness, his distressed circumstances, his incessant troubles, and his emotional nature. It was written, he tells us, in bitter anguish, 'out of much affliction and pressure of heart...and with streaming eyes' ( 2 Corinthians 2:4 ); yet he restrained the expression of his feelings, and wrote with a dignity and holy calm which he thought most calculated to win back his erring children. It gives a vivid picture of the early church...It entirely dissipates the dream that the apostolic church was in an exceptional condition of holiness of life or purity of doctrine." The apostle in this epistle unfolds and applies great principles fitted to guide the church of all ages in dealing with the same and kindred evils in whatever form they may appear. This is one of the epistles the authenticity of which has never been called in question by critics of any school, so many and so conclusive are the evidences of its Pauline origin. The subscription to this epistle states erroneously in the Authorized Version that it was written at Philippi. This error arose from a mistranslation of 1 Corinthians 16:5 , "For I do pass through Macedonia," which was interpreted as meaning, "I am passing through Macedonia." In 16:8 he declares his intention of remaining some time longer in Ephesus. After that, his purpose is to "pass through Macedonia."
Shortly after writing his first letter to the Corinthians, Paul left Ephesus, where intense excitement had been aroused against him, the evidence of his great success, and proceeded to Macedonia. Pursuing the usual route, he reached Troas, the port of departure for Europe. Here he expected to meet with Titus, whom he had sent from Ephesus to Corinth, with tidings of the effects produced on the church there by the first epistle; but was disappointed ( 1 Corinthians 16:9 ; 2 co 1:8 ; 1 Corinthians 2:12 1 Corinthians 2:13 ). He then left Troas and proceeded to Macedonia; and at Philippi, where he tarried, he was soon joined by Titus ( 2 Corinthians 7:6 2 Corinthians 7:7 ), who brought him good news from Corinth, and also by Timothy. Under the influence of the feelings awakened in his mind by the favourable report which Titus brought back from Corinth, this second epistle was written. It was probably written at Philippi, or, as some think, Thessalonica, early in the year A.D. 58, and was sent to Corinth by Titus. This letter he addresses not only to the church in Corinth, but also to the saints in all Achaia, i.e., in Athens, Cenchrea, and other cities in Greece.
The contents of this epistle may be thus arranged:
1. Paul speaks of his spiritual labours and course of life, and expresses his warm affection toward the Corinthians (2co. 1-7).
2. He gives specific directions regarding the collection that was to be made for their poor brethren in Judea (8; 9).
3. He defends his own apostolic claim (10-13), and justifies himself from the charges and insinuations of the false teacher and his adherents. This epistle, it has been well said, shows the individuallity of the apostle more than any other. "Human weakness, spiritual strength, the deepest tenderness of affection, wounded feeling, sternness, irony, rebuke, impassioned self-vindication, humility, a just self-respect, zeal for the welfare of the weak and suffering, as well as for the progress of the church of Christ and for the spiritual advancement of its members, are all displayed in turn in the course of his appeal."--Lias, Second Corinthians. Of the effects produced on the Corinthian church by this epistle we have no definite information. We know that Paul visited Corinth after he had written it ( Acts 20:2 Acts 20:3 ), and that on that occasion he tarried there for three months. In his letter to Rome, written at this time, he sent salutations from some of the principal members of the church to the Romans.
( Leviticus 11:17 ; Deuteronomy 14:17 ), Heb. shalak, "plunging," or "darting down," (the Phalacrocorax carbo), ranked among the "unclean" birds; of the same family group as the pelican. It is a "plunging" bird, and is common on the coasts and the island seas of Palestine. Some think the Hebrew word should be rendered "gannet" (Sula bassana, "the solan goose"); others that it is the "tern" or "sea swallow," which also frequents the coasts of Palestine as well as the Sea of Galilee and the Jordan valley during several months of the year. But there is no reason to depart from the ordinary rendering.
In Isaiah 34:11 , Zephaniah 2:14 (but in RSV, "pelican") the Hebrew word rendered by this name is ka'ath . It is translated "pelican" (q.v.) in Psalms 102:6 . The word literally means the "vomiter," and the pelican is so called from its vomiting the shells and other things which it has voraciously swallowed. (See .)
The word so rendered (dagan) in Genesis 27:28 Genesis 27:37 , Numbers 18:27 , Deuteronomy 28:51 , Lamentations 2:12 , is a general term representing all the commodities we usually describe by the words corn, grain, seeds, peas, beans. With this corresponds the use of the word in John 12:24 .
In Genesis 41:35 Genesis 41:49 , Proverbs 11:26 , Joel 2:24 ("wheat"), the word thus translated (bar; i.e., "winnowed") means corn purified from chaff. With this corresponds the use of the word in the New Testament ( Matthew 3:12 ; Luke 3:17 ; Acts 7:12 ). In Psalms 65:13 it means "growing corn."
In Genesis 42:1 Genesis 42:2 Genesis 42:19 , Joshua 9:14 , Nehemiah 10:31 ("victuals"), the word (sheber; i.e., "broken," i.e., grist) denotes generally victuals, provisions, and corn as a principal article of food.
From the time of Solomon, corn began to be exported from Palestine ( Ezekiel 27:17 ; Amos 8:5 ). "Plenty of corn" was a part of Issac's blessing conferred upon Jacob ( Genesis 27:28 ; Compare Psalms 65:13 ).
a centurion whose history is narrated in Acts 10 . He was a "devout man," and like the centurion of Capernaum, believed in the God of Israel. His residence at Caesrea probably brought him into contact with Jews who communicated to him their expectations regarding the Messiah; and thus he was prepared to welcome the message Peter brought him. He became the first fruit of the Gentile world to Christ. He and his family were baptized and admitted into the Christian church ( Acts 10:1 Acts 10:44-48 ). (See CENTURION .)
The angle of a house ( Job 1:19 ) or a street ( Proverbs 7:8 ). "Corners" in Nehemiah 9:22 denotes the various districts of the promised land allotted to the Israelites. In Numbers 24:17 , the "corners of Moab" denotes the whole land of Moab. The "corner of a field" ( Leviticus 19:9 ; 23:22 ) is its extreme part, which was not to be reaped. The Jews were prohibited from cutting the "corners," i.e., the extremities, of the hair and whiskers running round the ears ( Leviticus 19:27 ; 21:5 ). The "four corners of the earth" in Isaiah 11:12 and Ezekiel 7:2 denotes the whole land. The "corners of the streets" mentioned in Matthew 6:5 means the angles where streets meet so as to form a square or place of public resort.
Corner-stone ( Job 38:6 ; Isaiah 28:16 ), a block of great importance in binding together the sides of a building. The "head of the corner" ( Psalms 118:22 Psalms 118:23 ) denotes the coping, the "coign of vantage", i.e., the topstone of a building. But the word "corner stone" is sometimes used to denote some person of rank and importance ( Isaiah 28:16 ). It is applied to our Lord, who was set in highest honour ( Matthew 21:42 ). He is also styled "the chief corner stone" ( Ephesians 2:20 ; 1 Peter 2:6-8 ). When ( Zechariah 10:4 ), speaking of Judah, says, "Out of him came forth the corner," he is probably to be understood as ultimately referring to the Messiah as the "corner stone." (See TEMPLE, SOLOMON'S.)
Heb. shophar, "brightness," with reference to the clearness of its sound ( 1 Chronicles 15:28 ; 2 Chr 15:14 ; Psalms 98:6 ; Hosea 5:8 ). It is usually rendered in the Authorized Version "trumpet." It denotes the long and straight horn, about eighteen inches long. The words of Joel, "Blow the trumpet," literally, "Sound the cornet," refer to the festival which was the preparation for the day of Atonement. In Daniel 3:5 Daniel 3:7 Daniel 3:10 Daniel 3:15 , the word (keren) so rendered is a curved horn. The word "cornet" in 2 Samuel 6:5 (Heb. mena'an'im, occurring only here) was some kind of instrument played by being shaken like the Egyptian sistrum, consisting of rings or bells hung loosely on iron rods.
pens or enclosures for flocks ( 2 Chronicles 32:28 , "cotes for flocks;" RSV, "flocks in folds").
1. A booth in a vineyard ( Isaiah 1:8 ); a temporary shed covered with leaves or straw to shelter the watchman that kept the garden. These were slight fabrics, and were removed when no longer needed, or were left to be blown down in winter ( Job 27:18 ).
2. A lodging-place (rendered "lodge" in Isaiah 1:8 ); a slighter structure than the "booth," as the cucumber patch is more temporary than a vineyard ( Isaiah 24:20 ). It denotes a frail structure of boughs supported on a few poles, which is still in use in the East, or a hammock suspended between trees, in which the watchman was accustomed to sleep during summer.
3. In Zephaniah 2:6 it is the rendering of the Hebrew keroth , which some suppose to denote rather "pits" (RSV marg., "caves") or "wells of water," such as shepherds would sink.
( 1 Samuel 13:20 1 Samuel 13:21 ), an agricultural instrument, elsewhere called "ploughshare" ( Isaiah 2:4 ; Micah 4:3 ; Joel 3:10 ). It was the facing-piece of a plough, analogous to the modern coulter.
spoken of counsellors who sat in public trials with the governor of a province ( Acts 25:12 ).
The Jewish councils were the Sanhedrim, or supreme council of the nation, which had subordinate to it smaller tribunals (the "judgment," perhaps, in Matthew 5:21 Matthew 5:22 ) in the cities of Palestine ( Matthew 10:17 ; Mark 13:9 ). In the time of Christ the functions of the Sanhedrim were limited ( John 16:2 ; 2 co. 11:24 ). In Psalms 68:27 the word "council" means simply a company of persons. (RSV marg., "company.")
In ecclesiastical history the word is used to denote an assembly of pastors or bishops for the discussion and regulation of church affairs. The first of these councils was that of the apostles and elders at Jerusalem, of which we have a detailed account in Acts 15 .
an adviser ( Proverbs 11:14 ; 15:22 ), a king's state counsellor ( 2 Samuel 15:12 ). Used once of the Messiah ( Isaiah 9:6 ). In Mark 15:43 , Luke 23:50 , the word probably means a member of the Jewish Sanhedrim.
When David was not permitted to build the temple, he proceeded, among the last acts of his life, with the assistance of Zadok and Ahimelech, to organize the priestly and musical services to be conducted in the house of God.
1. He divided the priests into twenty-four courses ( 1 Chronicles 24:1-19 ), sixteen being of the house of Eleazar and eight of that of Ithamar. Each course was under a head or chief, and ministered for a week, the order being determined by lot.
2. The rest of the 38,000 Levites ( 23:4 ) were divided also into twenty-four courses, each to render some allotted service in public worship: 4,000 in twenty-four courses were set apart as singers and musicians under separate leaders (25); 4,000 as porters or keepers of the doors and gates of the sanctuary ( 26:1-19 ); and 6,000 as officers and judges to see to the administration of the law in all civil and ecclesiastical matters (20-32). This arrangement was re-established by Hezekiah ( 2 Chronicles 31:2 ); and afterwards the four sacerdotal courses which are said to have returned from the Captivity were re-divided into the original number of twenty-four by ( Ezra 6:18 ).
the enclosure of the tabernacle ( Exodus 27:9-19 ; 40:8 ), of the temple ( 1 Kings 6:36 ), of a prison ( Nehemiah 3:25 ), of a private house ( 2 Samuel 17:18 ), and of a king's palace ( 2 Kings 20:4 ).
a contract or agreement between two parties. In the Old Testament the Hebrew word berith is always thus translated. Berith is derived from a root which means "to cut," and hence a covenant is a "cutting," with reference to the cutting or dividing of animals into two parts, and the contracting parties passing between them, in making a covenant ( Genesis 15 ; Jeremiah 34:18 Jeremiah 34:19 ).
The corresponding word in the New Testament Greek is diatheke , which is, however, rendered "testament" generally in the Authorized Version. It ought to be rendered, just as the word berith of the Old Testament, "covenant."
This word is used (1) of a covenant or compact between man and man ( Genesis 21:32 ), or between tribes or nations ( 1 Samuel 11:1 ; Joshua 9:6 Joshua 9:15 ). In entering into a convenant, Jehovah was solemnly called on to witness the transaction ( Genesis 31:50 ), and hence it was called a "covenant of the Lord" ( 1 Samuel 20:8 ). The marriage compact is called "the covenant of God" ( Proverbs 2:17 ), because the marriage was made in God's name. Wicked men are spoken of as acting as if they had made a "covenant with death" not to destroy them, or with hell not to devour them ( Isaiah 28:15 Isaiah 28:18 ).
1. The word is used with reference to God's revelation of himself in the way of promise or of favour to men. Thus God's promise to Noah after the Flood is called a covenant ( Genesis 9 ; Jeremiah 33:20 , "my covenant"). We have an account of God's covernant with Abraham ( Genesis 17 , Compare Leviticus 26:42 ), of the covenant of the priesthood ( Numbers 25:12 Numbers 25:13 ; Deuteronomy 33:9 ; Nehemiah 13:29 ), and of the covenant of Sinai ( Exodus 34:27 Exodus 34:28 ; Leviticus 26:15 ), which was afterwards renewed at different times in the history of Israel ( Deuteronomy 29 ; Joshua 1:24 ; 2 Chr. 15 ; 23 ; 29 ; 34 ; Ezra 10 ; Nehemiah 9 ). In conformity with human custom, God's covenant is said to be confirmed with an oath ( Deuteronomy 4:31 ; Psalms 89:3 ), and to be accompanied by a sign ( Genesis 9 ; 17 ). Hence the covenant is called God's "counsel," "oath," "promise" ( Psalms 89:3 Psalms 89:4 ; 105:8-11 ; Hebrews 6:13-20 ; Luke 1:68-75 ). God's covenant consists wholly in the bestowal of blessing ( Isaiah 59:21 ; Jeremiah 31:33 Jeremiah 31:34 ). The term covenant is also used to designate the regular succession of day and night ( Jeremiah 33:20 ), the Sabbath ( Exodus 31:16 ), circumcision ( Genesis 17:9 Genesis 17:10 ), and in general any ordinance of God ( Jeremiah 34:13 Jeremiah 34:14 ). A "covenant of salt" signifies an everlasting covenant, in the sealing or ratifying of which salt, as an emblem of perpetuity, is used ( Numbers 18:19 ; Leviticus 2:13 ; 2 Chr 13:5 ). COVENANT OF WORKS, the constitution under which Adam was placed at his creation. In this covenant,
2. The contracting parties were (a) God the moral Governor, and (b) Adam, a free moral agent, and representative of all his natural posterity ( Romans 5:12-19 ).
4. The condition was perfect obedience to the law, the test in this case being abstaining from eating the fruit of the "tree of knowledge," etc.
5. The penalty was death ( Genesis 2:16 Genesis 2:17 ). This covenant is also called a covenant of nature, as made with man in his natural or unfallen state; a covenant of life, because "life" was the promise attached to obedience; and a legal covenant, because it demanded perfect obedience to the law. The "tree of life" was the outward sign and seal of that life which was promised in the covenant, and hence it is usually called the seal of that covenant. This covenant is abrogated under the gospel, inasmuch as Christ has fulfilled all its conditions in behalf of his people, and now offers salvation on the condition of faith. It is still in force, however, as it rests on the immutable justice of God, and is binding on all who have not fled to Christ and accepted his righteousness. CONVENANT OF GRACE, the eternal plan of redemption entered into by the three persons of the Godhead, and carried out by them in its several parts. In it the Father represented the Godhead in its indivisible sovereignty, and the Son his people as their surety ( John 17:4 John 17:6 John 17:9 ; Isaiah 42:6 ; Psalms 89:3 ). The conditions of this covenant were,
6. On the part of the Father (a) all needful preparation to the Son for the accomplishment of his work ( Hebrews 10:5 ; Isaiah 42:1-7 ); (b) support in the work ( Luke 22:43 ); and (c) a glorious reward in the exaltation of Christ when his work was done (Phil 2:6-11 ), his investiture with universal dominion ( John 5:22 ; Psalms 110:1 ), his having the administration of the covenant committed into his hands ( Matthew 28:18 ; John 1:12 ; 17:2 ; Acts 2:33 ), and in the final salvation of all his people ( Isaiah 35:10 ; Isaiah 53:10 Isaiah 53:11 ; Jeremiah 31:33 ; Titus 1:2 ).
7. On the part of the Son the conditions were (a) his becoming incarnate ( Galatians 4:4 Galatians 4:5 ); and (b) as the second Adam his representing all his people, assuming their place and undertaking all their obligations under the violated covenant of works; (c) obeying the law ( Psalms 40:8 ; Isaiah 42:21 ; John 9:4 John 9:5 ), and (d) suffering its penalty ( Isaiah 53 ; 2 co. 5:21 ; Galatians 3:13 ), in their stead. Christ, the mediator of, fulfils all its conditions in behalf of his people, and dispenses to them all its blessings. In Hebrews 8:6 ; 9:15 ; 12:24 , this title is given to Christ. (See DISPENSATION .)
occurs only in Genesis 20:16 . In the Revised Version the rendering is "it (i.e., Abimelech's present of 1,000 pieces of silver to Abraham) is for thee a covering of the eyes." This has been regarded as an implied advice to Sarah to conform to the custom of married women, and wear a complete veil, covering the eyes as well as the rest of the face.
a strong desire after the possession of worldly things ( Colossians 3:5 ; Ephesians 5:5 ; Hebrews 13:5 ; 1 Timothy 6:9 1 Timothy 6:10 ; Matthew 6:20 ). It assumes sometimes the more aggravated form of avarice, which is the mark of cold-hearted worldliness.
A cow and her calf were not to be killed on the same day ( Leviticus 22:28 ; Exodus 23:19 ; Deuteronomy 22:6 Deuteronomy 22:7 ). The reason for this enactment is not given. A state of great poverty is described in the words of Isaiah 7:21-25 , where, instead of possessing great resources, a man shall depend for the subsistence of himself and his family on what a single cow and two sheep could yield.
( Isaiah 38:14 ; Jeremiah 8:7 ). In both of these passages the Authorized Version has reversed the Hebrew order of the words. "Crane or swallow" should be "swallow or crane," as in the Revised Version. The rendering is there correct. The Hebrew for crane is 'agur , the Grus cincerea, a bird well known in Palestine. It is migratory, and is distinguished by its loud voice, its cry being hoarse and melancholy.
"In the beginning" God created, i.e., called into being, all things out of nothing. This creative act on the part of God was absolutely free, and for infinitely wise reasons. The cause of all things exists only in the will of God. The work of creation is attributed (1) to the Godhead ( Genesis 1:1 Genesis 1:26 ); (2) to the Father ( 1 Corinthians 8:6 ); (3) to the Son ( John 1:3 ; Colossians 1:16 Colossians 1:17 ); (4) to the Holy Spirit ( Genesis 1:2 ; Job 26:13 ; Psalms 104:30 ). The fact that he is the Creator distinguishes Jehovah as the true God ( Isaiah 37:16 ; Isaiah 40:12 Isaiah 40:13 ; 54:5 ; Psalms 96:5 ; Jeremiah 10:11 Jeremiah 10:12 ). The one great end in the work of creation is the manifestation of the glory of the Creator ( Colossians 1:16 ; Revelation 4:11 ; Romans 11:36 ). God's works, equally with God's word, are a revelation from him; and between the teachings of the one and those of the other, when rightly understood, there can be no contradiction.
Traditions of the creation, disfigured by corruptions, are found among the records of ancient Eastern nations. (See ACCAD .) A peculiar interest belongs to the traditions of the Accadians, the primitive inhabitants of the plains of Lower Mesopotamia. These within the last few years have been brought to light in the tablets and cylinders which have been rescued from the long-buried palaces and temples of Assyria. They bear a remarkable resemblance to the record of Genesis.
increasing, probably one of the seventy disciples of Christ. He was one of Paul's assistants ( 2 Timothy 4:10 ), probably a Christian of Rome.
now called Candia, one of the largest islands in the Meditterranean, about 140 miles long and 35 broad. It was at one time a very prosperous and populous island, having a "hundred cities." The character of the people is described in Paul's quotation from "one of their own poets" (Epimenides) in his epistle to Titus: "The Cretans are alway liars, evil beasts, slow bellies" ( Titus 1:12 ). Jews from Crete were in Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost ( Acts 2:11 ). The island was visited by Paul on his voyage to Rome ( Acts 27 ). Here Paul subsequently left ( Titus 1:5 ) "to ordain elders." Some have supposed that it was the original home of the Caphtorim (q.v.) or Philistines.
See COLOUR .
( Isaiah 3:22 ; RSV, "satchel"), some kind of female ornament, probably like the modern reticule. The Hebrew word harit properly signifies pouch or casket or purse. It is rendered "bag" in 2 Kings 5:23 .
in the New Testament the instrument of crucifixion, and hence used for the crucifixion of Christ itself ( Ephesians 2:16 ; Hebrews 12:2 ; 1 Corinthians 1:17 1 Corinthians 1:18 ; Galatians 5:11 ; Galatians 6:12 Galatians 6:14 ; Phil 3:18 ). The word is also used to denote any severe affliction or trial ( Matthew 10:38 ; 16:24 ; Mark 8:34 ; 10:21 ).
The forms in which the cross is represented are these:
1. The crux simplex (I), a "single piece without transom."
2. The crux decussata (X), or St. Andrew's cross.
3. The crux commissa (T), or St. Anthony's cross.
4. The crux immissa (t), or Latin cross, which was the kind of cross on which our Saviour died. Above our Lord's head, on the projecting beam, was placed the "title." (See CRUCIFIXION .)
After the conversion, so-called, of Constantine the Great (B.C. 313), the cross first came into use as an emblem of Christianity. He pretended at a critical moment that he saw a flaming cross in the heavens bearing the inscription, "In hoc signo vinces", i.e., By this sign thou shalt conquer, and that on the following night Christ himself appeared and ordered him to take for his standard the sign of this cross. In this form a new standard, called the Labarum, was accordingly made, and borne by the Roman armies. It remained the standard of the Roman army till the downfall of the Western empire. It bore the embroidered monogram of Christ, i.e., the first two Greek letters of his name, X and P (chi and rho), with the Alpha and Omega. (See A .)
1. Denotes the plate of gold in the front of the high priest's mitre ( Exodus 29:6 ; 39:30 ). The same Hebrew word so rendered (ne'zer) denotes the diadem worn by Saul in battle ( 2 Samuel 1:10 ), and also that which was used at the coronation of Joash ( 2 Kings 11:12 ).
2. The more general name in Hebrew for a crown is 'atarah , meaning a "circlet." This is used of crowns and head ornaments of divers kinds, including royal crowns. Such was the crown taken from the king of Ammon by David ( 2 Samuel 12:30 ). The crown worn by the Assyrian kings was a high mitre, sometimes adorned with flowers. There are sculptures also representing the crowns worn by the early Egyptian and Persian kings. Sometimes a diadem surrounded the royal head-dress of two or three fillets. This probably signified that the wearer had dominion over two or three countries. In Revelation 12:3 ; 13:1 , we read of "many crowns," a token of extended dominion.
3. The ancient Persian crown ( Esther 1:11 ; 2:17 ; 6:8 ) was called kether ; i.e., "a chaplet," a high cap or tiara. Crowns were worn sometimes to represent honour and power ( Ezekiel 23:42 ). They were worn at marriages (Cant 3:11 ; Isaiah 61:10 , "ornaments;" RSV, "a garland"), and at feasts and public festivals. The crown was among the Romans and Greeks a symbol of victory and reward. The crown or wreath worn by the victors in the Olympic games was made of leaves of the wild olive; in the Pythian games, of laurel; in the Nemean games, of parsley; and in the Isthmian games, of the pine. The Romans bestowed the "civic crown" on him who saved the life of a citizen. It was made of the leaves of the oak. In opposition to all these fading crowns the apostles speak of the incorruptible crown, the crown of life ( James 1:12 ; Revelation 2:10 ) "that fadeth not away" ( 1 Peter 5:4 , Gr. amarantinos; comp 1:4 ). Probably the word "amaranth" was applied to flowers we call "everlasting," the "immortal amaranth."
our Lord was crowned with a, in mockery by the Romans ( Matthew 27:29 ). The object of Pilate's guard in doing this was probably to insult, and not specially to inflict pain. There is nothing to show that the shrub thus used was, as has been supposed, the spina Christi, which could have been easily woven into a wreath. It was probably the thorny nabk, which grew abundantly round about Jerusalem, and whose flexible, pliant, and round branches could easily be platted into the form of a crown. (See THORN,3.)
a common mode of punishment among heathen nations in early times. It is not certain whether it was known among the ancient Jews; probably it was not. The modes of capital punishment according to the Mosaic law were, by the sword ( Exodus 21 ), strangling, fire ( Leviticus 20 ), and stoning ( Deuteronomy 21 ).
This was regarded as the most horrible form of death, and to a Jew it would acquire greater horror from the curse in Deuteronomy 21:23 .
This punishment began by subjecting the sufferer to scourging. In the case of our Lord, however, his scourging was rather before the sentence was passed upon him, and was inflicted by Pilate for the purpose, probably, of exciting pity and procuring his escape from further punishment ( Luke 23:22 ; John 19:1 ).
The condemned one carried his own cross to the place of execution, which was outside the city, in some conspicuous place set apart for the purpose. Before the nailing to the cross took place, a medicated cup of vinegar mixed with gall and myrrh (the sopor) was given, for the purpose of deadening the pangs of the sufferer. Our Lord refused this cup, that his senses might be clear ( Matthew 27:34 ). The spongeful of vinegar, sour wine, posca, the common drink of the Roman soldiers, which was put on a hyssop stalk and offered to our Lord in contemptuous pity ( Matthew 27:48 ; Luke 23:36 ), he tasted to allay the agonies of his thirst ( John 19:29 ). The accounts given of the crucifixion of our Lord are in entire agreement with the customs and practices of the Roman in such cases. He was crucified between two "malefactors" ( Isaiah 53:12 ; Luke 23:32 ), and was watched by a party of four soldiers ( John 19:23 ; Matthew 27:36 Matthew 27:54 ), with their centurion. The "breaking of the legs" of the malefactors was intended to hasten death, and put them out of misery ( John 19:31 ); but the unusual rapidity of our Lord's death ( 19:33 ) was due to his previous sufferings and his great mental anguish. The omission of the breaking of his legs was the fulfilment of a type ( Exodus 12:46 ). He literally died of a broken heart, a ruptured heart, and hence the flowing of blood and water from the wound made by the soldier's spear ( John 19:34 ). Our Lord uttered seven memorable words from the cross, namely, (1) Luke 23:34 ; (2) 23:43 ; (3) John 19:26 ; (4) Matthew 27:46 , Mark 15:34 ; (5) John 19:28 ; John 19:30 ; (7) Luke 23:46 .
a utensil; a flask or cup for holding water ( 1 Samuel 26:11 1 Samuel 26:12 1 Samuel 26:16 ; 1 Kings 19:6 ) or oil ( 1 Kings 17:12 1 Kings 17:14 1 Kings 17:16 ). In 1 Kings 14:3 the word there so rendered means properly a bottle, as in Jeremiah 19:1 Jeremiah 19:10 , or pitcher. In 2 Kings 2:20 , a platter or flat metal saucer is intended. The Hebrew word here used is translated "dish" in 21:13 ; "pans," in 2 Chronicles 35:13 ; and "bosom," in Proverbs 19:24 ; 26:15 (RSV, "dish").
( Ezekiel 1:22 , with the epithet "terrible," as dazzling the spectators with its brightness). The word occurs in Revelation 4:6 ; 21:11 ; 22:1 . It is a stone of the flint order, the most refined kind of quartz. The Greek word here used means also literally "ice." The ancients regarded the crystal as only pure water congealed into extreme hardness by great length of time.
Heb. 'ammah; i.e., "mother of the arm," the fore-arm, is a word derived from the Latin cubitus, the lower arm. It is difficult to determine the exact length of this measure, from the uncertainty whether it included the entire length from the elbow to the tip of the longest finger, or only from the elbow to the root of the hand at the wrist. The probability is that the longer was the original cubit. The common computation as to the length of the cubit makes it 20.24 inches for the ordinary cubit, and 21.888 inches for the sacred one. This is the same as the Egyptian measurements.
A rod or staff the measure of a cubit is called in Judges 3:16 gomed , which literally means a "cut," something "cut off." The LXX. and Vulgate render it "span."
(Heb. shahaph), from a root meaning "to be lean; slender." This bird is mentioned only in Leviticus 11:16 and Deuteronomy 14:15 (RSV, "seamew"). Some have interpreted the Hebrew word by "petrel" or "shearwater" (Puffinus cinereus), which is found on the coast of Syria; others think it denotes the "sea-gull" or "seamew." The common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) feeds on reptiles and large insects. It is found in Asia and Africa as well as in Europe. It only passes the winter in Palestine. The Arabs suppose it to utter the cry Yakub_, and hence they call it _tir el-Yakub ; i.e., "Jacob's bird."
(Heb. plur. kishshuim; i.e., "hard," "difficult" of digestion, only in Numbers 11:5 ). This vegetable is extensively cultivated in the East at the present day, as it appears to have been in earlier times among the Hebrews. It belongs to the gourd family of plants. In the East its cooling pulp and juice are most refreshing. "We need not altogether wonder that the Israelites, wearily marching through the arid solitudes of the Sinaitic peninsula, thought more of the cucumbers and watermelons of which they had had no lack in Egypt, rather than of the cruel bondage which was the price of these luxuries." Groser's Scripture Natural History.
Isaiah speaks of a "lodge" ( 1:8 ; Heb. sukkah), i.e., a shed or edifice more solid than a booth, for the protection throughout the season from spring to autumn of the watchers in a "garden of cucumbers."
(Heb. kammon; i.e., a "condiment"), the fruit or seed of an umbelliferous plant, the Cuminum sativum, still extensively cultivated in the East. Its fruit is mentioned in Isaiah 28:25 Isaiah 28:27 . In the New Testament it is mentioned in Matthew 23:23 , where our Lord pronounces a "woe" on the scribes and Pharisees, who were zealous in paying tithes of "mint and anise and cummin," while they omitted the weightier matters of the law." "It is used as a spice, both bruised, to mix with bread, and also boiled, in the various messes and stews which compose an Oriental banquet." Tristram, Natural History.
a wine-cup ( Genesis 40:11 Genesis 40:21 ), various forms of which are found on Assyrian and Egyptian monuments. All Solomon's drinking vessels were of gold ( 1 Kings 10: : 21 ). The cups mentioned in the New Testament were made after Roman and Greek models, and were sometimes of gold ( Revelation 17:4 ).
The art of divining by means of a cup was practiced in Egypt ( Genesis 44:2-17 ), and in the East generally.
The "cup of salvation" ( Psalms 116:13 ) is the cup of thanksgiving for the great salvation. The "cup of consolation" ( Jeremiah 16:7 ) refers to the custom of friends sending viands and wine to console relatives in mourning ( Proverbs 31:6 ). In 1 Corinthians 10:16 , the "cup of blessing" is contrasted with the "cup of devils" ( 1 Corinthians 10:21 ). The sacramental cup is the "cup of blessing," because of blessing pronounced over it ( Matthew 26:27 ; Luke 22:17 ). The "portion of the cup" ( Psalms 11:6 ; 16:5 ) denotes one's condition of life, prosperous or adverse. A "cup" is also a type of sensual allurement ( Jeremiah 51:7 ; Proverbs 23:31 ; Revelation 17:4 ). We read also of the "cup of astonishment," the "cup of trembling," and the "cup of God's wrath" ( Psalms 75:8 ; Isaiah 51:17 ; Jeremiah 25:15 ; Lamentations 4:21 ; Ezekiel 23:32 ; Revelation 16:19 ; Compare Matthew 26:39 Matthew 26:42 ; John 18:11 ). The cup is also the symbol of death ( Matthew 16:28 ; Mark 9:1 ; Hebrews 2:9 ).
an officer of high rank with Egyptian, Persian, Assyrian, and Jewish monarchs. The cup-bearer of the king of Egypt is mentioned in connection with Joseph's history ( Genesis 40:1-21 ; 41:9 ). Rabshakeh (q.v.) was cup-bearer in the Assyrian court ( 2 Kings 18:17 ). Nehemiah filled this office to the king of Persia ( Nehemiah 1:11 ). We read also of Solomon's cup-bearers ( 1 Kings 10:5 ; 2 Chr 9:4 ).
( Acts 19:19 ), magical arts; jugglery practised by the Ephesian conjurers. Ephesus was noted for its wizard and the "Ephesian spells;" i.e., charms or scraps of parchment written over with certain formula, which were worn as a safeguard against all manner of evils. The more important and powerful of these charms were written out in books which circulated among the exorcists, and were sold at a great price.
denounced by God against the serpent ( Genesis 3:14 ), and against Cain ( 4:11 ). These divine maledictions carried their effect with them. Prophetical curses were sometimes pronounced by holy men ( Genesis 9:25 ; 49:7 ; Deuteronomy 27:15 ; Joshua 6:26 ). Such curses are not the consequence of passion or revenge, they are predictions.
No one on pain of death shall curse father or mother ( Exodus 21:17 ), nor the prince of his people ( 22:28 ), nor the deaf ( Leviticus 19:14 ). Cursing God or blaspheming was punishable by death ( Leviticus 24:10-16 ). The words "curse God and die" (RSV, "renounce God and die"), used by Job's wife ( Job 2:9 ), have been variously interpreted. Perhaps they simply mean that as nothing but death was expected, God would by this cursing at once interpose and destroy Job, and so put an end to his sufferings.
2. The sacred curtain, separating the holy of holies from the sanctuary, is designated by a different Hebrew word (peroketh). It is described as a "veil of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen of cunning work" ( Exodus 26:31 ; Leviticus 16:2 ; Numbers 18:7 ).
3. "Stretcheth out the heavens as a curtain" ( Isaiah 40:22 ), is an expression used with reference to the veil or awning which Orientals spread for a screen over their courts in summer. According to the prophet, the heavens are spread over our heads as such an awning. Similar expressions are found in Ps 104:2l; Compare Isaiah 44:24 ; Job 9:8 .
1. A son, probably the eldest, of Ham, and the father of Nimrod ( Genesis 10:8 ; 1 Chronicles 1:10 ). From him the land of Cush seems to have derived its name. The question of the precise locality of the land of Cush has given rise to not a little controversy. The second river of Paradise surrounded the whole land of Cush ( Genesis 2:13 , RSV). The term Cush is in the Old Testament generally applied to the countries south of the Israelites. It was the southern limit of Egypt ( Ezekiel 29:10 , A.V. "Ethiopia," Heb. Cush), with which it is generally associated ( Psalms 68:31 ; Isaiah 18:1 ; Jeremiah 46:9 , etc.). It stands also associated with Elam ( Isaiah 11:11 ), with Persia (Ezek. 38:5 ), and with the Sabeans ( Isaiah 45:14 ). From these facts it has been inferred that Cush included Arabia and the country on the west coast of the Red Sea. Rawlinson takes it to be the country still known as Khuzi-stan, on the east side of the Lower Tigris. But there are intimations which warrant the conclusion that there was also a Cush in Africa, the Ethiopia (so called by the Greeks) of Africa. Ezekiel speaks ( 29:10 ; comp 30:4-6 ) of it as lying south of Egypt. It was the country now known to us as Nubia and Abyssinia ( Isaiah 18:1 ; Zephaniah 3:10 , Heb. Cush). In ancient Egyptian inscriptions Ethiopia is termed Kesh . The Cushites appear to have spread along extensive tracts, stretching from the Upper Nile to the Euphrates and Tigris. At an early period there was a stream of migration of Cushites "from Ethiopia, properly so called, through Arabia, Babylonia, and Persia, to Western India." The Hamite races, soon after their arrival in Africa, began to spread north, east, and west. Three branches of the Cushite or Ethiopian stock, moving from Western Asia, settled in the regions contiguous to the Persian Gulf. One branch, called the Cossaeans, settled in the mountainous district on the east of the Tigris, known afterwards as Susiana; another occupied the lower regions of the Euphrates and the Tigris; while a third colonized the southern shores and islands of the gulf, whence they afterwards emigrated to the Mediterranean and settled on the coast of Palestine as the Phoenicians. Nimrod was a great Cushite chief. He conquered the Accadians, a Tauranian race, already settled in Mesopotamia, and founded his kingdom, the Cushites mingling with the Accads, and so forming the Chaldean nation.
2. A Benjamite of this name is mentioned in the title of Psalms 7 . "Cush was probably a follower of Saul, the head of his tribe, and had sought the friendship of David for the purpose of 'rewarding evil to him that was at peace with him.'"
probably a poetic or prolonged name of the land of Cush, the Arabian Cush ( Habakkuk 3:7 ). Some have, however, supposed this to be the same as Chushan-rishathaim ( Judges 3:8 Judges 3:10 ), i.e., taking the latter part of the name as a title or local appellation, Chushan "of the two iniquities" (= oppressing Israel, and provoking them to idolatry), a Mesopotamian king, identified by Rawlinson with Asshur-ris-ilim (the father of Tiglathpileser I.); but incorrectly, for the empire of Assyria was not yet founded. He held Israel in bondage for eight years.
1. The messenger sent by Joab to David to announce his victory over Absalom ( 2 Samuel 18:32 ).
2. The father of Shelemiah ( Jeremiah 36:14 ).
3. Son of Gedaliah, and father of the prophet ( Zephaniah 1:1 ).
4. Moses married a Cushite woman ( Numbers 12:1 ). From this circumstance some have supposed that Zipporah was meant, and hence that Midian was Cush.
a tax imposed by the Romans. The tax-gatherers were termed publicans (q.v.), who had their stations at the gates of cities, and in the public highways, and at the place set apart for that purpose, called the "receipt of custom" (Matt.9: 9; Mark 2:14 ), where they collected the money that was to be paid on certain goods (Matt.17:25). These publicans were tempted to exact more from the people than was lawful, and were, in consequence of their extortions, objects of great hatred. The Pharisees would have no intercourse with them (Matt.5:46,47; Mark 9:10 Mark 9:11 ).
A tax or tribute (q.v.) of half a shekel was annually paid by every adult Jew for the temple. It had to be paid in Jewish coin ( Matthew 22:17-19 ; Mark 12:14 Mark 12:15 ). Money-changers (q.v.) were necessary, to enable the Jews who came up to Jerusalem at the feasts to exchange their foreign coin for Jewish money; but as it was forbidden by the law to carry on such a traffic for emolument ( Deuteronomy 23:19 Deuteronomy 23:20 ), our Lord drove them from the temple ( Matthew 21:12 : Mark 11:15 ).
one of the Babylonian cities or districts from which Shalmaneser transplanted certain colonists to Samaria ( 2 Kings 17:24 ). Some have conjectured that the "Cutheans" were identical with the "Cossaeans" who inhabited the hill-country to the north of the river Choaspes. Cuthah is now identified with Tell Ibrahim, 15 miles north-east of Babylon.
the flesh in various ways was an idolatrous practice, a part of idol-worship ( Deuteronomy 14:1 ; 1 Kings 18:28 ). The Israelites were commanded not to imitate this practice ( Leviticus 19:28 ; 21:5 ; Deuteronomy 14:1 ). The tearing of the flesh from grief and anguish of spirit in mourning for the dead was regarded as a mark of affection ( Jeremiah 16:6 ; 41:5 ; 48:37 ).
Allusions are made in ( Revelation 13:16 ; 17:5 ; 19:20 ) to the practice of printing marks on the body, to indicate allegiance to a deity. We find also references to it, through in a different direction, by Paul ( Galatians 6 ; 7 ) and by ( Ezekiel 9:4 ). (See HAIR .)
(Heb. tzeltzelim, from a root meaning to "tinkle"), musical instruments, consisting of two convex pieces of brass one held in each hand, which were clashed together to produce a loud clanging sound; castanets; "loud cymbals." "Highsounding cymbals" consisted of two larger plates, one held also in each hand ( 2 Samuel 6:5 ; Psalms 150:5 ; 1 Chronicles 13:8 ; 1 Chronicles 15:16 1 Chronicles 15:19 1 Chronicles 15:28 ; 1 Corinthians 13:1 ).
(Heb. tirzah, "hardness"), mentioned only in Isaiah 44:14 (RSV, "holm tree"). The oldest Latin version translates this word by ilex, i.e., the evergreen oak, which may possibly have been the tree intended; but there is great probability that our Authorized Version is correct in rendering it "cypress." This tree grows abundantly on the mountains of Hermon. Its wood is hard and fragrant, and very durable. Its foliage is dark and gloomy. It is an evergreen (Cupressus sempervirens). "Throughout the East it is used as a funereal tree; and its dark, tall, waving plumes render it peculiarly appropriate among the tombs."
one of the largest islands of the Mediterranean, about 148 miles long and 40 broad. It is distant about 60 miles from the Syrian coast. It was the "Chittim" of the Old Testament ( Numbers 24:24 ). The Greek colonists gave it the name of Kypros, from the cyprus, i.e., the henna (see CAMPHIRE), which grew on this island. It was originally inhabited by Phoenicians. In B.C. 477 it fell under the dominion of the Greeks; and became a Roman province B.C. 58. In ancient times it was a centre of great commercial activity. Corn and wine and oil were produced here in the greatest perfection. It was rich also in timber and in mineral wealth.
It is first mentioned in the New Testament ( Acts 4:36 ) as the native place of Barnabas. It was the scene of Paul's first missionary labours ( 13:4-13 ), when he and Barnabas and John Mark were sent forth by the church of Antioch. It was afterwards visited by Barnabas and Mark alone ( 15:39 ). Mnason, an "old disciple," probaly one of the converts of the day of Pentecost belonging to this island, is mentioned ( 21:16 ). It is also mentioned in connection with the voyages of Paul ( Acts 21:3 ; 27:4 ). After being under the Turks for three hundred years, it was given up to the British Government in 1878.
a city (now Tripoli) in Upper Libya, North Africa, founded by a colony of Greeks (B.C. 630). It contained latterly a large number of Jews, who were introduced into the city by Ptolemy, the son of Lagus, because he thought they would contribute to the security of the place. They increased in number and influence; and we are thus prepared for the frequent references to them in connection with the early history of Christianity. Simon, who bore our Lord's cross, was a native of this place ( Matthew 27:32 ; Mark 15:21 ). Jews from Cyrene were in Jerusalem at Pentecost ( Acts 2:10 ); and Cyrenian Jews had a synagogue at Jerusalem ( 6:9 ). Converts belonging to Cyrene contributed to the formation of the first Gentile church at Antioch ( 11:20 ). Among "the prophets and teachers" who "ministered to the Lord at Antioch" was Lucius of Cyrene ( 13:1 ).
the Grecized form of Quirinus. His full name was Publius Sulpicius Quirinus. Recent historical investigation has proved that Quirinus was governor of Cilicia, which was annexed to Syria at the time of our Lord's birth. Cilicia, which he ruled, being a province of Syria, he is called the governor, which he was de jure, of Syria. Some ten years afterwards he was appointed governor of Syria for the second time. During his tenure of office, at the time of our Lord's birth ( Luke 2:2 ), a "taxing" (RSV, "enrolment;" i.e., a registration) of the people was "first made;" i.e., was made for the first time under his government. (See TAXING .)
(Heb. Ko'resh), the celebrated "King of Persia" (Elam) who was conqueror of Babylon, and issued the decree of liberation to the Jews ( Ezra 1:1 Ezra 1:2 ). He was the son of Cambyses, the prince of Persia, and was born about B.C. 599. In the year B.C. 559 he became king of Persia, the kingdom of Media being added to it partly by conquest. Cyrus was a great military leader, bent on universal conquest. Babylon fell before his army (B.C. 538) on the night of Belshazzar's feast ( Daniel 5:30 ), and then the ancient dominion of Assyria was also added to his empire (cf., "Go up, O Elam", Isa.21:2).
Hitherto the great kings of the earth had only oppressed the Jews. Cyrus was to them as a "shepherd" ( Isaiah 44:28 ; 45:1 ). God employed him in doing service to his ancient people. He may posibly have gained, through contact with the Jews, some knowledge of their religion.
The "first year of Cyrus" ( Ezra 1:1 ) is not the year of his elevation to power over the Medes, nor over the Persians, nor the year of the fall of Babylon, but the year succeeding the two years during which "Darius the Mede" was viceroy in Babylon after its fall. At this time only (B.C. 536) Cyrus became actual king over Palestine, which became a part of his Babylonian empire. The edict of Cyrus for the rebuilding of Jerusalem marked a great epoch in the history of the Jewish people ( 2 Chronicles 36:22 2 Chronicles 36:23 ; Ezra 1:1-4 ; 4:3 ; 5:13-17 ; 6:3-5 ).
This decree was discovered "at Achmetha [RSV marg., "Ecbatana"], in the palace that is in the province of the Medes" ( Ezra 6:2 ). A chronicle drawn up just after the conquest of Babylonia by Cyrus, gives the history of the reign of Nabonidus (Nabunahid), the last king of Babylon, and of the fall of the Babylonian empire. In B.C. 538 there was a revolt in Southern Babylonia, while the army of Cyrus entered the country from the north. In June the Babylonian army was completely defeated at Opis, and immediately afterwards Sippara opened its gates to the conqueror. Gobryas (Ugbaru), the governor of Kurdistan, was then sent to Babylon, which surrendered "without fighting," and the daily services in the temples continued without a break. In October, Cyrus himself arrived, and proclaimed a general amnesty, which was communicated by Gobryas to "all the province of Babylon," of which he had been made governor. Meanwhile, Nabonidus, who had concealed himself, was captured, but treated honourably; and when his wife died, Cambyses, the son of Cyrus, conducted the funeral. Cyrus now assumed the title of "king of Babylon," claimed to be the descendant of the ancient kings, and made rich offerings to the temples. At the same time he allowed the foreign populations who had been deported to Babylonia to return to their old homes, carrying with them the images of their gods. Among these populations were the Jews, who, as they had no images, took with them the sacred vessels of the temple.