Easton's Bible Dictionary
Bildad — By-word
son of contention, one of Job's friends. He is called "the Shuhite," probably as belonging to Shuah, a district in Arabia, in which Shuah, the sixth son of Abraham by Keturah, settled ( Genesis 25:2 ). He took part in each of the three controversies into which Job's friends entered with him ( Job 8:1 ; 18:1 ; 25:1 ), and delivered three speeches, very severe and stern in their tone, although less violent than those of Zophar, but more so than those of Eliphaz.
1. The head of the fifteenth sacerdotal course for the temple service ( 1 Chronicles 24:14 ).
faltering; bashful, Rachel's handmaid, whom she gave to Jacob ( Genesis 29:29 ). She was the mother of Dan and Naphtali ( Genesis 30:3-8 ). Reuben was cursed by his father for committing adultry with her ( 35:22 ; 49:4 ). He was deprived of the birth-right, which was given to the sons of Joseph.
Birds are divided in the Mosaic law into two classes, (1) the clean ( Leviticus 1:14-17 ; 5:7-10 ; 14:4-7 ), which were offered in sacrifice; and (2) the unclean ( Leviticus 11:13-20 ). When offered in sacrifice, they were not divided as other victims were ( Genesis 15:10 ). They are mentioned also as an article of food ( Deuteronomy 14:11 ). The art of snaring wild birds is referred to ( Psalms 124:7 ; Proverbs 1:17 ; 7:23 ; Jeremiah 5:27 ). Singing birds are mentioned in Psalms 104:12 ; Eccl 12:4 . Their timidity is alluded to ( Hosea 11:11 ). The reference in Psalms 84:3 to the swallow and the sparrow may be only a comparison equivalent to, "What her house is to the sparrow, and her nest to the swallow, that thine altars are to my soul."
son of wickedness, a king of Gomorrah whom Abraham succoured in the invasion of Chedorlaomer ( Genesis 14:2 ).
As soon as a child was born it was washed, and rubbed with salt ( Ezekiel 16:4 ), and then swathed with bandages ( Job 38:9 ; Luke 2:7 Luke 2:12 ). A Hebrew mother remained forty days in seclusion after the birth of a son, and after the birth of a daughter double that number of days. At the close of that period she entered into the tabernacle or temple and offered up a sacrifice of purification ( Leviticus 12:1-8 ; Luke 2:22 ). A son was circumcised on the eighth day after his birth, being thereby consecrated to God ( Genesis 17:10-12 ; Compare Romans 4:11 ). Seasons of misfortune are likened to the pains of a woman in travail, and seasons of prosperity to the joy that succeeds child-birth ( Isaiah 13:8 ; Jeremiah 4:31 ; John 16:21 John 16:22 ). The natural birth is referred to as the emblem of the new birth ( John 3:3-8 ; Galatians 6:15 ; Titus 3:5 , etc.).
The observance of birth-days was common in early times ( Job 1:4 Job 1:13 Job 1:18 ). They were specially celebrated in the land of Egypt ( Genesis 40:20 ). There is no recorded instance in Scripture of the celebration of birth-days among the Jews. On the occasion of Herod's birth-day John the Baptist was beheaded ( Matthew 14:6 ).
1. This word denotes the special privileges and advantages belonging to the first-born son among the Jews. He became the priest of the family. Thus Reuben was the first-born of the patriarchs, and so the priesthood of the tribes belonged to him. That honour was, however, transferred by God from Reuben to Levi ( Numbers 3:12 Numbers 3:13 ; 8:18 ).
2. The first-born son had allotted to him also a double portion of the paternal inheritance ( Deuteronomy 21:15-17 ). Reuben was, because of his undutiful conduct, deprived of his birth-right ( Genesis 49:4 ; 1 Chronicles 5:1 ). Esau transferred his birth-right to Jacob ( Genesis 25:33 ).
3. The first-born inherited the judicial authority of his father, whatever it might be ( 2 Chronicles 21:3 ). By divine appointment, however, David excluded Adonijah in favour of Solomon.
4. The Jews attached a sacred importance to the rank of "first-born" and "first-begotten" as applied to the Messiah ( Romans 8:29 ; Colossians 1:18 ; Hebrews 1:4-6 ). As first-born he has an inheritance superior to his brethren, and is the alone true priest.
an overseer. In apostolic times, it is quite manifest that there was no difference as to order between bishops and elders or presbyters ( Acts 20:17-28 ; 1 Peter 5:1 1 Peter 5:2 ; Phil 1:1 ; 1 Timothy 3 ). The term bishop is never once used to denote a different office from that of elder or presbyter. These different names are simply titles of the same office, "bishop" designating the function, namely, that of oversight, and "presbyter" the dignity appertaining to the office. Christ is figuratively called "the bishop [episcopos] of souls" ( 1 Peter 2:25 ).
the curb put into the mouths of horses to restrain them. The Hebrew word (metheg) so rendered in Psalms 32:9 is elsewhere translated "bridle" ( 2 Kings 19:28 ; Proverbs 26:3 ; Isaiah 37:29 ). Bits were generally made of bronze or iron, but sometimes also of gold or silver. In James 3:3 the Authorized Version translates the Greek word by "bits," but the Revised Version by "bridles."
the broken or divided place, a district in the Arabah or Jordan valley, on the east of the river ( 2 Samuel 2:29 ). It was probably the designation of the region in general, which is broken and intersected by ravines.
a province in Asia Minor, to the south of the Euxine and Propontis. Christian congregations were here formed at an early time ( 1 Peter 1:1 ). Paul was prevented by the Spirit from entering this province ( Acts 16:7 ). It is noted in church history as the province ruled over by Pliny as Roman proconsul, who was perplexed as to the course he should take with the numerous Christians brought before his tribunal on account of their profession of Christianity and their conduct, and wrote to Trajan, the emperor, for instructions (A.D. 107).
Bitterness is symbolical of affliction, misery, and servitude ( Exodus 1:14 ; Ruth 1:20 ; Jeremiah 9:15 ). The Chaldeans are called the "bitter and hasty nation" ( Habakkuk 1:6 ). The "gall of bitterness" expresses a state of great wickedness ( Acts 8:23 ). A "root of bitterness" is a wicked person or a dangerous sin ( Hebrews 12:15 ).
The Passover was to be eaten with "bitter herbs" ( Exodus 12:8 ; Numbers 9:11 ). The kind of herbs so designated is not known. Probably they were any bitter herbs obtainable at the place and time when the Passover was celebrated. They represented the severity of the servitude under which the people groaned; and have been regarded also as typical of the sufferings of Christ.
is found three times in connection with the desolations to come upon Babylon, Idumea, and Nineveh ( Isaiah 14:23 ; 34:11 ; Zephaniah 2:14 ). This bird belongs to the class of cranes. Its scientific name is Botaurus stellaris. It is a solitary bird, frequenting marshy ground. The Hebrew word (kippod) thus rendered in the Authorized Version is rendered "porcupine" in the Revised Version. But in the passages noted the kippod is associated with birds, with pools of water, and with solitude and desolation. This favours the idea that not the "porcupine" but the "bittern" is really intended by the word.
properly the absence of all colour. In Proverbs 7:9 the Hebrew word means, as in the margin of the Revised Version, "the pupil of the eye." It is translated "apple" of the eye in Deuteronomy 32:10 ; Psalms 17:8 ; Proverbs 7:2 . It is a different word which is rendered "black" in Leviticus 13:31 Leviticus 13:37 ; Cant 1:5 ; 5:11 ; and Zechariah 6:2 Zechariah 6:6 . It is uncertain what the "black marble" of Esther 1:6 was which formed a part of the mosaic pavement.
occurs only in connection with the sixth plague of Egypt ( Exodus 9:9 Exodus 9:10 ). In Deuteronomy 28:27 Deuteronomy 28:35 , it is called "the botch of Egypt." It seems to have been the fearful disease of black leprosy, a kind of elephantiasis, producing burning ulcers.
In the sense of speaking evil of God this word is found in Psalms 74:18 ; Isaiah 52:5 ; Romans 2:24 ; Revelation 13:1 Revelation 13:6 ; Revelation 16:9 Revelation 16:11 Revelation 16:21 . It denotes also any kind of calumny, or evil-speaking, or abuse ( 1 Kings 21:10 ; Acts 13:45 ; 18:6 , etc.). Our Lord was accused of blasphemy when he claimed to be the Son of God ( Matthew 26:65 ; Compare Matthew 9:3 ; Mark 2:7 ). They who deny his Messiahship blaspheme Jesus ( Luke 22:65 ; John 10:36 ).
Blasphemy against the Holy Ghost ( Matthew 12:31 Matthew 12:32 ; Mark 3:28 Mark 3:29 ; Luke 12:10 ) is regarded by some as a continued and obstinate rejection of the gospel, and hence is an unpardonable sin, simply because as long as a sinner remains in unbelief he voluntarily excludes himself from pardon. Others regard the expression as designating the sin of attributing to the power of Satan those miracles which Christ performed, or generally those works which are the result of the Spirit's agency.
chamberlain to king Herod Agrippa I. ( Acts 12:20 ). Such persons generally had great influence with their masters.
imperfection or bodily deformity excluding men from the priesthood, and rendering animals unfit to be offered in sacrifice ( Leviticus 21:17-23 ; 22:19-25 ). The Christian church, as justified in Christ, is "without blemish" ( Ephesians 5:27 ). Christ offered himself a sacrifice "without blemish," acceptable to God ( 1 Peter 1:19 ).
4. One blesses another when he expresses good wishes or offers prayer to God for his welfare ( Genesis 24:60 ; 31:55 ; 1 Samuel 2:20 ). Sometimes blessings were uttered under divine inspiration, as in the case of Noah, Isaac, Jacob, and Moses ( Genesis 9:26 Genesis 9:27 ; Genesis 27:28 Genesis 27:29 Genesis 27:40 ; 48:15-20 ; 49:1-28 ; Deuteronomy 33 ). The priests were divinely authorized to bless the people ( Deuteronomy 10:8 ; Numbers 6:22-27 ). We have many examples of apostolic benediction ( 2 Corinthians 13:14 ; Ephesians 6:23 Ephesians 6:24 ; 2 th Ephesians 3:16 Ephesians 3:18 ; Hebrews 13:20 Hebrews 13:21 ; 1 Peter 5:10 1 Peter 5:11 ).
5. Among the Jews in their thank-offerings the master of the feast took a cup of wine in his hand, and after having blessed God for it and for other mercies then enjoyed, handed it to his guests, who all partook of it. Psalms 116:13 refers to this custom. It is also alluded to in 1 Corinthians 10:16 , where the apostle speaks of the "cup of blessing."
Blind beggars are frequently mentioned ( Matthew 9:27 ; 12:22 ; 20:30 ; John 5:3 ). The blind are to be treated with compassion ( Leviticus 19:14 ; Deuteronomy 27:18 ). Blindness was sometimes a punishment for disobedience ( 1 Samuel 11:2 ; Jeremiah 39:7 ), sometimes the effect of old age ( Genesis 27:1 ; 1 Kings 14:4 ; 1 Samuel 4:15 ). Conquerors sometimes blinded their captives ( 2 Kings 25:7 ; 1 Samuel 11:2 ). Blindness denotes ignorance as to spiritual things ( Isaiah 6:10 ; Isaiah 42:18 Isaiah 42:19 ; Matthew 15:14 ; Ephesians 4:18 ). The opening of the eyes of the blind is peculiar to the Messiah ( Isaiah 29:18 ). Elymas was smitten with blindness at Paul's word ( Acts 13:11 ).
1. As food, prohibited in Genesis 9:4 , where the use of animal food is first allowed. Compare Deuteronomy 12:23 ; Leviticus 3:17 ; 7:26 ; 17:10-14 . The injunction to abstain from blood is renewed in the decree of the council of Jerusalem ( Acts 15:29 ). It has been held by some, and we think correctly, that this law of prohibition was only ceremonial and temporary; while others regard it as still binding on all. Blood was eaten by the Israelites after the battle of Gilboa ( 1 Samuel 14:32-34 ).
2. The blood of sacrifices was caught by the priest in a basin, and then sprinkled seven times on the altar; that of the passover on the doorposts and lintels of the houses ( Exodus 12 ; Leviticus 4:5-7 ; 16:14-19 ). At the giving of the law ( Exodus 24:8 ) the blood of the sacrifices was sprinkled on the people as well as on the altar, and thus the people were consecrated to God, or entered into covenant with him, hence the blood of the covenant ( Matthew 26:28 ; Hebrews 9:19 Hebrews 9:20 ; 10:29 ; 13:20 ).
3. Human blood. The murderer was to be punished ( Genesis 9:5 ). The blood of the murdered "crieth for vengeance" ( Genesis 4:10 ). The "avenger of blood" was the nearest relative of the murdered, and he was required to avenge his death ( Numbers 35:24 Numbers 35:27 ). No satisfaction could be made for the guilt of murder ( Numbers 35:31 ).
4. Blood used metaphorically to denote race ( Acts 17:26 ), and as a symbol of slaughter ( Isaiah 34:3 ). To "wash the feet in blood" means to gain a great victory ( Psalms 58:10 ). Wine, from its red colour, is called "the blood of the grape" ( Genesis 49:11 ). Blood and water issued from our Saviour's side when it was pierced by the Roman soldier ( John 19:34 ). This has led pathologists to the conclusion that the proper cause of Christ's death was rupture of the heart. (Compare Psalms 69:20 .)
the sign and token of our Lord's great agony ( Luke 22:44 ).
a stain or reproach ( Job 31:7 ; Proverbs 9:7 ). To blot out sin is to forgive it ( Psalms 51:1 Psalms 51:9 ; Isaiah 44:22 ; Acts 3:19 ). Christ's blotting out the handwriting of ordinances was his fulfilling the law in our behalf ( Colossians 2:14 ).
generally associated with purple ( Exodus 25:4 ; Exodus 26:1 Exodus 26:31 Exodus 26:36 , etc.). It is supposed to have been obtained from a shellfish of the Mediterranean, the Helix ianthina of Linnaeus. The robe of the high priest's ephod was to be all of this colour ( Exodus 28:31 ), also the loops of the curtains ( 26:4 ) and the ribbon of the breastplate ( 28:28 ). Blue cloths were also made for various sacred purposes ( Numbers 4:6 Numbers 4:7 Numbers 4:9 Numbers 4:11 Numbers 4:12 ). (See COLOUR .)
occurs only in Psalms 80:13 . The same Hebrew word is elsewhere rendered "swine" ( Leviticus 11:7 ; Deuteronomy 14:8 ; Proverbs 11:22 ; Isaiah 65:4 ; Isaiah 66:3 Isaiah 66:17 ). The Hebrews abhorred swine's flesh, and accordingly none of these animals were reared, except in the district beyond the Sea of Galilee. In the psalm quoted above the powers that destroyed the Jewish nation are compared to wild boars and wild beasts of the field.
1. The husband of Ruth, a wealthy Bethlehemite. By the "levirate law" the duty devolved on him of marrying Ruth the Moabitess ( Ruth 4:1-13 ). He was a kinsman of Mahlon, her first husband.
2. The name given (for what reason is unknown) to one of the two (the other was called Jachin) brazen pillars which Solomon erected in the court of the temple ( 1 Kings 7:21 ; 2 Chr 3:17 ). These pillars were broken up and carried to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar.
weepers, a place where the angel of the Lord reproved the Israelites for entering into a league with the people of the land. This caused them bitterly to weep, and hence the name of the place ( Judges 2:1 Judges 2:5 ). It lay probably at the head of one of the valleys between Gilgal and Shiloh.
(rendered "botch" in Deuteronomy 28:27 Deuteronomy 28:35 ), an aggravated ulcer, as in the case of Hezekiah ( 2 Kings 20:7 ; Isaiah 38:21 ) or of the Egyptians ( Exodus 9:9 Exodus 9:10 Exodus 9:11 ; Deuteronomy 28:27 Deuteronomy 28:35 ). It designates the disease of ( Job 2:7 ), which was probably the black leprosy.
( Exodus 9:31 ), meaning "swollen or podded for seed," was adopted in the Authorized Version from the version of Coverdale (1535). The Revised Version has in the margin "was in bloom," which is the more probable rendering of the Hebrew word. It is the fact that in Egypt when barley is in ear (about February) flax is blossoming.
The Hebrew word kebir , rendered "pillow" in 1 Samuel 19:13 1 Samuel 19:16 , but in Revised Version marg. "quilt" or "network," probably means some counterpane or veil intended to protect the head of the sleeper. A different Hebrew word (meraashoth') is used for "bolster" ( 1 Samuel 26:7 1 Samuel 26:11 1 Samuel 26:16 ). It is rightly rendered in Revised Version "at his head." In Gen 28:11,18the Authorized Version renders it "for his pillows," and the Revised Version "under his head." In Eze 13:18,20another Hebrew word (kesathoth) is used, properly denoting "cushions" or "pillows," as so rendered both in the Authorized and the Revised Version.
an obligation of any kind ( Numbers 30:2 Numbers 30:4 Numbers 30:12 ). The word means also oppression or affliction ( Psalms 116:16 ; Phil 1:7 ). Christian love is the "bond of perfectness" ( Colossians 3:14 ), and the influences of the Spirit are the "bond of peace" ( Ephesians 4:3 ).
of Israel in Egypt ( Exodus 2:23 Exodus 2:25 ; 5 ), which is called the "house of bondage" ( 13:3 ; 20:2 ). This word is used also with reference to the captivity in Babylon ( Isaiah 14:3 ), and the oppression of the Persian king ( Ezra 9:8 Ezra 9:9 ).
(Heb. peer), Exodus 39:28 (RSV, "head-tires"); Ezekiel 44:18 (RSV, "tires"), denotes properly a turban worn by priests, and in Isaiah 3:20 (RSV, "head-tires") a head-dress or tiara worn by females. The Hebrew word so rendered literally means an ornament, as in Isaiah 61:10 (RSV, "garland"), and in Eze 24:17,23"tire" (RSV, "head-tire"). It consisted of a piece of cloth twisted about the head. In Exodus 28:40 ; 29:9 it is the translation of a different Hebrew word (migba'ah), which denotes the turban (RSV, "head-tire") of the common priest as distinguished from the mitre of the high priest. (See MITRE .)
This word has a comprehensive meaning in Scripture. In the Old Testament it is the rendering of the Hebrew word sepher , which properly means a "writing," and then a "volume" ( Exodus 17:14 ; Deuteronomy 28:58 ; 29:20 ; Job 19:23 ) or "roll of a book" ( Jeremiah 36:2 Jeremiah 36:4 ).
Books were originally written on skins, on linen or cotton cloth, and on Egyptian papyrus, whence our word "paper." The leaves of the book were generally written in columns, designated by a Hebrew word properly meaning "doors" and "valves" ( Jeremiah 36:23 , RSV, marg. "columns").
Among the Hebrews books were generally rolled up like our maps, or if very long they were rolled from both ends, forming two rolls ( Luke 4:17-20 ). Thus they were arranged when the writing was on flexible materials; but if the writing was on tablets of wood or brass or lead, then the several tablets were bound together by rings through which a rod was passed.
The book of judgment ( Daniel 7:10 ) refers to the method of human courts of justice as illustrating the proceedings which will take place at the day of God's final judgment.
The book of the wars of the Lord ( Numbers 21:14 ), the book of Jasher ( Joshua 10:13 ), and the book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah and Israel ( 2 Chronicles 25:26 ), were probably ancient documents known to the Hebrews, but not forming a part of the canon.
The book of life ( Psalms 69:28 ) suggests the idea that as the redeemed form a community or citizenship (Phil 3:20 ; 4:3 ), a catalogue of the citizens' names is preserved ( Luke 10:20 ; Revelation 20:15 ). Their names are registered in heaven ( Luke 10:20 ; Revelation 3:5 ).
The book of the covenant ( Exodus 24:7 ), containing Exodus 20:22-23:33, , is the first book actually mentioned as a part of the written word. It contains a series of laws, civil, social, and religious, given to Moses at Sinai immediately after the delivery of the decalogue. These were written in this "book."
a hut made of the branches of a tree. In such tabernacles Jacob sojourned for a season at a place named from this circumstance Succoth ( Genesis 33:17 ). Booths were erected also at the feast of Tabernacles (q.v.), Leviticus 23:42 Leviticus 23:43 , which commemorated the abode of the Israelites in the wilderness.
captives or cattle or objects of value taken in war. In Canaan all that breathed were to be destroyed ( Deuteronomy 20: : 16 ). The "pictures and images" of the Canaanites were to be destroyed also ( Numbers 33:52 ). The law of booty as to its division is laid down in Numbers 31:26-47 . David afterwards introduced a regulation that the baggage-guard should share the booty equally with the soldiers engaged in battle. He also devoted of the spoils of war for the temple ( 1 Samuel 30:24-26 ; 2 Sam 8:11 ; 1 Chronicles 26:27 ).
The Israelites "borrowed" from the Egyptians ( Exodus 12:35 , RSV, "asked") in accordance with a divine command ( 3:22 ; 11:2 ). But the word (sha'al) so rendered here means simply and always to "request" or "demand." The Hebrew had another word which is properly translated "borrow" in Deuteronomy 28:12 ; Psalms 37:21 . It was well known that the parting was final. The Egyptians were so anxious to get the Israelites away out of their land that "they let them have what they asked" ( Exodus 12:36 , RSV), or literally "made them to ask," urged them to take whatever they desired and depart. (See LOAN .)
In the East objects are carried in the bosom which Europeans carry in the pocket. To have in one's bosom indicates kindness, secrecy, or intimacy ( Genesis 16:5 ; 2 Sam 12:8 ). Christ is said to have been in "the bosom of the Father," i.e., he had the most perfect knowledge of the Father, had the closest intimacy with him ( John 1:18 ). ( John 13:23 ) was "leaning on Jesus' bosom" at the last supper. Our Lord carries his lambs in his bosom, i.e., has a tender, watchful care over them ( Isaiah 40:11 ).
the Chaldee or Aramaic form of the name Beor, the father of Balaam ( 2 Peter 2:15 ).
the projecting parts of a shield ( Job 15:26 ). The Hebrew word thus rendered means anything convex or arched, and hence the back, as of animals.
the name given in De 28:27,35to one of the Egyptian plagues ( Exodus 9:9 ). The word so translated is usually rendered "boil" (q.v.).
a vessel made of skins for holding wine ( Joshua 9:4 . 13 ; 1 Samuel 16:20 ; Matthew 9:17 ; Mark 2:22 ; Luke 5:37 Luke 5:38 ), or milk (Judg. 4:19 ), or water ( Genesis 21:14 Genesis 21:15 Genesis 21:19 ), or strong drink ( Habakkuk 2:15 ).
Earthenware vessels were also similarly used ( Jeremiah 19:1-10 ; 1 Kings 14:3 ; Isaiah 30:14 ). In Job 32:19 (Compare Matthew 9:17 ; Luke 5:37 Luke 5:38 ; Mark 2:22 ) the reference is to a wine-skin ready to burst through the fermentation of the wine. "Bottles of wine" in the Authorized Version of Hosea 7:5 is properly rendered in the Revised Version by "the heat of wine," i.e., the fever of wine, its intoxicating strength.
The bow was in use in early times both in war and in the chase ( Genesis 21:20 ; 27:3 ; 48:22 ). The tribe of Benjamin were famous for the use of the bow ( 1 Chronicles 8:40 ; 12:2 ; 2 Chr 14:8 ; 17:17 ); so also were the Elamites ( Isaiah 22:6 ) and the Lydians ( Jeremiah 46:9 ). The Hebrew word commonly used for bow means properly to tread ( 1 Chronicles 5:18 ; 8:40 ), and hence it is concluded that the foot was employed in bending the bow. Bows of steel (correctly "copper") are mentioned ( 2 Samuel 22:35 ; Psalms 18:34 ).
"The use of the bow" in 2 Samuel 1:18 (A.V.) ought to be "the song of the bow," as in the Revised Version.
a mode of showing respect. Abraham "bowed himself to the people of the land" ( Genesis 23:7 ); so Jacob to Esau ( Genesis 33:3 ); and the brethren of Joseph before him as the governor of the land ( Genesis 43:28 ). Bowing is also frequently mentioned as an act of adoration to idols ( Joshua 23:7 ; 2 Kings 5:18 ; Judges 2:19 ; Isaiah 44:15 ), and to God ( Joshua 5:14 ; Psalms 22:29 ; 72:9 ; Micah 6:6 ; Psalms 95:6 ; Ephesians 3:14 ).
The sockets of the lamps of the golden candlestick of the tabernacle are called bowls ( Exodus 25:31 Exodus 25:33 Exodus 25:34 ; Exodus 37:17 Exodus 37:19 Exodus 37:20 ); the same word so rendered being elsewhere rendered "cup" ( Genesis 44:2 Genesis 44:12 Genesis 44:16 ), and wine "pot" ( Jeremiah 35:5 ). The reservoir for oil, from which pipes led to each lamp in Zechariah's vision of the candlestick, is called also by this name ( Zechariah 4:2 Zechariah 4:3 ); so also are the vessels used for libations ( Exodus 25:29 ; 37:16 ).
for holding oil or perfumery ( Mark 14:3 ). It was of the form of a flask or bottle. The Hebrew word (pak) used for it is more appropriately rendered "vial" in 1 Samuel 10:1 , and should also be so rendered in 2 Kings 9:1 , where alone else it occurs.
(Heb. teashshur), mentioned in Isaiah 60:13 ; 41:19 , was, according to some, a species of cedar growing in Lebanon. The words of Ezekiel 27:6 literally translated are, "Thy benches they have made of ivory, the daughter of the ashur tree," i.e., inlaid with ashur wood. The ashur is the box-tree, and accordingly the Revised Version rightly reads "inlaid in box wood." This is the Buxus sempervirens of botanists. It is remarkable for the beauty of its evergreen foliage and for the utility of its hard and durable wood.
1. The city of Jobab, one of the early Edomite kings ( Genesis 36:33 ). This place is mentioned by the prophets in later times ( Isaiah 34:6 ; Jeremiah 49:13 ; Amos 1:12 ; Micah 2:12 ). Its modern representative is el-Busseireh. It lies in the mountain district of Petra, 20 miles to the south-east of the Dead Sea.
2. A Moabite city in the "plain country" ( Jeremiah 48:24 ), i.e., on the high level down on the east of the Dead Sea. It is probably the modern Buzrah.
3. In Isaiah 3:19 , the rendering of a Hebrew word meaning chains, i.e., twisted or chain-like bracelets.
4. In Exodus 35:22 it designates properly a clasp for fastening the dress of females. Some interpret it as a nose-ring.
5. In Genesis 38:18 Genesis 38:25 , the rendering of a Hebrew word meaning "thread," and may denote the ornamental cord with which the signet was suspended from the neck of the wearer. Bracelets were worn by men as well as by women (Cant 5:14 , RSV). They were of many various forms. The weight of those presented by Eliezer to Rebekah was ten shekels ( Genesis 24:22 ).
2. Hebrew hoah , Isaiah 34:13 (RSV "thistles"); "thickets" in 1 Samuel 13:6 ; "thistles" in 2Kings 2 Kings 25:18 , Job 31:40 ; "thorns" in 2 Chronicles 33:11 , Cant 2:2 , Hosea 9:6 . The word may be regarded as denoting the common thistle, of which there are many species which encumber the corn-fields of Palestine. (See .)
a symbol of kings descended from royal ancestors ( Ezekiel 17:3 Ezekiel 17:10 ; Daniel 11:7 ); of prosperity ( Job 8:16 ); of the Messiah, a branch out of the root of the stem of Jesse ( Isaiah 11:1 ), the "beautiful branch" ( 4:2 ), a "righteous branch" ( Jeremiah 23:5 ), "the Branch" ( Zechariah 3:8 ; 6:12 ).
Disciples are branches of the true vine ( John 15:5 John 15:6 ). "The branch of the terrible ones" ( Isaiah 25:5 ) is rightly translated in the Revised Version "the song of the terrible ones," i.e., the song of victory shall be brought low by the destruction of Babylon and the return of the Jews from captivity.
which is an alloy of copper and zinc, was not known till the thirteenth century. What is designated by this word in Scripture is properly copper ( Deuteronomy 8:9 ). It was used for fetters (Judg. 16:21 ; 2 Kings 25:7 ), for pieces of armour ( 1 Samuel 17:5 1 Samuel 17:6 ), for musical instruments ( 1 Chronicles 15:19 ; 1 Corinthians 13:1 ), and for money ( Matthew 10:9 ).
The serpent of brass was made by Moses at the command of God ( Numbers 21:4-9 ), and elevated on a pole, so that it might be seen by all the people when wounded by the bite of the serpents that were sent to them as a punishment for their murmurings against God and against Moses. It was afterwards carried by the Jews into Canaan, and preserved by them till the time of Hezekiah, who caused it to be at length destroyed because it began to be viewed by the people with superstitious reverence ( 2 Kings 18:4 ). (See NEHUSHTAN .)
( Isaiah 3:18 ), an old English word meaning comeliness or beauty.
an opening in a wall ( 1 Kings 11:27 ; 2 Kings 12:5 ); the fracture of a limb ( Leviticus 24:20 ), and hence the expression, "Heal, etc." ( Psalms 60:2 ). Judges 5:17 , a bay or harbour; RSV, "by his creeks."
among the Jews was generally made of wheat ( Exodus 29:2 ; Judg. 6:19 ), though also sometimes of other grains ( Genesis 14:18 ; Judg. 7:13 ). Parched grain was sometimes used for food without any other preparation ( Ruth 2:14 ).
Bread was prepared by kneading in wooden bowls or "kneading troughs" ( Genesis 18:6 ; Exodus 12:34 ; Jeremiah 7:18 ). The dough was mixed with leaven and made into thin cakes, round or oval, and then baked. The bread eaten at the Passover was always unleavened ( Exodus 12:15-20 ; Deuteronomy 16:3 ). In the towns there were public ovens, which were much made use of for baking bread; there were also bakers by trade ( Hosea 7:4 ; Jeremiah 37:21 ). Their ovens were not unlike those of modern times. But sometimes the bread was baked by being placed on the ground that had been heated by a fire, and by covering it with the embers ( 1 Kings 19:6 ). This was probably the mode in which Sarah prepared bread on the occasion referred to in Genesis 18:6 .
The shew-bread (q.v.) consisted of twelve loaves of unleavened bread prepared and presented hot on the golden table every Sabbath. They were square or oblong, and represented the twelve tribes of Israel. The old loaves were removed every Sabbath, and were to be eaten only by the priests in the court of the sanctuary ( Exodus 25:30 ; Leviticus 24:8 ; 1 Samuel 21:1-6 ; Matthew 12:4 ).
The word bread is used figuratively in such expressions as "bread of sorrows" ( Psalms 127:2 ), "bread of tears" ( 80:5 ), i.e., sorrow and tears are like one's daily bread, they form so great a part in life. The bread of "wickedness" ( Proverbs 4:17 ) and "of deceit" ( 20:17 ) denote in like manner that wickedness and deceit are a part of the daily life.
2. An ornament covering the breast of the high priest, first mentioned in Exodus 25:7 . It was made of embroidered cloth, set with four rows of precious stones, three in each row. On each stone was engraved the name of one of the twelve tribes ( Exodus 28:15-29 ; 39:8-21 ). It was in size about ten inches square. The two upper corners were fastened to the ephod by blue ribbons. It was not to be "loosed from the ephod" ( Exodus 28:28 ). The lower corners were fastened to the girdle of the priest. As it reminded the priest of his representative character, it was called the memorial ( 28:29 ). It was also called the breastplate of judgment ( 28:15 ). (See PRIEST .)
None to be taken; "for the gift maketh open eyes blind, and perverteth the cause of the righteous" ( Exodus 23:8 , literally rendered).
the making of, formed the chief labour of the Israelites in Egypt ( Exodus 1:13 Exodus 1:14 ). Those found among the ruins of Babylon and Nineveh are about a foot square and four inches thick. They were usually dried in the sun, though also sometimes in kilns ( 2 Samuel 12:31 ; Jeremiah 43:9 ; Nahum 3:14 ). (See NEBUCHADNEZZAR .)
The bricks used in the tower of Babel were burnt bricks, cemented in the building by bitumen ( Genesis 11:3 ).
frequently used in the ordinary sense ( Isaiah 49:18 ; 61:10 , etc.). The relation between Christ and his church is set forth under the figure of that between a bridegroom and bride ( John 3:29 ). The church is called "the bride" ( Revelation 21:9 ; 22:17 ). Compare parable of the Ten Virgins ( Matthew 25:1-13 ).
Three Hebrew words are thus rendered in the Authorized Version.
1. Heb. mahsom' signifies a muzzle or halter or bridle, by which the rider governs his horse (Ps.39:1).
2. Me'theg , rendered also "bit" in Psalms 32:9 , which is its proper meaning. Found in 2 Kings 19:28 , where the restraints of God's providence are metaphorically styled his "bridle" and "hook." God's placing a "bridle in the jaws of the people" ( Isaiah 30:28 ; 37:29 ) signifies his preventing the Assyrians from carrying out their purpose against Jerusalem.
This word occurs frequently, and is the translation of several different terms.
1. Micah 7:4 , it denotes a species of thorn shrub used for hedges. In Proverbs 15:19 the word is rendered "thorn" (Heb. hedek , "stinging"), supposed by some to be what is called the "apple of Sodom" (q.v.).
2. Ezekiel 28:24 , sallon' , properly a "prickle," such as is found on the shoots of the palm tree.
3. Isaiah 55:13 , probably simply a thorny bush. Some, following the Vulgate Version, regard it as the "nettle."
5. In Hebrews 6:8 the Greek word (tribolos) so rendered means "three-pronged," and denotes the land caltrop, a low throny shrub resembling in its spikes the military "crow-foot." Compare Matthew 7:16 , "thistle."
an inflammable mineral substance found in quantities on the shores of the Dead Sea. The cities of the plain were destroyed by a rain of fire and brimstone ( Genesis 19:24 Genesis 19:25 ). In Isaiah 34:9 allusion is made to the destruction of these cities. This word figuratively denotes destruction or punishment ( Job 18:15 ; Isaiah 30:33 ; 34:9 ; Psalms 11:6 ; Ezekiel 38:22 ). It is used to express the idea of excruciating torment in Revelation 14:10 ; 19:20 ; 20:10 .
1. Applied to small streams, as the Arnon, Jabbok, etc. ( Isaiah 15:7 ) speaks of the "book of the willows," probably the Wady-el-Asha.
3. In Isaiah 19:7 the river Nile is meant, as rendered in the Revised Version.
8. One beloved or closely united with another in affection ( 2 Samuel 1:26 ; Acts 6:3 ; 1 Thessalonians 5:1 ). Brethren of Jesus ( Matthew 1:25 ; Matthew 12:46 Matthew 12:50 : Mark 3:31 Mark 3:32 ; Galatians 1:19 ; 1 Corinthians 9:5 , etc.) were probably the younger children of Joseph and Mary. Some have supposed that they may have been the children of Joseph by a former marriage, and others that they were the children of Mary, the Virgin's sister, and wife of Cleophas. The first interpretation, however, is the most natural.
2. A shield surrounding the person; the targe or round form; used once figuratively ( Psalms 91:4 ).
4. A lance or spear; improperly rendered "buckler" in the Authorized Version ( 1 Chronicles 12:8 ), but correctly in the Revised Version "spear." The leather of shields required oiling ( 2 Samuel 1:21 ; Isaiah 21:5 ), so as to prevent its being injured by moisture. Copper (= "brass") shields were also in use ( 1 Samuel 17:6 ; 1 Kings 14:27 ). Those spoken of in 1 Kings 10:16 , etc.; 14:26 , were probably of massive metal. The shields David had taken from his enemies were suspended in the temple as mementoes ( 2 Kings 11:10 ). (See ARMOUR, SHIELD .)
among the Jews was suited to the climate and conditions of the country. They probably adopted the kind of architecture for their dwellings which they found already existing when they entered Canaan ( Deuteronomy 6:10 ; Numbers 13:19 ). Phoenician artists ( 2 Samuel 5:11 ; 1 Kings 5:6 1 Kings 5:18 ) assisted at the erection of the royal palace and the temple at Jerusalem. Foreigners also assisted at the restoration of the temple after the Exile ( Ezra 3:7 ).
In Genesis 11:3 Genesis 11:9 , we have the first recorded instance of the erection of buildings. The cities of the plain of Shinar were founded by the descendants of Shem ( Genesis 10:11 Genesis 10:12 Genesis 10:22 ).
The Israelites were by occupation shepherds and dwellers in tents ( Genesis 47:3 ); but from the time of their entering Canaan they became dwellers in towns, and in houses built of the native limestone of Palestine. Much building was carried on in Solomon's time. Besides the buildings he completed at Jerusalem, he also built Baalath and Tadmor ( 1 Kings 9:15 1 Kings 9:24 ). Many of the kings of Israel and Judah were engaged in erecting various buildings.
Herod and his sons and successors restored the temple, and built fortifications and other structures of great magnificence in Jerusalem ( Luke 21:5 ).
Believers are "God's building" ( 1 Corinthians 3:9 ); and heaven is called "a building of God" ( 2 Corinthians 5:1 ). Christ is the only foundation of his church ( 1 Corinthians 3:10-12 ), of which he also is the builder ( Matthew 16:18 ).
3. Another word is rendered in the same way ( Jeremiah 31:18 ). It is also translated "calf" ( Leviticus 9:3 ; Micah 6:6 ). It is the same word used of the "molten calf" ( Exodus 32:4 Exodus 32:8 ) and "the golden calf" ( 1 Kings 12:28 ).
4. In Judges 6:25 ; Isaiah 34:7 , the Hebrew word is different. It is the customary word for bulls offered in sacrifice. In Hosea 14:2 , the Authorized Version has "calves," the Revised Version "bullocks."
1. In Isaiah 58:5 the rendering of a word which denotes "belonging to a marsh," from the nature of the soil in which it grows ( Isaiah 18:2 ). It was sometimes platted into ropes ( Job 41:2 ; A.V., "hook," RSV, "rope," lit. "cord of rushes").
2. In Exodus 2:3 , Isaiah 18:2 (RSV, "papyrus") this word is the translation of the Hebrew gome , which designates the plant as absorbing moisture. In Isaiah 35:7 and Job 8:11 it is rendered "rush." This was the Egyptian papyrus (papyrus Nilotica). It was anciently very abundant in Egypt. The Egyptians made garments and shoes and various utensils of it. It was used for the construction of the ark of Moses ( Exodus 2:3 Exodus 2:5 ). The root portions of the stem were used for food. The inside bark was cut into strips, which were sewed together and dried in the sun, forming the papyrus used for writing. It is no longer found in Egypt, but grows luxuriantly in Palestine, in the marshes of the Huleh, and in the swamps at the north end of the Lake of Gennesaret. (See CANE .)
mural towers, bastions, were introduced by king Uzziah ( 2 Chronicles 26:15 ; Zephaniah 1:16 ; Psalms 48:13 ; Isaiah 26:1 ). There are five Hebrew words so rendered in the Authorized Version, but the same word is also variously rendered.
1. A bundle of twigs ( Exodus 12:22 ).
2. Bunch or cake of raisins ( 2 Samuel 16:1 ).
3. The "bunch of a camel" ( Isaiah 30:6 ).
1. A load of any kind ( Exodus 23:5 ).
2. A severe task ( Exodus 2:11 ).
3. A difficult duty, requiring effort ( Exodus 18:22 ).
The first burial we have an account of is that of Sarah ( Genesis 23 ). The first commercial transaction recorded is that of the purchase of a burial-place, for which Abraham weighed to Ephron "four hundred shekels of silver current money with the merchants." Thus the patriarch became the owner of a part of the land of Canaan, the only part he ever possessed. When he himself died, "his sons Isaac and Ishmael buried him in the cave of Machpelah," beside Sarah his wife ( Genesis 25:9 ).
Deborah, Rebekah's nurse, was buried under Allon-bachuth, "the oak of weeping" ( Genesis 35:8 ), near to Bethel. Rachel died, and was buried near Ephrath; "and Jacob set a pillar upon her grave" (16-20). Isaac was buried at Hebron, where he had died (27,29). Jacob, when charging his sons to bury him in the cave of Machpelah, said, "There they buried Abraham and Sarah his wife; there they buried Isaac and Rebekah his wife; and there I buried Leah" ( 49:31 ). In compliance with the oath which he made him swear unto him ( 47:29-31 ), Joseph, assisted by his brethren, buried Jacob in the cave of Machpelah ( Genesis 50:2 Genesis 50:13 ). At the Exodus, Moses "took the bones of Joseph with him," and they were buried in the "parcel of ground" which Jacob had bought of the sons of Hamor ( Joshua 24:32 ), which became Joseph's inheritance ( Genesis 48:22 ; 1 Chronicles 5:1 ; John 4:5 ). Two burials are mentioned as having taken place in the wilderness. That of Miriam ( Numbers 20:1 ), and that of Moses, "in the land of Moab" ( Deuteronomy 34:5 Deuteronomy 34:6 Deuteronomy 34:8 ). There is no account of the actual burial of Aaron, which probably, however, took place on the summit of Mount Hor ( Numbers 20:28 Numbers 20:29 ).
Joshua was buried "in the border of his inheritance in Timnath-serah" ( Joshua 24: : 30 ).
In Job we find a reference to burying-places, which were probably the Pyramids ( Joshua 3:14 Joshua 3:15 ). The Hebrew word for "waste places" here resembles in sound the Egyptian word for "pyramids."
In connection with the burial of Saul and his three sons we meet for the first time with the practice of burning the dead ( 1 Samuel 31:11-13 ). The same practice is again referred to by ( Amos 6:10 ).
Absalom was buried "in the wood" where he was slain ( 2 Samuel 18:17 2 Samuel 18:18 ). The raising of the heap of stones over his grave was intended to mark abhorrence of the person buried (Compare Joshua 7:26 and 8:29 ). There was no fixed royal burying-place for the Hebrew kings. We find several royal burials taking place, however, "in the city of David" ( 1 Kings 2:10 ; 11:43 ; 15:8 ; 2 Kings 1 Kings 14:19 1 Kings 14:20 ; 15:38 ; 1 Kings 14:31 ; 22:50 ; 2 Chr 1 Kings 21:19 1 Kings 21:20 ; 2 Chr 24:25 , etc.). Hezekiah was buried in the mount of the sepulchres of the sons of David; "and all Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem did him honour at his death" ( 2 Chronicles 32:33 ).
The grave of Lazarus was "a cave, and a stone lay on it" ( John 11:38 ). Graves were frequently either natural caverns or artificial excavations formed in the sides of rocks ( Genesis 23:9 ; Matthew 27:60 ); and coffins were seldom used, unless when the body was brought from a distance.
Hebrew olah ; i.e., "ascending," the whole being consumed by fire, and regarded as ascending to God while being consumed. Part of every offering was burnt in the sacred fire, but this was wholly burnt, a "whole burnt offering." It was the most frequent form of sacrifice, and apparently the only one mentioned in the book of Genesis. Such were the sacrifices offered by Abel ( Genesis 4:3 Genesis 4:4 , here called minhah ; i.e., "a gift"), Noah ( Genesis 8:20 ), Abraham ( Genesis 22:2 Genesis 22:7 Genesis 22:8 Genesis 22:13 ), and by the Hebrews in Egypt ( Exodus 10:25 ).
The law of Moses afterwards prescribed the occasions and the manner in which burnt sacrifices were to be offered. There were "the continual burnt offering" ( Exodus 29:38-42 ; Leviticus 6:9-13 ), "the burnt offering of every sabbath," which was double the daily one ( Numbers 28:9 Numbers 28:10 ), "the burnt offering of every month" ( 28:11-15 ), the offerings at the Passover (19-23), at Pentecost ( Leviticus 23:16 ), the feast of Trumpets ( 23:23-25 ), and on the day of Atonement ( Leviticus 16 ).
Free-will burnt offerings were also permitted ( Leviticus 1:13 ), and were offered at the accession of Solomon to the throne ( 1 Chronicles 29:21 ), and at the reformation brought about by Hezekiah ( 2 Chronicles 29: : 3135 -35).
These offerings signified the complete dedication of the offerers unto God. This is referred to in Romans 12:1 . (See ALTAR, SACRIFICE .)
in which Jehovah appeared to Moses in the wilderness ( Exodus 3:2 ; Acts 7:30 ). It is difficult to say what particular kind of plant or bush is here meant. Probably it was the mimosa or acacia. The words "in the bush" in Mark 12:26 ; Luke 20:37 , mean "in the passage or paragraph on the bush;" i.e., in Exodus 3 .
properly a servant in charge of the wine ( Genesis 40:1-13 ; 41:9 ). The Hebrew word, mashkeh , thus translated is rendered also (plural) "cup-bearers" ( 1 Kings 10:5 ; 2 Chr 9:4 ). ( Nehemiah 1:11 ) was cup-bearer to king Artaxerxes. It was a position of great responsibility and honour in royal households.
(Heb. hemah), curdled milk ( Genesis 18:8 ; Judges 5:25 ; 2 Sam. 17:29 ), or butter in the form of the skim of hot milk or cream, called by the Arabs kaimak, a semi-fluid ( Job 20:17 ; 29:6 ; Deuteronomy 32:14 ). The words of Proverbs 30:33 have been rendered by some "the pressure [not churning] of milk bringeth forth cheese."
2. One of the chiefs of the tribe of Gad ( 1 Chronicles 5:14 ).
3. A district in Arabia Petrea ( Jeremiah 25:23 ).
the father of the prophet ( Ezekiel 1:3 ).
in the expression "by myself" (A.V., 1 Corinthians 4:4 ), means, as rendered in the Revised Version, "against myself."
Hebrew millah ( Job 30:9 ), a word or speech, and hence object of talk; Hebrew mashal ( Psalms 44:14 ), a proverb or parable. When it denotes a sharp word of derision, as in De 28:37,1Kings Deuteronomy 7:20 , the Hebrew sheninah is used. In Jeremiah 24:9 it is rendered "taunt."