Easton's Bible Dictionary

19/52

H

Habakkuk — Hashmonah

Habakkuk

embrace, the eighth of the twelve minor prophets. Of his personal history we have no reliable information. He was probably a member of the Levitical choir. He was contemporary with Jeremiah and Zephaniah.

Habakkuk, Prophecies of

were probably written about B.C. 650-627, or, as some think, a few years later. This book consists of three chapters, the contents of which are thus comprehensively described: "When the prophet in spirit saw the formidable power of the Chaldeans approaching and menacing his land, and saw the great evils they would cause in Judea, he bore his complaints and doubts before Jehovah, the just and the pure ( 1:2-17 ). And on this occasion the future punishment of the Chaldeans was revealed to him (2). In the third chapter a presentiment of the destruction of his country, in the inspired heart of the prophet, contends with his hope that the enemy would be chastised." The third chapter is a sublime song dedicated "to the chief musician," and therefore intended apparently to be used in the worship of God. It is "unequalled in majesty and splendour of language and imagery."

The passage in 2:4 , "The just shall live by his faith," is quoted by the apostle in Romans 1:17 . (Compare Galatians 3:12 ; Hebrews 10:37 Hebrews 10:38 .)

Habergeon

an Old English word for breastplate. In Job 41:26 (Heb. shiryah) it is properly a "coat of mail;" the Revised Version has "pointed shaft." In Exodus 28:32 Exodus 39:23 , it denotes a military garment strongly and thickly woven and covered with mail round the neck and breast. Such linen corselets have been found in Egypt. The word used in these verses is tahra , which is of Egyptian origin. The Revised Version, however, renders it by "coat of mail." (See ARMOUR .)

Habitation

God is the habitation of his people, who find rest and safety in him ( Psalms 71:3 ; 91:9 ). Justice and judgment are the habitation of God's throne ( Psalms 89:14 , Heb. mekhon, "foundation"), because all his acts are founded on justice and judgment. (See Psalms 132:5 Psalms 132:13 ; Ephesians 2:22 , of Canaan, Jerusalem, and the temple as God's habitation.) God inhabits eternity ( Isaiah 57:15 ), i.e., dwells not only among men, but in eternity, where time is unknown; and "the praises of Israel" ( Psalms 22:3 ), i.e., he dwells among those praises and is continually surrounded by them.

Habor

the united stream, or, according to others, with beautiful banks, the name of a river in Assyria, and also of the district through which it flowed ( 1 Chronicles 5:26 ). There is a river called Khabur which rises in the central highlands of Kurdistan, and flows south-west till it falls into the Tigris, about 70 miles above Mosul. This was not, however, the Habor of Scripture.

There is another river of the same name (the Chaboras) which, after a course of about 200 miles, flows into the Euphrates at Karkesia, the ancient Circesium. This was, there can be little doubt, the ancient Habor.

Hachilah

the darksome hill, one of the peaks of the long ridge of el-Kolah, running out of the Ziph plateau, "on the south of Jeshimon" (i.e., of the "waste"), the district to which one looks down from the plateau of Ziph ( 1 Samuel 23:19 ). After his reconciliation with Saul at Engedi ( 24:1-8 ), David returned to Hachilah, where he had fixed his quarters. The Ziphites treacherously informed Saul of this, and he immediately ( 26:1-4 ) renewed his pursuit of David, and "pitched in the hill of Hachilah." David and his nephew Abishai stole at night into the midst of Saul's camp, when they were all asleep, and noiselessly removed the royal spear and the cruse from the side of the king, and then, crossing the intervening valley to the height on the other side, David cried to the people, and thus awoke the sleepers. He then addressed Saul, who recognized his voice, and expostulated with him. Saul professed to be penitent; but David could not put confidence in him, and he now sought refuge at Ziklag. David and Saul never afterwards met. ( 1 Samuel 26:13-25 ).

Hadad

Adod, brave(?), the name of a Syrian god.

1. An Edomite king who defeated the Midianites ( Genesis 36:35 ; 1 Chronicles 1:46 ).

2. Another Edomite king ( 1 Chronicles 1:50 1 Chronicles 1:51 ), called also Hadar ( Genesis 36:39 ; 1 Chronicles 1:51 ).

3. One of "the king's seed in Edom." He fled into Egypt, where he married the sister of Pharaoh's wife ( 1 Kings 11:14-22 ). He became one of Solomon's adversaries. Hadad, sharp, (a different name in Hebrew from the preceding), one of the sons of Ishmael ( 1 Chronicles 1:30 ). Called also Hadar ( Genesis 25:15 ).

Hadadezer

Hadad is help; called also Hadarezer, Adod is his help, the king of Zobah. Hanun, the king of the Ammonites, hired among others the army of Hadadezer to assist him in his war against David. Joab, who was sent against this confederate host, found them in double battle array, the Ammonities toward their capital of Rabbah, and the Syrian mercenaries near Medeba. In the battle which was fought the Syrians were scattered, and the Ammonites in alarm fled into their capital. After this Hadadezer went north "to recover his border" ( 2 Samuel 8:3 , A.V.); but rather, as the Revised Version renders, "to recover his dominion", i.e., to recruit his forces. Then followed another battle with the Syrian army thus recruited, which resulted in its being totally routed at Helam ( 2 Samuel 10:17 ). Shobach, the leader of the Syrian army, died on the field of battle. The Syrians of Damascus, who had come to help Hadadezer, were also routed, and Damascus was made tributary to David. All the spoils taken in this war, "shields of gold" and "very much brass," from which afterwards the "brasen sea, and the pillars, and the vessels of brass" for the temple were made ( 1 Chronicles 18:8 ), were brought to Jerusalem and dedicated to Jehovah. Thus the power of the Ammonites and the Syrians was finally broken, and David's empire extended to the Euphrates ( 2 Samuel 10:15-19 ; 1 Chronicles 19:15-19 ).

Hadad-rimmon

(composed of the names of two Syrian idols), the name of a place in the valley of Megiddo. It is alluded to by the prophet ( Zechariah 12:11 ) in a proverbial expression derived from the lamentation for Josiah, who was mortally wounded near this place ( 2 Chronicles 35:22-25 ). It has been identified with the modern Rummaneh, a village "at the foot of the Megiddo hills, in a notch or valley about an hour and a half south of Tell Metzellim."

Hadar

Adod, brave(?).

1. A son of Ishmael ( Genesis 25:15 ); in 1 Chronicles 1:30 written Hadad.

2. One of the Edomitish kings ( Genesis 36:39 ) about the time of Saul. Called also Hadad ( 1 Chronicles 1:50 1 Chronicles 1:51 ). It is probable that in these cases Hadar may be an error simply of transcription for Hadad.

Hadarezer

Adod is his help, the name given to Hadadezer ( 2 Samuel 8:3-12 ) in 2 Samuel 10 .

Hadashah

new, a city in the valley of Judah ( Joshua 15:37 ).

Hadassah

myrtle, the Jewish name of Esther (q.v.), Esther 2:7 .

Hadattah

new, one of the towns in the extreme south of Judah ( Joshua 15:25 ).

Hades

that which is out of sight, a Greek word used to denote the state or place of the dead. All the dead alike go into this place. To be buried, to go down to the grave, to descend into hades, are equivalent expressions. In the LXX. this word is the usual rendering of the Hebrew sheol, the common receptacle of the departed ( Genesis 42:38 ; Psalms 139:8 ; Hosea 13:14 ; Isaiah 14:9 ). This term is of comparatively rare occurrence in the Greek New Testament. Our Lord speaks of Capernaum as being "brought down to hell" (hades), i.e., simply to the lowest debasement, ( Matthew 11:23 ). It is contemplated as a kind of kingdom which could never overturn the foundation of Christ's kingdom ( 16:18 ), i.e., Christ's church can never die.

In Luke 16:23 it is most distinctly associated with the doom and misery of the lost.

In Acts 2:27-31Peter quotes the LXX. version of Psalms 16:8-11 , plainly for the purpose of proving our Lord's resurrection from the dead. David was left in the place of the dead, and his body saw corruption. Not so with Christ. According to ancient prophecy ( Psalms 30:3 ) he was recalled to life.

Hadid

pointed, a place in the tribe of Benjamin near Lydda, or Lod, and Ono ( Ezra 2:33 ; Nehemiah 7:37 ). It is identified with the modern el-Haditheh, 3 miles east of Lydda.

Hadlai

resting, an Ephraimite; the father of Amasa, mentioned in 2 Chronicles 28:12 .

Hadoram

is exalted.

1. The son of Tou, king of Hamath, sent by his father to congratulate David on his victory over Hadarezer, king of Syria ( 1 Chronicles 18:10 ; called Joram 2 Samuel 8:10 ).

2. The fifth son of Joktan, the founder of an Arab tribe ( Genesis 10:27 ; 1 Chronicles 1:21 ).

3. One who was "over the tribute;" i.e., "over the levy." He was stoned by the Israelites after they had revolted from Rehoboam ( 2 Chronicles 10:18 ). Called also Adoram ( 2 Samuel 20:24 ) and Adoniram ( 1 Kings 4:6 ).

Hadrach

the name of a country ( Zechariah 9:1 ) which cannot be identified. Rawlinson would identify it with Edessa. He mentions that in the Assyrian inscriptions it is recorded that "Shalmanezer III. made two expeditions, the first against Damascus B.C. 773, and the second against Hadrach B.C. 772; and again that Asshurdanin-il II. made expeditions against Hadrach in B.C. 765 and 755."

Haemorrhoids

or Emerods, bleeding piles known to the ancient Romans as mariscae, but more probably malignant boils of an infectious and fatal character. With this loathsome and infectious disease the men of Ashdod were smitten by the hand of the Lord. This calamity they attributed to the presence of the ark in their midst, and therefore they removed it to Gath ( 1 Samuel 5:6-8 ). But the same consequences followed from its presence in Gath, and therefore they had it removed to Ekron, 11 miles distant. The Ekronites were afflicted with the same dreadful malady, but more severely; and a panic seizing the people, they demanded that the ark should be sent back to the land of Israel (9-12; 6:1-9 ).

Haft

a handle as of a dagger ( Judges 3:22 ).

Hagar

flight, or, according to others, stranger, an Egyptian, Sarah's handmaid ( Genesis 16:1 ; Genesis 21:9 Genesis 21:10 ), whom she gave to Abraham (q.v.) as a secondary wife ( 16:2 ). When she was about to become a mother she fled from the cruelty of her mistress, intending apparently to return to her relatives in Egypt, through the desert of Shur, which lay between. Wearied and worn she had reached the place she distinguished by the name of Beer-lahai-roi ("the well of the visible God"), where the angel of the Lord appeared to her. In obedience to the heavenly visitor she returned to the tent of Abraham, where her son Ishmael was born, and where she remained (16) till after the birth of Isaac, the space of fourteen years. Sarah after this began to vent her dissatisfaction both on Hagar and her child. Ishmael's conduct was insulting to Sarah, and she insisted that he and his mother should be dismissed. This was accordingly done, although with reluctance on the part of Abraham ( Genesis 21:14 ). They wandered out into the wilderness, where Ishmael, exhausted with his journey and faint from thirst, seemed about to die. Hagar "lifted up her voice and wept," and the angel of the Lord, as before, appeared unto her, and she was comforted and delivered out of her distresses ( Genesis 21:18 Genesis 21:19 ).

Ishmael afterwards established himself in the wilderness of Paran, where he married an Egyptian ( Genesis 21:20 Genesis 21:21 ).

"Hagar" allegorically represents the Jewish church ( Galatians 4:24 ), in bondage to the ceremonial law; while "Sarah" represents the Christian church, which is free.

Hagarene

or Hagarite.

1. One of David's mighty men ( 1 Chronicles 11:38 ), the son of a foreigner.

2. Used of Jaziz ( 1 Chronicles 27:31 ), who was over David's flocks. "A Hagarite had charge of David's flocks, and an Ishmaelite of his herds, because the animals were pastured in districts where these nomadic people were accustomed to feed their cattle."

3. In the reign of Saul a great war was waged between the trans-Jordanic tribes and the Hagarites ( 1 Chronicles 5 ), who were overcome in battle. A great booty was captured by the two tribes and a half, and they took possession of the land of the Hagarites. Subsequently the "Hagarenes," still residing in the land on the east of Jordan, entered into a conspiracy against Israel (Compare Psalms 83:6 ). They are distinguished from the Ishmaelites.

Haggai

festive, one of the twelve so-called minor prophets. He was the first of the three (Zechariah, his contemporary, and Malachi, who was about one hundred years later, being the other two) whose ministry belonged to the period of Jewish history which began after the return from captivity in Babylon. Scarcely anything is known of his personal history. He may have been one of the captives taken to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar. He began his ministry about sixteen years after the Return. The work of rebuilding the temple had been put a stop to through the intrigues of the Samaritans. After having been suspended for fifteen years, the work was resumed through the efforts of Haggai and Zechariah ( Ezra 6:14 ), who by their exhortations roused the people from their lethargy, and induced them to take advantage of the favourable opportunity that had arisen in a change in the policy of the Persian government. (See DARIUS [2].) Haggai's prophecies have thus been characterized:, "There is a ponderous and simple dignity in the emphatic reiteration addressed alike to every class of the community, prince, priest, and people, 'Be strong, be strong, be strong' ( 2:4 ). 'Cleave, stick fast, to the work you have to do;' or again, 'Consider your ways, consider, consider, consider' ( Ezra 1:5 Ezra 1:7 Ezra 2:15 Ezra 18 ). It is the Hebrew phrase for the endeavour, characteristic of the gifted seers of all times, to compel their hearers to turn the inside of their hearts outwards to their own view, to take the mask from off their consciences, to 'see life steadily, and to see it wholly.'", Stanley's Jewish Church. (SeeSIGNET .)

Haggai, Book of

consists of two brief, comprehensive chapters. The object of the prophet was generally to urge the people to proceed with the rebuilding of the temple.

Chapter first comprehends the first address (2-11) and its effects (12-15). Chapter second contains,

1. The second prophecy (1-9), which was delivered a month after the first.

2. The third prophecy (10-19), delivered two months and three days after the second; and

3. The fourth prophecy (20-23), delivered on the same day as the third. These discourses are referred to in Ezra 5:1 ; 6:14 ; Hebrews 12:26 . (Compare Haggai 2:7 Haggai 2:8 Haggai 2:22 .)

Haggith

festive; the dancer, a wife of David and the mother of Adonijah ( 2 Samuel 3:4 ; 1 Kings 1:5 1 Kings 1:11 ; 2:13 ; 1 Chronicles 3:2 ), who, like Absalom, was famed for his beauty.

Hagiographa

the holy writings, a term which came early into use in the Christian church to denote the third division of the Old Testament scriptures, called by the Jews Kethubim, i.e., "Writings." It consisted of five books, viz., Job, Proverbs, and Psalms, and the two books of Chronicles. The ancient Jews classified their sacred books as the Law, the Prophets, and the Kethubim, or Writings. (See BIBLE .)

In the New Testament ( Luke 24:44 ) we find three corresponding divisions, viz., the Law, the Prophets, and the Psalms.

Hail

frozen rain-drops; one of the plagues of Egypt ( Exodus 9:23 ). It is mentioned by Haggai as a divine judgment ( Haggai 2:17 ). A hail-storm destroyed the army of the Amorites when they fought against Joshua ( Joshua 10:11 ). Ezekiel represents the wall daubed with untempered mortar as destroyed by great hail-stones (Ezek. 13:11 ). (See also 38:22 ; Revelation 8:7 ; 11:19 ; 16:21 .)

Hail!

a salutation expressive of a wish for the welfare of the person addressed; the translation of the Greek Chaire , "Rejoice" ( Luke 1:8 ). Used in mockery in Matthew 27:29 .

Hair

1. The Egyptians let the hair of their head and beard grow only when they were in mourning, shaving it off at other times. "So particular were they on this point that to have neglected it was a subject of reproach and ridicule; and whenever they intended to convey the idea of a man of low condition, or a slovenly person, the artists represented him with a beard." Joseph shaved himself before going in to Pharoah ( Genesis 41:14 ). The women of Egypt wore their hair long and plaited. Wigs were worn by priests and laymen to cover the shaven skull, and false beards were common. The great masses of hair seen in the portraits and statues of kings and priests are thus altogether artificial.

2. A precisely opposite practice, as regards men, prevailed among the Assyrians. In Assyrian sculptures the hair always appears long, and combed closely down upon the head. The beard also was allowed to grow to its full length.

3. Among the Greeks the custom in this respect varied at different times, as it did also among the Romans. In the time of the apostle, among the Greeks the men wore short hair, while that of the women was long ( 1 Corinthians 11:14 1 Corinthians 11:15 ). Paul reproves the Corinthians for falling in with a style of manners which so far confounded the distinction of the sexes and was hurtful to good morals. (See , however, 1 Timothy 2:9 , and 1 Peter 3:3 , as regards women.)

4. Among the Hebrews the natural distinction between the sexes was preserved by the women wearing long hair ( Luke 7:38 ; John 11:2 ; 1 Corinthians 11:6 ), while the men preserved theirs as a rule at a moderate length by frequent clipping. Baldness disqualified any one for the priest's office ( Leviticus 21 ). Elijah is called a "hairy man" ( 2 Kings 1:8 ) from his flowing locks, or more probably from the shaggy cloak of hair which he wore. His raiment was of camel's hair. Long hair is especially noticed in the description of Absalom's person ( 2 Samuel 14:26 ); but the wearing of long hair was unusual, and was only practised as an act of religious observance by Nazarites ( Numbers 6:5 ; Judges 13:5 ) and others in token of special mercies ( Acts 18:18 ). In times of affliction the hair was cut off ( Isaiah 3:17 Isaiah 3:24 ; 15:2 ; 22:12 ; Jeremiah 7:29 ; Amos 8:10 ). Tearing the hair and letting it go dishevelled were also tokens of grief ( Ezra 9:3 ). "Cutting off the hair" is a figure of the entire destruction of a people ( Isaiah 7:20 ). The Hebrews anointed the hair profusely with fragrant ointments ( Ruth 3:3 ; 2 Sam 14:2 ; Psalms 23:5 ; 45:7 , etc.), especially in seasons of rejoicing ( Matthew 6:17 ; Luke 7:46 ).

Hakkoz

the thorn, the head of one of the courses of the priests ( 1 Chronicles 24:10 ).

Halah

a district of Media to which captive Israelites were transported by the Assyrian kings ( 2 Kings 17:6 ; 18:11 ; 1 Chronicles 5:26 ). It lay along the banks of the upper Khabur, from its source to its junction with the Jerujer. Probably the district called by Ptolemy Chalcitis.

Halak

smooth; bald, a hill at the southern extremity of Canaan ( Joshua 11:17 ). It is referred to as if it were a landmark in that direction, being prominent and conspicuous from a distance. It has by some been identified with the modern Jebel el-Madura, on the south frontier of Judah, between the south end of the Dead Sea and the Wady Gaian.

Halhul

full of hollows, a town in the highlands of Judah ( Joshua 15:58 ). It is now a small village of the same name, and is situated about 5 miles north-east of Hebron on the way to Jerusalem. There is an old Jewish tradition that Gad, David's seer ( 2 Samuel 24:11 ), was buried here.

Hall

(Gr. aule, Luke 22:55 ; RSV, "court"), the open court or quadrangle belonging to the high priest's house. In Matthew 26:69 and Mark 14:66 this word is incorrectly rendered "palace" in the Authorized Version, but correctly "court" in the Revised Version. In John 10:1 John 10:16 it means a "sheep-fold." In Matthew 27:27 and Mark 15:16 (A.V., "common hall;" RSV, "palace") it refers to the proetorium or residence of the Roman governor at Jerusalem. The "porch" in Matthew 26:71 is the entrance-hall or passage leading into the central court, which is open to the sky.

Hallel

praise, the name given to the group of Psalms 113118 -118, which are preeminently psalms of praise. It is called "The Egyptian Hallel," because it was chanted in the temple whilst the Passover lambs were being slain. It was chanted also on other festival occasions, as at Pentecost, the feast of Tabernacles, and the feast of Dedication. The Levites, standing before the altar, chanted it verse by verse, the people responding by repeating the verses or by intoned hallelujahs. It was also chanted in private families at the feast of Passover. This was probably the hymn which our Saviour and his disciples sung at the conclusion of the Passover supper kept by them in the upper room at Jerusalem ( Matthew 26:30 ; Mark 14:26 ).

There is also another group called "The Great Hallel," comprehending Psalms 118136 -136, which was recited on the first evening at the Passover supper and on occasions of great joy.

Hallelujah

praise ye Jehovah, frequently rendered "Praise ye the LORD," stands at the beginning of ten of the psalms (106,111-113,135,146-150), hence called "hallelujah psalms." From its frequent occurrence it grew into a formula of praise. The Greek form of the word (alleluia) is found in Revelation 19:1 Revelation 19:3 Revelation 19:4 Revelation 19:6 .

Hallow

to render sacred, to consecrate ( Exodus 28:38 ; 29:1 ). This word is from the Saxon, and properly means "to make holy." The name of God is "hallowed", i.e., is reverenced as holy ( Matthew 6:9 ).

Halt

lame on the feet ( Genesis 32:31 ; Psalms 38:17 ). To "halt between two opinions" ( 1 Kings 18:21 ) is supposed by some to be an expression used in "allusion to birds, which hop from spray to spray, forwards and backwards." The LXX. render the expression "How long go ye lame on both knees?" The Hebrew verb rendered "halt" is used of the irregular dance ("leaped upon") around the altar (ver. 26). It indicates a lame, uncertain gait, going now in one direction, now in another, in the frenzy of wild leaping.

Ham

warm, hot, and hence the south; also an Egyptian word meaning "black", the youngest son of Noah ( Genesis 5:32 ; comp Genesis 9:22 Genesis 9:24 ). The curse pronounced by Noah against Ham, properly against Canaan his fourth son, was accomplished when the Jews subsequently exterminated the Canaanites.

One of the most important facts recorded in Genesis 10 is the foundation of the earliest monarchy in Babylonia by Nimrod the grandson of Ham (6,8,10). The primitive Babylonian empire was thus Hamitic, and of a cognate race with the primitive inhabitants of Arabia and of Ethiopia. (See ACCAD .)

The race of Ham were the most energetic of all the descendants of Noah in the early times of the post-diluvian world.

Haman

(of Persian origin), magnificent, the name of the vizier (i.e., the prime minister) of the Persian king Ahasuerus ( Esther 3:1 , etc.). He is called an "Agagite," which seems to denote that he was descended from the royal family of the Amalekites, the bitterest enemies of the Jews, as Agag was one of the titles of the Amalekite kings. He or his parents were brought to Persia as captives taken in war. He was hanged on the gallows which he had erected for Mordecai the Jew ( Esther 7:10 ). (See ESTHER .)

Hamath

fortress, the capital of one of the kingdoms of Upper Syria of the same name, on the Orontes, in the valley of Lebanon, at the northern boundary of Palestine ( Numbers 13:21 ; 34:8 ), at the foot of Hermon ( Joshua 13:5 ) towards Damascus ( Zechariah 9:2 ; Jeremiah 49:23 ). It is called "Hamath the great" in Amos 6:2 , and "Hamath-zobah" in 2 Chronicles 8:3 .

Hamath, now Hamah, had an Aramaean population, but Hittite monuments discovered there show that it must have been at one time occupied by the Hittites. It was among the conquests of the Pharaoh Thothmes III. Its king, Tou or Toi, made alliance with David ( 2 Samuel 8:10 ), and in B.C. 740 Azariah formed a league with it against Assyria. It was, however, conquered by the Assyrians, and its nineteen districts placed under Assyrian governors. In B.C. 720 it revolted under a certain Yahu-bihdi, whose name, compounded with that of the God of Israel (Yahu), perhaps shows that he was of Jewish origin. But the revolt was suppressed, and the people of Hamath were transported to Samaria ( 2 Kings 17:24 2 Kings 17:30 ), where they continued to worship their god Ashima. Hamah is beautifully situated on the Orontes, 32 miles north of Emesa, and 36 south of the ruins of Assamea.

The kingdom of Hamath comprehended the great plain lying on both banks of the Orontes from the fountain near Riblah to Assamea on the north, and from Lebanon on the west to the desert on the east. The "entrance of Hamath" ( Numbers 34:8 ), which was the north boundary of Palestine, led from the west between the north end of Lebanon and the Nusairiyeh mountains.

Hamath-zobah

fortress of Zobah, ( 2 Chronicles 8:3 ) is supposed by some to be a different place from the foregoing; but this is quite uncertain.

Hammath

warm springs, one of the "fenced cities" of Naphtali ( Joshua 19:35 ). It is identified with the warm baths (the heat of the water ranging from 136 degrees to 144 degrees) still found on the shore a little to the south of Tiberias under the name of Hummam Tabariyeh ("Bath of Tiberias").

Hammedatha

father of Haman, designated usually "the Agagite" ( Esther 3:1 Esther 3:10 ; 8:5 ).

Hammelech

the king's, the father of Jerahmeel, mentioned in Jeremiah 36:26 . Some take this word as a common noun, "the king", and understand that Jerahmeel was Jehoiakim's son. Probably, however, it is to be taken as a proper name.

Hammer

1. Heb. pattish, used by gold-beaters ( Isaiah 41:7 ) and by quarry-men ( Jeremiah 23:29 ). Metaphorically of Babylon ( Jeremiah 50:23 ) or Nebuchadnezzar.

2. Heb. makabah, a stone-cutter's mallet ( 1 Kings 6:7 ), or of any workman ( Judges 4:21 ; Isaiah 44:12 ).

3. Heb. halmuth, a poetical word for a workman's hammer, found only in Judges 5:26 , where it denotes the mallet with which the pins of the tent of the nomad are driven into the ground.

4. Heb. mappets, rendered "battle-axe" in Jeremiah 51:20 . This was properly a "mace," which is thus described by Rawlinson: "The Assyrian mace was a short, thin weapon, and must either have been made of a very tough wood or (and this is more probable) of metal. It had an ornamented head, which was sometimes very beautifully modelled, and generally a strap or string at the lower end by which it could be grasped with greater firmness."

Hammoleketh

the queen, the daughter of Machir and sister of Gilead ( 1 Chronicles 7:17 1 Chronicles 7:18 ). Abiezer was one of her three children.

Hammon

warm springs.

1. A town in the tribe of Asher, near Zidon ( Joshua 19:28 ), identified with 'Ain Hamul.

2. A Levitical city of Naphtali ( 1 Chronicles 6:76 ).

Hammoth-dor

warm springs, a Levitical city of Naphtali ( Joshua 21:32 ); probably Hammath in 19:35 .

Hamon

See BAAL-HAMON.

Hamonah

multitude, a name figuratively assigned to the place in which the slaughter and burial of the forces of Gog were to take place ( Ezekiel 39:16 ).

Hamon-gog

multitude of Gog, the name of the valley in which the slaughtered forces of Gog are to be buried ( Ezekiel 39:11 Ezekiel 39:15 ), "the valley of the passengers on the east of the sea."

Hamor

he-ass, a Hivite from whom Jacob purchased the plot of ground in which Joseph was afterwards buried ( Genesis 33:19 ). He is called "Emmor" in Acts 7:16 . His son Shechem founded the city of that name which Simeon and Levi destroyed because of his crime in the matter of Dinah, Jacob's daughter ( Genesis 34:20 ). Hamor and Shechem were also slain (ver. 26).

Hamul

spared, one of the sons of Pharez, son of Judah ( 1 Chronicles 2:5 ). His descendants are called Hamulites ( Numbers 26:21 ).

Hamutal

kinsman of the dew, the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah, wife of king Josiah, and mother of king Jehoahaz ( 2 Kings 23:31 ), also of king Zedekiah ( 2 Kings 24:18 ).

Hanameel

whom God has graciously given, the cousin of Jeremiah, to whom he sold the field he possessed in Anathoth, before the siege of Jerusalem ( Jeremiah 32:6-12 ).

Hanan

merciful.

1. A Benjamite ( 1 Chronicles 8:23 ).

2. One of David's heroes ( 1 Chronicles 11:43 ).

3. Jeremiah 35:4 .

4. A descendant of Saul ( 1 Chronicles 8:38 ).

5. One of the Nethinim ( Ezra 2:46 ).

6. One of the Levites who assisted Ezra ( Nehemiah 8:7 ).

7. One of the chiefs who subscribed the covenant ( Nehemiah 10:22 ).

Hananeel

God has graciously given, a tower in the wall of Jerusalem ( Nehemiah 3:1 ; 12:39 ). It is mentioned also in Jeremiah 31:38 ; Zechariah 14:10 .

Hanani

God has gratified me, or is gracious.

1. One of the sons of Heman ( 1 Chronicles 25:4 1 Chronicles 25:25 ).

2. A prophet who was sent to rebuke king Asa for entering into a league with Benhadad I., king of Syria, against Judah ( 2 Chronicles 16:1-10 ). He was probably the father of the prophet Jehu ( 1 Kings 16:7 ).

3. Probably a brother of Nehemiah ( Nehemiah 1:2 ; 7:2 ), who reported to him the melancholy condition of Jerusalem. Nehemiah afterwards appointed him to have charge of the city gates.

Hananiah

Jehovah has given.

1. A chief of the tribe of Benjamin ( 1 Chronicles 8:24 ).

2. One of the sons of Heman ( 1 Chronicles 25:4 1 Chronicles 25:23 ).

3. One of Uzziah's military officers ( 2 Chronicles 26:11 ).

4. Grandfather of the captain who arrested Jeremiah ( Jeremiah 37:13 ).

5. Jeremiah 36:12 .

6. Nehemiah 10:23 .

7. Shadrach, one of the "three Hebrew children" (Dan. 1; 6:7 ).

8. Son of Zerubbabel ( 1 Chronicles 3:19 1 Chronicles 3:21 ).

9. Ezra 10:28 .

10. The "ruler of the palace; he was a faithful man, and feared God above many" ( Nehemiah 7:2 ).

11. Nehemiah 3:8 .

12. Nehemiah 3:30

13. A priest, son of Jeremiah ( Nehemiah 12:12 ).

14. A false prophet contemporary with ( Jeremiah 28:3 Jeremiah 28:17 ).

Hand

Called by Galen "the instrument of instruments." It is the symbol of human action ( Psalms 9:16 ; Job 9:30 ; Isaiah 1:15 ; 1 Timothy 2:8 ). Washing the hands was a symbol of innocence ( Psalms 26:6 ; 73:13 ; Matthew 27:24 ), also of sanctification ( 1 Corinthians 6:11 ; Isaiah 51:16 ; Psalms 24:3 Psalms 24:4 ). In Psalms 77:2 the correct rendering is, as in the Revised Version, "My hand was stretched out," etc., instead of, as in the Authorized Version, "My sore ran in the night," etc.

The right hand denoted the south, and the left the north ( Job 23:9 ; 1 Samuel 23:19 ). To give the right hand was a pledge of fidelity ( 2 Kings 10:15 ; Ezra 10:19 ); also of submission to the victors ( Ezekiel 17:18 ; Jeremiah 50:15 ). The right hand was lifted up in taking an oath ( Genesis 14:22 , etc.). The hand is frequently mentioned, particularly the right hand, as a symbol of power and strength ( Psalms 60:5 ; Isaiah 28:2 ). To kiss the hand is an act of homage ( 1 Kings 19:18 ; Job 31:27 ), and to pour water on one's hands is to serve him ( 2 Kings 3:11 ). The hand of God is the symbol of his power: its being upon one denotes favour ( Ezra 7:6 Ezra 7:28 ; Isaiah 1:25 ; Luke 1:66 , etc.) or punishment ( Exodus 9:3 ; Judges 2:15 ; Acts 13:11 , etc.). A position at the right hand was regarded as the chief place of honour and power ( Psalms 45:9 ; 80:17 ; 110:1 ; Matthew 26:64 ).

Handbreadth

a measure of four fingers, equal to about four inches ( Exodus 25:25 ; 37:12 ; Psalms 39:5 , etc.).

Handkerchief

Only once in Authorized Version ( Acts 19:12 ). The Greek word (sudarion) so rendered means properly "a sweat-cloth." It is rendered "napkin" in John 11:44 ; 20:7 ; Luke 19:20 .

Handmaid

servant ( Genesis 16:1 ; Ruth 3:9 ; Luke 1:48 ). It is probable that Hagar was Sarah's personal attendant while she was in the house of Pharaoh, and was among those maid-servants whom Abram had brought from Egypt.

Handwriting

( Colossians 2:14 ). The "blotting out the handwriting" is the removal by the grace of the gospel of the condemnation of the law which we had broken.

Hanes

a place in Egypt mentioned only in Isaiah 30:4 in connection with a reproof given to the Jews for trusting in Egypt. It was considered the same as Tahpanhes, a fortified town on the eastern frontier, but has been also identified as Ahnas-el-Medeeneh, 70 miles from Cairo.

Hanging

(as a punishment), a mark of infamy inflicted on the dead bodies of criminals ( Deuteronomy 21:23 ) rather than our modern mode of punishment. Criminals were first strangled and then hanged ( Numbers 25:4 ; Deuteronomy 21:22 ). (See 2 Samuel 21:6 for the practice of the Gibeonites.)

Hanging (as a curtain).

1. Heb. masak, (a) before the entrance to the court of the tabernacle ( Exodus 35:17 ); (b) before the door of the tabernacle ( Exodus 26:36 Exodus 26:37 ); (c) before the entrance to the most holy place, called "the veil of the covering" ( 35:12 ; 39:34 ), as the word properly means.

2. Heb. kelaim, tapestry covering the walls of the tabernacle ( Exodus 27:9 ; 35:17 ; Numbers 3:26 ) to the half of the height of the wall ( Exodus 27:18 ; comp 26:16 ). These hangings were fastened to pillars.

3. Heb. bottim ( 2 Kings 23:7 ), "hangings for the grove" (RSV, "for the Asherah"); marg., instead of "hangings," has "tents" or "houses." Such curtained structures for idolatrous worship are also alluded to in Ezekiel 16:16 .

Hannah

favour, grace, one of the wives of Elkanah the Levite, and the mother of Samuel (1Sam. 1; 2). Her home was at Ramathaim-zophim, whence she was wont every year to go to Shiloh, where the tabernacle had been pitched by Joshua, to attend the offering of sacrifices there according to the law ( Exodus 23:15 ; 34:18 ; Deuteronomy 16:16 ), probably at the feast of the Passover (Compare Exodus 13:10 ). On occasion of one of these "yearly" visits, being grieved by reason of Peninnah's conduct toward her, she went forth alone, and kneeling before the Lord at the sanctuary she prayed inaudibly. Eli the high priest, who sat at the entrance to the holy place, observed her, and misunderstanding her character he harshly condemned her conduct ( 1 Samuel 1:14-16 ). After hearing her explanation he retracted his injurious charge and said to her, "Go in peace: and the God of Israel grant thee thy petition." Perhaps the story of the wife of Manoah was not unknown to her. Thereafter Elkanah and his family retired to their quiet home, and there, before another Passover, Hannah gave birth to a son, whom, in grateful memory of the Lord's goodness, she called Samuel, i.e., "heard of God." After the child was weaned (probably in his third year) she brought him to Shiloh into the house of the Lord, and said to Eli the aged priest, "Oh my lord, I am the woman that stood by thee here, praying unto the Lord. For this child I prayed; and the Lord hath given me my petition which I asked of him: therefore I also have granted him to the Lord; as long as he liveth he is granted to the Lord" ( 1 Samuel 1:27 1 Samuel 1:28 , RSV). Her gladness of heart then found vent in that remarkable prophetic ( 1 Samuel 2:1-10 ; Compare Luke 1:46-55 ) which contains the first designation of the Messiah under that name ( 1 Samuel 2:10 , "Annointed" = "Messiah"). And so Samuel and his parents parted. He was left at Shiloh to minister "before the Lord." And each year, when they came up to Shiloh, Hannah brought to her absent child "a little coat" (Heb. meil, a term used to denote the "robe" of the ephod worn by the high priest, Exodus 28:31 ), a priestly robe, a long upper tunic ( 1 Chronicles 15:27 ), in which to minister in the tabernacle ( 1 Samuel 2:19 ; 15:27 ; Job 2:12 ). "And the child Samuel grew before the Lord." After Samuel, Hannah had three sons and two daughters.

Hanniel

grace of God.

1. A chief of the tribe of Manasseh ( Numbers 34:23 ).

2. A chief of the tribe of Asher ( 1 Chronicles 7:39 ).

Hanun

graciously given.

1. The son and successor of Nahash, king of Moab. David's messengers, sent on an embassy of condolence to him to Rabbah Ammon, his capital, were so grossly insulted that he proclaimed war against Hanun. David's army, under the command of Joab, forthwith crossed the Jordan, and gained a complete victory over the Moabites and their allies ( 2 Samuel 10:1-14 ) at Medeba (q.v.).

2. Nehemiah 3:13 .

3. 3:30 .

Hara

mountainous land, a province of Assyria ( 1 Chronicles 5:26 ), between the Tigris and the Euphrates, along the banks of the Khabur, to which some of the Israelite captives were carried. It has not been identified. Some think the word a variation of Haran.

Haradah

fright; fear, the twenty-fifth station of the Israelites in their wanderings ( Numbers 33:24 ).

Haran

1. Heb. haran; i.e., "mountaineer." The eldest son of Terah, brother of Abraham and Nahor, and father of Lot, Milcah, and Iscah. He died before his father ( Genesis 11:27 ), in Ur of the Chaldees.

2. Heb. haran, i.e., "parched;" or probably from the Accadian charana, meaning "a road." A celebrated city of Western Asia, now Harran, where Abram remained, after he left Ur of the Chaldees, till his father Terah died ( Genesis 11:31 Genesis 11:32 ), when he continued his journey into the land of Canaan. It is called "Charran" in the LXX. and in Acts 7:2 . It is called the "city of Nahor" ( Genesis 24:10 ), and Jacob resided here with Laban ( 30:43 ). It stood on the river Belik, an affluent of the Euphrates, about 70 miles above where it joins that river in Upper Mesopotamia or Padan-aram, and about 600 miles northwest of Ur in a direct line. It was on the caravan route between the east and west. It is afterwards mentioned among the towns taken by the king of Assyria ( 2 Kings 19:12 ; Isaiah 37:12 ). It was known to the Greeks and Romans under the name Carrhae.

3. The son of Caleb of Judah ( 1 Chronicles 2:46 ) by his concubine Ephah.

Harbona

(a Persian word meaning "ass-driver"), one of the seven eunuchs or chamberlains of king Ahasuerus ( Esther 1:10 ; 7:9 ).

Hare

(Heb. 'arnebeth) was prohibited as food according to the Mosaic law ( Leviticus 11:6 ; Deuteronomy 14:7 ), "because he cheweth the cud, but divideth not the hoof." The habit of this animal is to grind its teeth and move its jaw as if it actually chewed the cud. But, like the cony (q.v.), it is not a ruminant with four stomachs, but a rodent like the squirrel, rat, etc. Moses speaks of it according to appearance. It is interdicted because, though apparently chewing the cud, it did not divide the hoof.

There are two species in Syria, (1) the Lepus Syriacus or Syrian hare, which is like the English hare; and (2) the Lepus Sinaiticus, or hare of the desert. No rabbits are found in Syria.

Hareth

thicket, a wood in the mountains of Judah where David hid when pursued by Saul ( 1 Samuel 22:5 ). It was possibly while he was here that the memorable incident narrated in 2Sam 2 Samuel 11:16-19 occurred. This place has not been identified, but perhaps it may be the modern Kharas, on the borders of the chain of mountains some 3 miles east of Keilah.

Harhaiah

zeal of Jehovah, ( Nehemiah 3:8 ) "of the goldsmiths," one whose son helped to repair the wall of Jerusalem.

Harhur

fever, one of the Nethinim ( Ezra 2:51 ).

Harim

flat-nosed.

1. The head of the second course of priests ( 1 Chronicles 24:8 ).

2. Ezra 2:32 Ezra 2:39 ; Nehemiah 7:35 Nehemiah 7:42 .

3. Nehemiah 3:11 .

4. 12:3 .

5. 10:5

Hariph

autumnal rain.

1. Nehemiah 7:24 .

2. 10:19 .

Harlot

1. Heb. zonah ( Genesis 34:31 ; 38:15 ). In verses 21,22the Hebrew word used in kedeshah , i.e., a woman consecrated or devoted to prostitution in connection with the abominable worship of Asherah or Astarte, the Syrian Venus. This word is also used in Deuteronomy 23:17 ; Hosea 4:14 . Thus Tamar sat by the wayside as a consecrated kedeshah. It has been attempted to show that Rahab, usually called a "harlot" ( Joshua 2:1 ; 6:17 ; Hebrews 11:31 ; James 2:25 ), was only an innkeeper. This interpretation, however, cannot be maintained. Jephthah's mother is called a "strange woman" ( Judges 11:2 ). This, however, merely denotes that she was of foreign extraction. In the time of Solomon harlots appeared openly in the streets, and he solemnly warns against association with them ( Proverbs 7:12 ; 9:14 . See also Jeremiah 3:2 ; Ezekiel 16:24 Ezekiel 16:25 Ezekiel 16:31 ). The Revised Version, following the LXX., has "and the harlots washed," etc., instead of the rendering of the Authorized Version, "now they washed," of 1 Kings 22:38 . To commit fornication is metaphorically used for to practice idolatry ( Jeremiah 3:1 ; Ezekiel 16:15 ; Hos. throughout); hence Jerusalem is spoken of as a harlot ( Isaiah 1:21 ).

2. Heb. nokriyah, the "strange woman" ( 1 Kings 11:1 ; Proverbs 5:20 ; 7:5 ; 23:27 ). Those so designated were Canaanites and other Gentiles ( Joshua 23:13 ). To the same class belonged the "foolish", i.e., the sinful, "woman." In the New Testament the Greek pornai, plural, "harlots," occurs in Matthew 21:31 Matthew 21:32 , where they are classed with publicans; Luke 15:30 ; 1 Corinthians 6:15 1 Corinthians 6:16 ; Hebrews 11:31 ; James 2:25 . It is used symbolically in Revelation 17:1 Revelation 17:5 Revelation 17:15 Revelation 17:16 ; 19:2 .

Harnepher

a chief of the tribe of Asher ( 1 Chronicles 7:36 ).

Harness

1. Heb. 'asar, "to bind;" hence the act of fastening animals to a cart ( 1 Samuel 6:7 1 Samuel 6:10 ; Jeremiah 46:4 , etc.).

2. An Old English word for "armour;" Heb. neshek ( 2 Chronicles 9:24 ).

3. Heb. shiryan, a coat of mail ( 1 Kings 22:34 ; 2 Chr. 18:33 ; rendered "breastplate" in Isaiah 59:17 ).

4. The children of Israel passed out of Egypt "harnessed" ( Exodus 13:18 ), i.e., in an orderly manner, and as if to meet a foe. The word so rendered is probably a derivative from Hebrew hamesh (i.e., "five"), and may denote that they went up in five divisions, viz., the van, centre, two wings, and rear-guard.

Harod

palpitation, a fountain near which Gideon and his army encamped on the morning of the day when they encountered and routed the Midianites (Judg. 7). It was south of the hill Moreh. The present 'Ain Jalud ("Goliath's Fountain"), south of Jezreel and nearly opposite Shunem, is probably the fountain here referred to ( Exodus 7:4 Exodus 7:5 ).

Harodite

an epithet applied to two of David's heroes ( 2 Samuel 23:25 ). (Compare 1 Chronicles 11:27 .)

Harosheth of the Gentiles

( Judges 4:2 ) or nations, a city near Hazor in Galilee of the Gentiles, or Upper Galilee, in the north of Palestine. It was here that Jabin's great army was marshalled before it went forth into the great battlefield of Esdraelon to encounter the army of Israel, by which it was routed and put to flight (Judg. 4). It was situated "at the entrance of the pass to Esdraelon from the plain of Acre" at the base of Carmel. The name in the Hebrew is Harosheth ha Gojim , i.e., "the smithy of the nations;" probably, as is supposed, so called because here Jabin's iron war-chariots, armed with scythes, were made. It is identified with el-Harithiyeh.

Harp

(Heb. kinnor), the national instrument of the Hebrews. It was invented by Jubal ( Genesis 4:21 ). Some think the word kinnor denotes the whole class of stringed instruments. It was used as an accompaniment to songs of cheerfulness as well as of praise to God ( Genesis 31:27 ; 1 Samuel 16:23 ; 2 Chr 20:28 ; Psalms 33:2 ; 137:2 ).

In Solomon's time harps were made of almug-trees ( 1 Kings 10:11 1 Kings 10:12 ). In 1 Chronicles 15:21 mention is made of "harps on the Sheminith;" Revised Version, "harps set to the Sheminith;" better perhaps "harps of eight strings." The soothing effect of the music of the harp is referred to 1 Samuel 16:16 1 Samuel 16:23 ; 18:10 ; 19:9 . The church in heaven is represented as celebrating the triumphs of the Redeemer "harping with their harps" ( Revelation 14:2 ).

Harrow

(Heb. harits), a tribulum or sharp threshing sledge; a frame armed on the under side with rollers or sharp spikes ( 2 Samuel 12:31 ; 1 Chronicles 20:3 ).

Heb. verb sadad , to harrow a field, break its clods ( Job 39:10 ; Isaiah 28:4 ; Hosea 10: : 11 ). Its form is unknown. It may have resembled the instrument still in use in Egypt.

Harsha

worker or enchanter, one of the Nethinim ( Ezra 2:52 ; Nehemiah 7:54 ).

Hart

(Heb. 'ayal), a stag or male deer. It is ranked among the clean animals ( Deuteronomy 12:15 ; 14:5 ; 15:22 ), and was commonly killed for food ( 1 Kings 4:23 ). The hart is frequently alluded to in the poetical and prophetical books ( Isaiah 35:6 ; Cant Isaiah 2:8 Isaiah 2:9 ; Lamentations 1:6 ; Psalms 42:1 ).

Harum

elevated, ( 1 Chronicles 4:8 ), a descendant of Judah.

Haruphite

a native of Hariph; an epithet given to Shephatiah, one of those who joined David at Ziklag ( 1 Chronicles 12:5 ).

Haruz

eager, the father of Meshullemeth, the wife of king Manasseh ( 2 Kings 21:19 ) and mother of king Amon.

Harvest

the season for gathering grain or fruit. On the 16th day of Abib (or April) a handful of ripe ears of corn was offered as a first-fruit before the Lord, and immediately after this the harvest commenced ( Leviticus 23:9-14 ; 2 Sam Leviticus 21:9 Leviticus 21:10 ; Ruth 2:23 ). It began with the feast of Passover and ended with Pentecost, thus lasting for seven weeks ( Exodus 23:16 ). The harvest was a season of joy ( Psalms 126:1-6 ; Isaiah 9:3 ). This word is used figuratively Matthew 9:37 ; 13:30 ; Luke 10:2 ; John 4:35 . (See AGRICULTURE .)

Hasadiah

favoured by Jehovah, one of the sons of Pedaiah ( 1 Chronicles 3:20 ), of the royal line of David.

Hasenuah

bristling or hated, a Benjamite ( 1 Chronicles 9:7 ).

Hashabiah

regarded by Jehovah.

1. Merarite Levite ( 1 Chronicles 6:45 ; 9:14 ).

2. A son of Jeduthun ( 1 Chronicles 25:3 1 Chronicles 25:19 ).

3. Son of Kemuel ( 26:30 ).

4. One of the chief Levites ( 2 Chronicles 35:9 ).

5. A Levite ( Nehemiah 11:22 ).

6. One of the chief priests in the time of Ezra ( Ezra 8:24 ).

7. A chief of the Levites ( Nehemiah 12:24 ).

8. Ezra 8:19 .

9. Nehemiah 3:17 .

Hashabniah

1. Nehemiah 3:10 .

2. One of the Levites whom Ezra appointed to interpret the law to the people ( Nehemiah 9:5 ).

Hashbadana

consideration in judging, stood at Ezra's left hand when he read the law ( Nehemiah 8:4 ).

Hashmonah

fatness, the thirtieth halting-place of the Israelites during their wanderings in the wilderness, not far from Mount Hor ( Numbers 33:29 Numbers 33:30 ).