Easton's Bible Dictionary
Gaal — Glean
loathing, the son of Ebed, in whom the Shechemites "placed their confidence" when they became discontented with Abimelech. He headed the revolution, and led out the men of Shechem against Abimelech; but was defeated, and fled to his own home (Judg. 9:26-46 ). We hear no more of him after this battle.
Gab Baitha, i.e., "the ridge of the house" = "the temple-mound," on a part of which the fortress of Antonia was built. This "temple-mound" was covered with a tesselated "pavement" (Gr. lithostroton, i.e., "stone-paved"). A judgement-seat (bema) was placed on this "pavement" outside the hall of the "praetorium" (q.v.), the judgment-hall ( John 18:28 ; 19:13 ).
champion of God, used as a proper name to designate the angel who was sent to ( Daniel 8:16 ) to explain the vision of the ram and the he-goat, and to communicate the prediction of the seventy weeks ( Daniel 9:21-27 ).
1. Jacob's seventh son, by Zilpah, Leah's handmaid, and the brother of Asher ( Genesis 30:11-13 ; Genesis 46:16 Genesis 46:18 ). In the Authorized Version of 30:11 the words, "A troop cometh: and she called," etc., should rather be rendered, "In fortune [RSV, 'Fortunate']: and she called," etc., or "Fortune cometh," etc. The tribe of Gad during the march through the wilderness had their place with Simeon and Reuben on the south side of the tabernacle ( Numbers 2:14 ). The tribes of Reuben and Gad continued all through their history to follow the pastoral pursuits of the patriarchs ( Numbers 32:1-5 ). The portion allotted to the tribe of Gad was on the east of Jordan, and comprehended the half of Gilead, a region of great beauty and fertility ( Deuteronomy 3:12 ), bounded on the east by the Arabian desert, on the west by the Jordan ( Joshua 13:27 ), and on the north by the river Jabbok. It thus included the whole of the Jordan valley as far north as to the Sea of Galilee, where it narrowed almost to a point. This tribe was fierce and warlike; they were "strong men of might, men of war for the battle, that could handle shield and buckler, their faces the faces of lions, and like roes upon the mountains for swiftness" ( 1 Chronicles 12:8 ; 5:19-22 ). Barzillai ( 2 Samuel 17:27 ) and Elijah ( 1 Kings 17:1 ) were of this tribe. It was carried into captivity at the same time as the other tribes of the northern kingdom by Tiglath-pileser ( 1 Chronicles 5:26 ), and in the time of ( Jeremiah 49:1 ) their cities were inhabited by the Ammonites.
2. A prophet who joined David in the "hold," and at whose advice he quitted it for the forest of Hareth ( 1 Chronicles 29:29 ; 2 Chr 29:25 ; 1 Samuel 22:5 ). Many years after we find mention made of him in connection with the punishment inflicted for numbering the people ( 2 Samuel 24:11-19 ; 1 Chronicles 21:9-19 ). He wrote a book called the "Acts of David" ( 1 Chronicles 29:29 ), and assisted in the arrangements for the musical services of the "house of God" ( 2 Chronicles 29:25 ). He bore the title of "the king's seer" ( 2 Samuel 24:11 2 Samuel 24:13 ; 1 Chronicles 21:9 ).
the capital of the Roman province of Peraea. It stood on the summit of a mountain about 6 miles south-east of the Sea of Galilee. ( Mark 5:1 ) and ( Luke 8:26-39 ) describe the miracle of the healing of the demoniac ( [ Matthew 8:28-34 ] says two demoniacs) as having been wrought "in the country of the Gadarenes," thus describing the scene generally. The miracle could not have been wrought at Gadara itself, for between the lake and this town there is the deep, almost impassable ravine of the Hieromax (Jarmuk). It is identified with the modern village of Um-Keis, which is surrounded by very extensive ruins, all bearing testimony to the splendour of ancient Gadara.
"The most interesting remains of Gadara are its tombs, which dot the cliffs for a considerable distance round the city, chiefly on the north-east declivity; but many beautifully sculptured sarcophagi are scattered over the surrounding heights. They are excavated in the limestone rock, and consist of chambers of various dimensions, some more than 20 feet square, with recesses in the sides for bodies...The present inhabitants of Um-Keis are all troglodytes, 'dwelling in tombs,' like the poor maniacs of old, and occasionally they are almost as dangerous to unprotected travellers."
fortunate, the representative of the tribe of Manasseh among the twelve "spies" sent by Moses to spy the land ( Numbers 13:11 ).
fortune (i.e., sent) of God, the representative of the tribe of Zebulum among the twelve spies ( Numbers 13:10 ).
lurking-place, one of the chief of the Nethinim, whose descendants returned to Jerusalem under Zerubbabel ( Ezra 2:47 ).
1. A Macedonian, Paul's fellow-traveller, and his host at Corinth when he wrote his Epistle to the ( Romans 16:23 ). He with his household were baptized by Paul ( 1 Corinthians 1:14 ). During a heathen outbreak against Paul at Ephesus the mob seized Gaius and Aristarchus because they could not find Paul, and rushed with them into the theatre. Some have identified this Gaius with No. (2).
2. A man of Derbe who accompanied Paul into Asia on his last journey to Jerusalem
3. A Christain of Asia Minor to whom John addressed his third epistle ( 3 John 1:1 ).
has been called the "Gallia" of the East, Roman writers calling its inhabitants Galli. They were an intermixture of Gauls and Greeks, and hence were called Gallo-Graeci, and the country Gallo-Graecia. The Galatians were in their origin a part of that great Celtic migration which invaded Macedonia about B.C. 280. They were invited by the king of Bithynia to cross over into Asia Minor to assist him in his wars. There they ultimately settled, and being strengthened by fresh accessions of the same clan from Europe, they overran Bithynia, and supported themselves by plundering neighbouring countries. They were great warriors, and hired themselves out as mercenary soldiers, sometimes fighting on both sides in the great battles of the times. They were at length brought under the power of Rome in B.C. 189, and Galatia became a Roman province B.C. 25.
This province of Galatia, within the limits of which these Celtic tribes were confined, was the central region of Asia Minor.
During his second missionary journey Paul, accompanied by Silas and Timothy ( Acts 16:6 ), visited the "region of Galatia," where he was detained by sickness ( Galatians 4:13 ), and had thus the longer opportunity of preaching to them the gospel. On his third journey he went over "all the country of Galatia and Phrygia in order" ( Acts 18:23 ). Crescens was sent thither by Paul toward the close of his life ( 2 Timothy 4:10 ).
The genuineness of this epistle is not called in question. Its Pauline origin is universally acknowledged.
Occasion of. The churches of Galatia were founded by Paul himself ( Acts 16:6 ; Galatians 1:8 ; Galatians 4:13 Galatians 4:19 ). They seem to have been composed mainly of converts from heathenism ( 4:8 ), but partly also of Jewish converts, who probably, under the influence of Judaizing teachers, sought to incorporate the rites of Judaism with Christianity, and by their active zeal had succeeded in inducing the majority of the churches to adopt their views ( 1:6 ; 3:1 ). This epistle was written for the purpose of counteracting this Judaizing tendency, and of recalling the Galatians to the simplicity of the gospel, and at the same time also of vindicating Paul's claim to be a divinely-commissioned apostle.
Time and place of writing. The epistle was probably written very soon after Paul's second visit to Galatia ( Acts 18:23 ). The references of the epistle appear to agree with this conclusion. The visit to Jerusalem, mentioned in Galatians 2:1-10 , was identical with that of Acts 15 , and it is spoken of as a thing of the past, and consequently the epistle was written subsequently to the council of Jerusalem. The similarity between this epistle and that to the Romans has led to the conclusion that they were both written at the same time, namely, in the winter of A.D. 57-8, during Paul's stay in Corinth ( Acts 20:2 Acts 20:3 ). This to the Galatians is written on the urgency of the occasion, tidings having reached him of the state of matters; and that to the Romans in a more deliberate and systematic way, in exposition of the same great doctrines of the gospel.
Contents of. The great question discussed is, Was the Jewish law binding on Christians? The epistle is designed to prove against the Jews that men are justified by faith without the works of the law of Moses. After an introductory address ( Galatians 1:1-10 ) the apostle discusses the subjects which had occasioned the epistle. (1) He defends his apostolic authority ( 1:11-19 ; 2:1-14 ); (2) shows the evil influence of the Judaizers in destroying the very essence of the gospel (3 and 4); (3) exhorts the Galatian believers to stand fast in the faith as it is in Jesus, and to abound in the fruits of the Spirit, and in a right use of their Christian freedom ( (5-6:1-10); ); (4) and then concludes with a summary of the topics discussed, and with the benediction.
The Epistle to the Galatians and that to the Romans taken together "form a complete proof that justification is not to be obtained meritoriously either by works of morality or by rites and ceremonies, though of divine appointment; but that it is a free gift, proceeding entirely from the mercy of God, to those who receive it by faith in Jesus our Lord."
In the conclusion of the epistle ( 6:11 ) Paul says, "Ye see how large a letter I have written with mine own hand." It is implied that this was different from his ordinary usage, which was simply to write the concluding salutation with his own hand, indicating that the rest of the epistle was written by another hand. Regarding this conclusion, Lightfoot, in his Commentary on the epistle, says: "At this point the apostle takes the pen from his amanuensis, and the concluding paragraph is written with his own hand. From the time when letters began to be forged in his name ( 2 Thessalonians 2:2 ; 3:17 ) it seems to have been his practice to close with a few words in his own handwriting, as a precaution against such forgeries...In the present case he writes a whole paragraph, summing up the main lessons of the epistle in terse, eager, disjointed sentences. He writes it, too, in large, bold characters (Gr. pelikois grammasin), that his hand-writing may reflect the energy and determination of his soul." (See JUSTIFICATION .)
Heb. helbenah, ( Exodus 30:34 ), one of the ingredients in the holy incense. It is a gum, probably from the Galbanum officinale.
heap of witness, the name of the pile of stones erected by Jacob and Laban to mark the league of friendship into which they entered with each other ( Genesis 31:47 Genesis 31:48 ). This was the name given to the "heap" by Jacob. It is Hebrew, while the name Jegar-sahadutha, given to it by Laban, is Aramaic (Chaldee or Syriac). Probably Nahor's family originally spoke Aramaic, and Abraham and his descendants learned Hebrew, a kindred dialect, in the land of Canaan.
an inhabitant or native of Galilee. This word was used as a name of contempt as applied to our Lord's disciples ( Luke 22:59 ; Acts 2:7 ). All the apostles, with the exception of Judas Iscariot ( Acts 1:11 ), were Galileans. Peter was detected by his Galilean accent ( Matthew 26:69 ; Mark 14:70 ).
This was also one of the names of reproach given to the early Christians. Julian the Apostate, as he is called, not only used the epithet himself when referring to Christ and his apostles, but he made it a law that no one should ever call the Christians by any other name.
circuit. Solomon rewarded Hiram for certain services rendered him by the gift of an upland plain among the mountains of Naphtali. Hiram was dissatisfied with the gift, and called it "the land of Cabul" (q.v.). The Jews called it Galil. It continued long to be occupied by the original inhabitants, and hence came to be called "Galilee of the Gentiles" ( Matthew 4:15 ), and also "Upper Galilee," to distinguish it from the extensive addition afterwards made to it toward the south, which was usually called "Lower Galilee." In the time of our Lord, Galilee embraced more than one-third of Western Palestine, extending "from Dan on the north, at the base of Mount Hermon, to the ridges of Carmel and Gilboa on the south, and from the Jordan valley on the east away across the splendid plains of Jezreel and Acre to the shores of the Mediterranean on the west." Palestine was divided into three provinces, Judea, Samaria, and Galilee, which comprehended the whole northern section of the country ( Acts 9:31 ), and was the largest of the three.
It was the scene of some of the most memorable events of Jewish history. Galilee also was the home of our Lord during at least thirty years of his life. The first three Gospels are chiefly taken up with our Lord's public ministry in this province. "The entire province is encircled with a halo of holy associations connected with the life, works, and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth." "It is noteworthy that of his thirty-two beautiful parables, no less than ninteen were spoken in Galilee. And it is no less remarkable that of his entire thirty-three great miracles, twenty-five were wrought in this province. His first miracle was wrought at the wedding in Cana of Galilee, and his last, after his resurrection, on the shore of Galilee's sea. In Galilee our Lord delivered the Sermon on The Mount, and the discourses on 'The Bread of Life,' on 'Purity,' on 'Forgiveness,' and on 'Humility.' In Galilee he called his first disciples; and there occurred the sublime scene of the Transfiguration" (Porter's Through Samaria).
When the Sanhedrin were about to proceed with some plan for the condemnation of our Lord ( John 7:45-52 ), Nicodemus interposed in his behalf. (Compare Deuteronomy 1:16 Deuteronomy 1:17 ; 17:8 .) They replied, "Art thou also of Galilee?.... Out of Galilee ariseth no prophet." This saying of theirs was "not historically true, for two prophets at least had arisen from Galilee, Jonah of Gath-hepher, and the greatest of all the prophets, Elijah of Thisbe, and perhaps also Nahum and Hosea. Their contempt for Galilee made them lose sight of historical accuracy" (Alford, Com.).
The Galilean accent differed from that of Jerusalem in being broader and more guttural ( Mark 14:70 ).
1. In the Old Testament it is called the "sea of Chinnereth" ( Numbers 34:11 ; Joshua 12:3 ; 13:27 ), as is supposed from its harp-like shape. (2). The "lake of Gennesareth" once by ( Luke 5:1 ), from the flat district lying on its west coast.
2. ( John 6:1 ; 21:1 ) calls it the "sea of Tiberias" (q.v.). The modern Arabs retain this name, Bahr Tabariyeh. This lake is 12 1/2 miles long, and from 4 to 7 1/2 broad. Its surface is 682 feet below the level of the Mediterranean. Its depth is from 80 to 160 feet. The Jordan enters it 10 1/2 miles below the southern extremity of the Huleh Lake, or about 26 1/2 miles from its source. In this distance of 26 1/2 miles there is a fall in the river of 1,682 feet, or of more than 60 feet to the mile. It is 27 miles east of the Mediterranean, and about 60 miles north-east of Jerusalem. It is of an oval shape, and abounds in fish. Its present appearance is thus described: "The utter loneliness and absolute stillness of the scene are exceedingly impressive. It seems as if all nature had gone to rest, languishing under the scorching heat. How different it was in the days of our Lord! Then all was life and bustle along the shores; the cities and villages that thickly studded them resounded with the hum of a busy population; while from hill-side and corn-field came the cheerful cry of shepherd and ploughman. The lake, too, was dotted with dark fishing-boats and spangled with white sails. Now a mournful, solitary silence reigns over sea and shore. The cities are in ruins!" This sea is chiefly of interest as associated with the public ministry of our Lord. Capernaum, "his own city" ( Matthew 9:1 ), stood on its shores. From among the fishermen who plied their calling on its waters he chose Peter and his brother Andrew, and James and John, to be disciples, and sent them forth to be "fishers of men" ( Matthew 4:18 Matthew 4:22 ; Mark 1:16-20 ; Luke 5: : 1-11). He stilled its tempest, saying to the storm that swept over it, "Peace, be still" ( Matthew 8:23-27 ; Mark 7:31-35 ); and here also he showed himself after his resurrection to his disciples ( John 21 ). "The Sea of Galilee is indeed the cradle of the gospel. The subterranean fires of nature prepared a lake basin, through which a river afterwards ran, keeping its waters always fresh. In this basin a vast quantity of shell-fish swarmed, and multiplied to such an extent that they formed the food of an extraordinary profusion of fish. The great variety and abundance of the fish in the lake attracted to its shores a larger and more varied population than existed elsewhere in Palestine, whereby this secluded district was brought into contact with all parts of the world. And this large and varied population, with access to all nations and countries, attracted the Lord Jesus, and induced him to make this spot the centre of his public ministry."
1. Heb. rosh. In Deuteronomy 32:33 and Job 20:16 it denotes the poison of serpents. In Hosea 10:4 the Hebrew word is rendered "hemlock." The original probably denotes some bitter, poisonous plant, most probably the poppy, which grows up quickly, and is therefore coupled with wormwood ( Deuteronomy 29:18 ; Jeremiah 9:15 ; Lamentations 3:19 ). Compare Jeremiah 8:14 ; 23:15 , "water of gall," Gesenius, "poppy juice;" others, "water of hemlock," "bitter water."
2. Gr. chole ( Matthew 27:34 ), the LXX. translation of the Hebrew rosh in Psalms 69 ; 21 , which foretells our Lord's sufferings. The drink offered to our Lord was vinegar (made of light wine rendered acid, the common drink of Roman soldiers) "mingled with gall," or, according to ( Mark 15:23 ), "mingled with myrrh;" both expressions meaning the same thing, namely, that the vinegar was made bitter by the infusion of wormwood or some other bitter substance, usually given, according to a merciful custom, as an anodyne to those who were crucified, to render them insensible to pain. Our Lord, knowing this, refuses to drink it. He would take nothing to cloud his faculties or blunt the pain of dying. He chooses to suffer every element of woe in the bitter cup of agony given him by the Father ( John 18:11 ).
2. Heb. rahit (Cant 1:17 ), translated "rafters," marg. "galleries;" probably panel-work or fretted ceiling.
the elder brother of Seneca the philosopher, who was tutor and for some time minister of the emperor Nero. He was "deputy", i.e., proconsul, as in Revised Version, of Achaia, under the emperor Claudius, when Paul visited Corinth ( Acts 18:12 ). The word used here by Luke in describing the rank of Gallio shows his accuracy. Achaia was a senatorial province under Claudius, and the governor of such a province was called a "proconsul." He is spoken of by his contemporaries as "sweet Gallio," and is described as a most popular and affectionate man. When the Jews brought Paul before his tribunal on the charge of persuading "men to worship God contrary to the law" ( 18:13 ), he refused to listen to them, and "drave them from the judgment seat" ( 18:16 ).
reward of God.
2. The son of rabbi Simeon, and grandson of the famous rabbi Hillel. He was a Pharisse, and therefore the opponent of the party of the Sadducees. He was noted for his learning, and was president of the Sanhedrim during the regins of Tiberius, Caligula, and Claudius, and died, it is said, about eighteen years before the destruction of Jerusalem. When the apostles were brought before the council, charged with preaching the resurrection of Jesus, as a zealous Pharisee Gamaliel councelled moderation and calmness. By a reference to well-known events, he advised them to "refrain from these men." If their work or counsel was of man, it would come to nothing; but if it was of God, they could not destroy it, and therefore ought to be on their guard lest they should be "found fighting against God" ( Acts 5:34-40 ). Paul was one of his disciples ( 22:3 ).
2. Public games, such as were common among the Greeks and Romans, were foreign to the Jewish institutions and customs. Reference, however, is made to such games in two passages ( Psalms 19:5 ; Eccl 9:11 ).
3. Among the Greeks and Romans games entered largely into their social life. (a) Reference in the New Testament is made to gladiatorial shows and fights with wild beasts ( 1 Corinthians 15:32 ). These were common among the Romans, and sometimes on a large scale. (b) Allusion is frequently made to the Grecian gymnastic contests ( Galatians 2:2 ; 5:7 ; Phil 2:16 ; 3:14 ; 1 Timothy 6:12 ; 2 Tim. 2:5 ; Hebrews 12:1 Hebrews 12:4 Hebrews 12:12 ). These were very numerous. The Olympic, Pythian, Nemean, and Isthmian games were esteemed as of great national importance, and the victors at any of these games of wrestling, racing, etc., were esteemed as the noblest and the happiest of mortals.
( Ezekiel 27:11 ) brave warriors; RSV marg., "valorous men;" others interpret this word as meaning "short-swordsmen," or "daring ones", the name of a class of men who were defenders of the towers of Tyre.
weaned the leader of one of the priestly courses ( 1 Chronicles 24:17 ).
mentioned in Scripture, of Eden ( Genesis 2:8 Genesis 2:9 ); Ahab's garden of herbs ( 1 Kings 21:2 ); the royal garden ( 2 Kings 21:18 ); the royal garden at Susa ( Esther 1:5 ); the garden of Joseph of Arimathea ( John 19:41 ); of Gethsemane ( John 18:1 ).
Gardens were surrounded by hedges of thorns ( Isaiah 5:5 ) or by walls of stone ( Proverbs 24:31 ). "Watch-towers" or "lodges" were also built in them ( Isaiah 1:8 ; Mark 12:1 ), in which their keepers sat. On account of their retirement they were frequently used as places for secret prayer and communion with God ( Genesis 24:63 ; Matthew 26:30-36 ; John 1:48 ; John 18:1 John 18:2 ). The dead were sometimes buried in gardens ( Genesis 23:19 Genesis 23:20 ; 2 Kings Genesis 21:18 Genesis 21:26 ; 1 Samuel 25:1 ; Mark 15:46 ; John 19:41 ). (See PARADISE .)
1. One of David's warriors ( 2 Samuel 23:38 ), an Ithrite.
2. A hill near Jerusalem ( Jeremiah 31:39 ), probably the hill of lepers, and consequently a place outside the boundary of the city.
( Acts 14:13 ). In heathen sacrifices the victims were adorned with fillets and garlands made of wool, with leaves and flowers interwoven. The altar and the priests and attendants were also in like manner adorned.
(Heb. shum, from its strong odour), mentioned only once ( Numbers 11:5 ). The garlic common in Eastern countries is the Allium sativum or Allium Ascalonicum, so called from its having been brought into Europe from Ascalon by the Crusaders. It is now known by the name of "shallot" or "eschalot."
In Job 26:13 (Heb. shiphrah, meaning "brightness"), "By his spirit the heavens are brightness" i.e., are bright, splendid, beautiful.
2. Heb. netsib, a prefect, superintendent; hence a military post ( 1 Samuel 10:5 ; 1 Samuel 13:3 1 Samuel 13:4 ; 2 Sam 8:6 ). This word has also been explained to denote a pillar set up to mark the Philistine conquest, or an officer appointed to collect taxes; but the idea of a military post seems to be the correct one.
3. Heb. matstsebah, properly a monumental column; improperly rendered pl. "garrisons" in Ezekiel 26:11 ; correctly in Revised Version "pillars," marg. "obelisks," probably an idolatrous image.
2. Of royal palaces ( Nehemiah 2:8 ).
3. Of the temple of Solomon ( 1 Kings 6:34 1 Kings 6:35 ; 2 Kings 18:16 ); of the holy place ( 1 Kings 6:31 1 Kings 6:32 ; Ezekiel 41:23 Ezekiel 41:24 ); of the outer courts of the temple, the beautiful gate ( Acts 3:2 ).
4. Tombs ( Matthew 27:60 ).
6. Caverns ( 1 Kings 19:13 ).
10. Wood ( Judges 16:3 ) probably. At the gates of cities courts of justice were frequently held, and hence "judges of the gate" are spoken of ( Deuteronomy 16:18 ; 17:8 ; 21:19 ; Deuteronomy 25:6 Deuteronomy 25:7 , etc.). At the gates prophets also frequently delivered their messages ( Proverbs 1:21 ; 8:3 ; Isaiah 29:21 ; Jeremiah 17:19 Jeremiah 17:20 ; 26:10 ). Criminals were punished without the gates ( 1 Kings 21:13 ; Acts 7:59 ). By the "gates of righteousness" we are probably to understand those of the temple ( Psalms 118:19 ). "The gates of hell" (RSV, "gates of Hades") Matthew 16:18 , are generally interpreted as meaning the power of Satan, but probably they may mean the power of death, denoting that the Church of Christ shall never die.
a wine-vat, one of the five royal cities of the Philistines ( Joshua 13:3 ) on which the ark brought calamity ( 1 Samuel 5:8 1 Samuel 5:9 ; 6:17 ). It was famous also as being the birthplace or residence of Goliath ( 1 Samuel 17:4 ). David fled from Saul to Achish, king of Gath ( 1 Samuel 21:10 ; 27:2-4 ; Psalms 56 ), and his connection with it will account for the words in 2 Samuel 1:20 . It was afterwards conquered by David ( 2 Samuel 8:1 ). It occupied a strong position on the borders of Judah and Philistia ( 1 Samuel 21:10 ; 1 Chronicles 18:1 ). Its site has been identified with the hill called Tell esSafieh, the Alba Specula of the Middle Ages, which rises 695 feet above the plain on its east edge. It is noticed on monuments about B.C. 1500. (See .)
wine-press of the well, a town of Lower Galilee, about 5 miles from Nazareth; the birthplace of Jonah ( 2 Kings 14:25 ); the same as Gittah-hepher ( Joshua 19:13 ). It has been identified with the modern el-Meshed, a village on the top of a rocky hill. Here the supposed tomb of Jonah, Neby Yunas, is still pointed out.
press of the pomegranate.
a name derived from "Golan" (q.v.), one of the cities of refuge in the territory of Manasseh ( Joshua 20:8 ; 21:27 ; Deuteronomy 4:43 ). This was one of the provinces ruled by Herod Antipas. It lay to the east of the Lake of Galilee, and included among its towns Bethsaida-Julias ( Mark 8:22 ) and Seleucia.
called also Azzah, which is its Hebrew name ( Deuteronomy 2:23 ; 1 Kings 4:24 ; Jeremiah 25:20 ), strong, a city on the Mediterranean shore, remarkable for its early importance as the chief centre of a great commercial traffic with Egypt. It is one of the oldest cities of the world ( Genesis 10:19 ; Joshua 15:47 ). Its earliest inhabitants were the Avims, who were conquered and displaced by the Caphtorims ( Deuteronomy 2:23 ; Joshua 13:2 Joshua 13:3 ), a Philistine tribe. In the division of the land it fell to the lot of Judah ( Joshua 15:47 ; Judges 1:18 ). It was the southernmost of the five great Philistine cities which gave each a golden emerod as a trespass-offering unto the Lord ( 1 Samuel 6:17 ). Its gates were carried away by Samson ( Judges 16:1-3 ). Here he was afterwards a prisoner, and "did grind in the prison house." Here he also pulled down the temple of Dagon, and slew "all the lords of the Philistines," himself also perishing in the ruin (Judg. 16:21-30 ). The prophets denounce the judgments of God against it ( Jeremiah 25:20 ; 47:5 ; Amos 1:6 Amos 1:7 ; Zephaniah 2:4 ). It is referred to in Acts 8:26 . Philip is here told to take the road from Jerusalem to Gaza (about 6 miles south-west of Jerusalem), "which is desert", i.e., the "desert road," probably by Hebron, through the desert hills of Southern Judea. (See SAMSON .)
It is noticed on monuments as early as B.C. 1600. Its small port is now called el-Mineh.
the hill, ( 2 Samuel 5:25 [ 1 Chronicles 14:16 , "Gibeon"]; 2 Kings 23:8 ; Nehemiah 11:31 ), a Levitical city of Benjamin ( 1 Kings 15:22 ; 1 Samuel 13:16 ; 14:5 , wrongly "Gibeah" in the A.V.), on the north border of Judah near Gibeah ( Isaiah 10:29 ; Joshua 18:24 Joshua 18:28 ). "From Geba to Beersheba" expressed the whole extent of the kingdom of Judah, just as "from Dan to Beersheba" described the whole length of Palestine ( 2 Kings 23:8 ). It has been identified with Gaba ( Joshua 18:24 ; Ezra 2:26 ; Nehemiah 7:30 ), now Jeb'a, about 5 1/2 miles north of Jerusalem.
a line (or natural boundary, as a mountain range).
1. A tract in the land of Edom south of the Dead Sea ( Psalms 83:7 ); now called Djebal.
2. A Phoenician city, not far from the sea coast, to the north of Beyrout ( Ezekiel 27:9 ); called by the Greeks Byblos. Now Jibeil. Mentioned in the Amarna tablets. An important Phoenician text, referring to the temple of Baalath, on a monument of Yehu-melek, its king (probably B.C. 600), has been discovered.
( 1 Kings 5:18 RSV, in A.V. incorrectly rendered, after the Targum, "stone-squarers," but marg. "Giblites"), the inhabitants of Gebal (2).
cisterns, (rendered "pits," Jeremiah 14:3 ; "locusts," Isaiah 33:4 ), a small place north of Jerusalem, whose inhabitants fled at the approach of the Assyrian army ( Isaiah 10:31 ). It is probably the modern el-Isawiyeh.
made great by Jehovah.
2. The grandfather of the prophet Zephaniah, and the father of Cushi ( Zephaniah 1:1 ).
3. One of the Jewish nobles who conspired against Jeremiah ( Jeremiah 38:1 ).
4. The son of Ahikam, and grandson of Shaphan, secretary of king Josiah ( Jeremiah 26:24 ). After the destruction of Jerusalem (see ZEDEKIAH), Nebuchadnezzar left him to govern the country as tributary to him ( 2 Kings 25:22 ; Jeremiah 40:5 ; 52:16 ). Ishmael, however, at the head of a party of the royal family, "Jewish irreconcilables", rose against him, and slew him and "all the Jews that were with him" ( Jeremiah 41:2 Jeremiah 41:3 ) at Mizpah about three months after the destruction of Jerusalem. He and his band also plundered the town of Mizpah, and carried off many captives. He was, however, overtaken by Johanan and routed. He fled with such of his followers as escaped to the Ammonites ( 41:15 ). The little remnant of the Jews now fled to Egypt.
the fortress; a fortified place, a town in the plain (shephelah) of Judah ( Joshua 15:36 ). This is a very common Canaanite and Phoenician name. It is the feminine form of Geder ( 12:13 ); the plural form is Gederoth ( 15:41 ). This place has by some been identified with Jedireh, a ruin 9 miles from Lydda, toward Eleutheropolis, and 4 miles north of Sur'ah (Zorah), in the valley of Elah.
an epithet applied to Josabad, one of David's warriors at Ziklag ( 1 Chronicles 12:4 ), a native of Gederah.
1. A city in the mountains or hill country of Judah ( Joshua 15:58 ), identified with Jedar, between Jerusalem and Hebron.
2. 1 Chronicles 4:39 , the Gederah of Joshua 15:36 , or the well-known Gerar, as the LXX. read, where the patriarchs of old had sojourned and fed their flocks ( Genesis 20:1 Genesis 20:14 Genesis 20:15 ; Genesis 26:1 Genesis 26:6 Genesis 26:14 ).
valley of vision, Elisha's trusted servant ( 2 Kings 4:31 ; 5:25 ; 2 Kings 8:4 2 Kings 8:5 ). He appears in connection with the history of the Shunammite ( 2 Kings 4:14 2 Kings 4:31 ) and of Naaman the Syrian. On this latter occasion he was guilty of duplicity and dishonesty of conduct, causing Elisha to denounce his crime with righteous sternness, and pass on him the terrible doom that the leprosy of Naaman would cleave to him and his for ever ( 5:20-27 ).
He afterwards appeared before king Joram, to whom he recounted the great deeds of his master ( 2 Kings 8:1-6 ).
(originally Ge bene Hinnom; i.e., "the valley of the sons of Hinnom"), a deep, narrow glen to the south of Jerusalem, where the idolatrous Jews offered their children in sacrifice to Molech ( 2 Chronicles 28:3 ; 33:6 ; Jeremiah 7:31 ; 19:2-6 ). This valley afterwards became the common receptacle for all the refuse of the city. Here the dead bodies of animals and of criminals, and all kinds of filth, were cast and consumed by fire kept always burning. It thus in process of time became the image of the place of everlasting destruction. In this sense it is used by our Lord in Matthew 5:22 Matthew 5:29 Matthew 5:30 ; 10:28 ; 18:9 ; Matthew 23:15 Matthew 23:33 ; Mark 9:43 Mark 9:45 Mark 9:47 ; Luke 12:5 . In these passages, and also in James 3:6 , the word is uniformly rendered "hell," the Revised Version placing "Gehenna" in the margin. (See HELL; HINNOM .)
Jehovah has made perfect.
1. The son of Shaphan, and one of the Levites of the temple in the time of Jehoiakim ( Jeremiah 36:10 ; 2 Kings 22:12 ). Baruch read aloud to the people from Gemariah's chamber, and again in the hearing of Gemariah and other scribes, the prophecies of Jeremiah ( Jeremiah 36:11-20 ), which filled him with terror. He joined with others in entreating the king not to destroy the roll of the prophecies which Baruch had read (21-25).
2. The son of Hilkiah, who accompanied Shaphan with the tribute-money from Zedekiah to Nebuchadnezzar, and was the bearer at the same time of a letter from Jeremiah to the Jewish captives at Babylon ( Jeremiah 29:3 Jeremiah 29:4 ).
Genesis 2:4 , "These are the generations," means the "history." 5:1 , "The book of the generations," means a family register, or history of Adam 37:2 , "The generations of Jacob" = the history of Jacob and his descendants 7:1 , "In this generation" = in this age. Psalms 49:19 , "The generation of his fathers" = the dwelling of his fathers, i.e., the grave. Psalms 73:15 , "The generation of thy children" = the contemporary race. Isaiah 53:8 , "Who shall declare his generation?" = His manner of life who shall declare? or rather = His race, posterity, shall be so numerous that no one shall be able to declare it.
In Matthew 1:17 , the word means a succession or series of persons from the same stock. Matthew 3:7 , "Generation of vipers" = brood of vipers 24:34 , "This generation" = the persons then living contemporary with Christ. 1 Peter 2:9 , "A chosen generation" = a chosen people.
The Hebrews seem to have reckoned time by the generation. In the time of Abraham a generation was an hundred years, thus: Genesis 15:16 , "In the fourth generation" = in four hundred years (Compare verse 13 and Exodus 12:40 ). In Deuteronomy 1:35 and 2:14 a generation is a period of thirty-eight years.
The five books of Moses were collectively called the Pentateuch, a word of Greek origin meaning "the five-fold book." The Jews called them the Torah, i.e., "the law." It is probable that the division of the Torah into five books proceeded from the Greek translators of the Old Testament. The names by which these several books are generally known are Greek.
The first book of the Pentateuch (q.v.) is called by the Jews Bereshith, i.e., "in the beginning", because this is the first word of the book. It is generally known among Christians by the name of Genesis, i.e., "creation" or "generation," being the name given to it in the LXX. as designating its character, because it gives an account of the origin of all things. It contains, according to the usual computation, the history of about two thousand three hundred and sixty-nine years.
Genesis is divided into two principal parts. The first part (1-11) gives a general history of mankind down to the time of the Dispersion. The second part presents the early history of Israel down to the death and burial of Joseph (12-50).
There are five principal persons brought in succession under our notice in this book, and around these persons the history of the successive periods is grouped, viz., Adam (1-3), Noah (4-9), Abraham ( (10-25:18), ), Isaac ( (25:19-35:29), ), and Jacob (36-50).
In this book we have several prophecies concerning Christ ( 3:15 ; 12:3 ; 18:18 ; 22:18 ; 26:4 ; 28:14 ; 49:10 ). The author of this book was Moses. Under divine guidance he may indeed have been led to make use of materials already existing in primeval documents, or even of traditions in a trustworthy form that had come down to his time, purifying them from all that was unworthy; but the hand of Moses is clearly seen throughout in its composition.
a garden of riches.
1. A town of Naphtali, called Chinnereth ( Joshua 19:35 ), sometimes in the plural form Chinneroth ( 11:2 ). In later times the name was gradually changed to Genezar and Gennesaret ( Luke 5:1 ). This city stood on the western shore of the lake to which it gave its name. No trace of it remains. The plain of Gennesaret has been called, from its fertility and beauty, "the Paradise of Galilee." It is now called el-Ghuweir.
2. The Lake of Gennesaret, the Grecized form of CHINNERETH (q.v.). (See GALILEE, SEA OF .)
(Heb., usually in plural, goyim), meaning in general all nations except the Jews. In course of time, as the Jews began more and more to pride themselves on their peculiar privileges, it acquired unpleasant associations, and was used as a term of contempt.
theft, the son of Hadad, of the Edomitish royal family. He was brought up in Pharaoh's household. His mother was a sister of Tahpenes, the king of Egypt's wife, mentioned in 1 Kings 11:20 .
2. The father of Ehud the judge ( Judges 3:15 ).
a bean, probably of the carob tree, the smallest weight, and also the smallest piece of money, among the Hebrews, equal to the twentieth part of a shekel ( Exodus 30:13 ; Leviticus 27:25 ; Numbers 3:47 ). This word came into use in the same way as our word "grain," from a grain of wheat.
a region; lodging-place, a very ancient town and district in the south border of Palestine, which was ruled over by a king named Abimelech ( Genesis 10:19 ; Genesis 20:1 Genesis 20:2 ). Abraham sojourned here, and perhaps Isaac was born in this place. Both of these patriarchs were guilty of the sin of here denying their wives, and both of them entered into a treaty with the king before they departed to Beersheba ( 21:23-34 ; 26 ). It seems to have been a rich pastoral country ( 2 Chronicles 14:12-18 ). Isaac here reaped an hundred-fold, and was blessed of God ( Genesis 26:12 ). The "valley of Gerar" ( Genesis 26:17 ) was probably the modern Wady el-Jerdr.
=Gerasa, identified with the modern Khersa, "over against Galilee," close to the lake. This was probably the scene of the miracle, Mark 5:1-20 , etc. "From the base of the great plateau of Bashan, 2,000 feet or more overhead, the ground slopes down steeply, in places precipitously, to the shore. And at the foot of the declivity a bold spur runs out to the water's edge. By it the frantic swine would rush on headlong into the lake and perish." Porter's Through Samaria. (See GADARA .)
a mountain of Samaria, about 3,000 feet above the Mediterranean. It was on the left of the valley containing the ancient town of Shechem (q.v.), on the way to Jerusalem. It stood over against Mount Ebal, the summits of these mountains being distant from each other about 2 miles ( Deuteronomy 27 ; Joshua 8:30-35 ). On the slopes of this mountain the tribes descended from the handmaids of Leah and Rachel, together with the tribe of Reuben, were gathered together, and gave the responses to the blessing pronounced as the reward of obedience, when Joshua in the valley below read the whole law in the hearing of all the people; as those gathered on Ebal responded with a loud Amen to the rehearsal of the curses pronounced on the disobedient. It was probably at this time that the coffin containing the embalmed body of Joseph was laid in the "parcel of ground which Jacob bought of the sons of Hamor" ( Genesis 33:19 ; 50:25 ).
Josephus relates (Ant Genesis 11:8 Genesis 11:2-4 ) that Sanballat built a temple for the Samaritans on this mountain, and instituted a priesthood, as rivals to those of the Jews at Jerusalem. This temple was destroyed after it had stood two hundred years. It was afterwards rebuilt by Herod the Great. There is a Samaritan tradition that it was the scene of the incident recorded in Genesis 22 . There are many ruins on this mountain, some of which are evidently of Christian buildings. To this mountain the woman of Sychar referred in John 4:20 . For centuries Gerizim was the centre of political outbreaks. The Samaritans (q.v.), a small but united body, still linger here, and keep up their ancient ceremonial worship.
2. The elder of the two sons of Moses born to him in Midian ( Exodus 2:22 ; 18:3 ). On his way to Egypt with his family, in obedience to the command of the Lord, Moses was attacked by a sudden and dangerous illness ( 4:24-26 ), which Zipporah his wife believed to have been sent because he had neglected to circumcise his son. She accordingly took a "sharp stone" and circumcised her son Gershom, saying, "Surely a bloody husband art thou to me", i.e., by the blood of her child she had, as it were, purchased her husband, had won him back again.
3. A descendant of Phinehas who returned with Ezra from Babylon ( Ezra 8:2 ).
4. The son of Manasseh ( Judges 18:30 ), in RSV "of Moses."
In the wilderness the sons of Gershon had charge of the fabrics of the tabernacle when it was moved from place to place, the curtains, veils, tent-hangings ( Numbers 3: : 2126 -26). Thirteen Levitical cities fell to the lot of the Gershonites ( Joshua 21:27-33 ).
or Gashmu, firmness, probably chief of the Arabs south of Palestine, one of the enemies of the Jews after the return from Babylon ( Nehemiah 2:19 ; Nehemiah 6:1 Nehemiah 6:2 ). He united with Sanballat and Tobiah in opposing the rebuilding of the wall of Jerusalem.
bridge, the name of a district or principality of Syria near Gilead, between Mount Hermon and the Lake of Tiberias ( 2 Samuel 15:8 ; 1 Chronicles 2:23 ). The Geshurites probably inhabited the rocky fastness of Argob, the modern Lejah, in the north-east corner of Bashan. In the time of David it was ruled by Talmai, whose daughter he married, and who was the mother of Absalom, who fled to Geshur after the murder of Amnon ( 2 Samuel 13:37 ).
2. Another aboriginal people of Palestine who inhabited the south-west border of the land. Geshuri in Joshua 13:2 should be "the Geshurite," not the Geshurites mentioned in ver. 11,13, but the tribe mentioned in 1 Samuel 27:8 .
oil-press, the name of an olive-yard at the foot of the Mount of Olives, to which Jesus was wont to retire ( Luke 22:39 ) with his disciples, and which is specially memorable as being the scene of his agony ( Mark 14:32 ; John 18:1 ; Luke 22:44 ). The plot of ground pointed out as Gethsemane is now surrounded by a wall, and is laid out as a modern European flower-garden. It contains eight venerable olive-trees, the age of which cannot, however, be determined. The exact site of Gethsemane is still in question. Dr. Thomson (The Land and the Book) says: "When I first came to Jerusalem, and for many years afterward, this plot of ground was open to all whenever they chose to come and meditate beneath its very old olivetrees. The Latins, however, have within the last few years succeeded in gaining sole possession, and have built a high wall around it...The Greeks have invented another site a little to the north of it...My own impression is that both are wrong. The position is too near the city, and so close to what must have always been the great thoroughfare eastward, that our Lord would scarcely have selected it for retirement on that dangerous and dismal night...I am inclined to place the garden in the secluded vale several hundred yards to the north-east of the present Gethsemane."
a precipice, an ancient royal Canaanitish city ( Joshua 10:33 ; 12:12 ). It was allotted with its suburbs to the Kohathite Levites ( 21:21 ; 1 Chronicles 6:67 ). It stood between the lower Beth-horon and the sea ( Joshua 16:3 ; 1 Kings 9:17 ). It was the last point to which David pursued the Philistines ( 2 Samuel 5:25 ; 1 Chronicles 14:16 ) after the battle of Baal-perazim. The Canaanites retained possession of it till the time of Solomon, when the king of Egypt took it and gave it to Solomon as a part of the dowry of the Egyptian princess whom he married ( 1 Kings 9:15-17 ). It is identified with Tell el-Jezer, about 10 miles south-west of Beth-horon. It is mentioned in the Amarna tablets.
an old Saxon word equivalent to soul or spirit. It is the translation of the Hebrew nephesh_ and the Greek _pneuma , both meaning "breath," "life," "spirit," the "living principle" ( Job 11:20 ; Jeremiah 15:9 ; Matthew 27:50 ; John 19:30 ). The expression "to give up the ghost" means to die ( Lamentations 1:19 ; Genesis 25:17 ; 35:29 ; 49:33 ; Job 3:11 ). (See HOLY GHOST .)
1. Heb. nephilim, meaning "violent" or "causing to fall" ( Genesis 6:4 ). These were the violent tyrants of those days, those who fell upon others. The word may also be derived from a root signifying "wonder," and hence "monsters" or "prodigies." In Numbers 13:33 this name is given to a Canaanitish tribe, a race of large stature, "the sons of Anak." The Revised Version, in these passages, simply transliterates the original, and reads "Nephilim."
2. Heb. rephaim, a race of giants ( Deuteronomy 3:11 ) who lived on the east of Jordan, from whom Og was descended. They were probably the original inhabitants of the land before the immigration of the Canaanites. They were conquered by Chedorlaomer ( Genesis 14:5 ), and their territories were promised as a possession to Abraham ( 15:20 ). The Anakim, Zuzim, and Emim were branches of this stock. In Job 26:5 (RSV, "they that are deceased;" marg., "the shades," the "Rephaim") and Isaiah 14:9 this Hebrew word is rendered (A.V.) "dead." It means here "the shades," the departed spirits in Sheol. In Sam Isaiah 21:16 Isaiah 21:18 Isaiah 21:20 Isaiah 21:33 , "the giant" is (A.V.) the rendering of the singular form ha raphah , which may possibly be the name of the father of the four giants referred to here, or of the founder of the Rephaim. The Vulgate here reads "Arapha," whence Milton (in Samson Agonistes) has borrowed the name "Harapha." (See also 1 Chronicles 20:5 1 Chronicles 20:6 1 Chronicles 20:8 ; Deuteronomy 2:11 Deuteronomy 2:20 ; 3:13 ; Joshua 15:8 , etc., where the word is similarly rendered "giant.") It is rendered "dead" in (A.V.) Psalms 88:10 ; Proverbs 2:18 ; 9:18 ; 21:16 : in all these places the Revised Version marg. has "the shades." (See also Isaiah 26:14 .)
3. Heb. 'Anakim ( Deuteronomy 2:10 Deuteronomy 2:11 Deuteronomy 2:21 ; Joshua 11:21 Joshua 11:22 ; Joshua 14:12 Joshua 14:15 ; called "sons of Anak," Numbers 13:33 ; "children of Anak," 13:22 ; Joshua 15:14 ), a nomad race of giants descended from Arba ( Joshua 14:15 ), the father of Anak, that dwelt in the south of Palestine near Hebron ( Genesis 23:2 ; Joshua 15:13 ). They were a Cushite tribe of the same race as the Philistines and the Egyptian shepherd kings. David on several occasions encountered them ( 2 Samuel 21:15-22 ). From this race sprung Goliath ( 1 Samuel 17:4 ).
5. Heb. Zamzummim (q.v.), Deuteronomy 2:20 so called by the Amorites.
6. Heb. gibbor ( Job 16:14 ), a mighty one, i.e., a champion or hero. In its plural form (gibborim) it is rendered "mighty men" ( 2 Samuel 23:8-39 ; 1 Kings 1:8 ; 1 Chronicles 11:9-47 ; 29:24 .) The band of six hundred whom David gathered around him when he was a fugitive were so designated. They were divided into three divisions of two hundred each, and thirty divisions of twenty each. The captians of the thirty divisions were called "the thirty," the captains of the two hundred "the three," and the captain over the whole was called "chief among the captains" ( 2 Samuel 23:8 ). The sons born of the marriages mentioned in Genesis 6:4 are also called by this Hebrew name.
a height, a city of the Philistines in the territory of Dan, given to the Kohathites ( Joshua 19:44 ; 21:23 ). Nadab the king of Israel, while besieging it, was slain under its walls by Baasha, one of his own officers ( 1 Kings 15:27 ). It was in the possession of the Philistines after the secession of the ten tribes ( 2 Chronicles 11:13 2 Chronicles 11:14 ).
a hill or hill-town, "of Benjamin" ( 1 Samuel 13:15 ), better known as "Gibeah of Saul" ( 11:4 ; Isaiah 10:29 ). It was here that the terrible outrage was committed on the Levite's concubine which led to the almost utter extirpation of the tribe of Benjamin (Judg. 19; 20), only six hundred men surviving after a succession of disastrous battles. This was the birthplace of Saul, and continued to be his residence after he became king ( 1 Samuel 10:26 ; 11:4 ; 15:34 ). It was reckoned among the ancient sanctuaries of Palestine ( 10:26 ; 15:34 ; 23:19 ; 26:1 ; 2 Sam. 21:6-10 ), and hence it is called "Gibeah of God" ( 1 Samuel 10:5 , RSV marg.). It has been identified with the modern Tell el-Ful (i.e., "hill of the bean"), about 3 miles north of Jerusalem.
( Joshua 15:57 ), a city in the mountains of Judah, the modern Jeba, on a hill in the Wady Musurr, about 7 1/2 miles west-south-west of Bethlehem.
( Joshua 15:57 , RSV marg.), a city on Mount Ephraim which had been given to Phinehas ( (24:33 "hill," A.V.; RSV marg. and Heb., "Gibeah."). Here Eleazar the son of Aaron was buried. It has been identified with the modern Khurbet Jibia, 5 miles north of Guphna towards Shechem.
( Joshua 5:3 , marg.), hill of the foreskins, a place at Gilgal where those who had been born in the wilderness were circumcised. All the others, i.e., those who were under twenty years old at the time of the sentence at Kadesh, had already been circumcised.
hill-city, "one of the royal cities, greater than Ai, and all the men thereof were mighty" ( Joshua 10:2 ). Its inhabitants were Hivites ( 11:19 ). It lay within the territory of Benjamin, and became a priest-city ( 18:25 ; 21:17 ). Here the tabernacle was set up after the destruction of Nob, and here it remained many years till the temple was built by Solomon. It is represented by the modern el-Jib, to the south-west of Ai, and about 5 1/2 miles north-north-west of Jerusalem.
A deputation of the Gibeonites, with their allies from three other cities ( Joshua 917 ;17), visited the camp at Gilgal, and by false representations induced Joshua to enter into a league with them, although the Israelites had been specially warned against any league with the inhabitants of Canaan ( Exodus 23:32 ; 34:12 ; Numbers 33:55 ; Deuteronomy 7:2 ). The deception practised on Joshua was detected three days later; but the oath rashly sworn "by Jehovah God of Israel" was kept, and the lives of the Gibeonites were spared. They were, however, made "bondmen" to the sanctuary ( Joshua 9:23 ).
The most remarkable incident connected with this city was the victory Joshua gained over the kings of Palestine ( Joshua 10:16-27 ). The battle here fought has been regarded as "one of the most important in the history of the world." The kings of southern Canaan entered into a confederacy against Gibeon (because it had entered into a league with Joshua) under the leadership of Adoni-zedec, king of Jerusalem, and marched upon Gibeon with the view of taking possession of it. The Gibeonites entreated Joshua to come to their aid with the utmost speed. His army came suddenly upon that of the Amorite kings as it lay encamped before the city. It was completely routed, and only broken remnants of their great host found refuge in the fenced cities. The five confederate kings who led the army were taken prisoners, and put to death at Makkedah (q.v.). This eventful battle of Beth-horon sealed the fate of all the cities of Southern Palestine. Among the Amarna tablets is a letter from Adoni-zedec (q.v.) to the king of Egypt, written probably at Makkedah after the defeat, showing that the kings contemplated flight into Egypt.
This place is again brought into notice as the scene of a battle between the army of Ish-bosheth under Abner and that of David led by Joab. At the suggestion of Abner, to spare the effusion of blood twelve men on either side were chosen to decide the battle. The issue was unexpected; for each of the men slew his fellow, and thus they all perished. The two armies then engaged in battle, in which Abner and his host were routed and put to flight ( 2 Samuel 2:12-17 ). This battle led to a virtual truce between Judah and Israel, Judah, under David, increasing in power; and Israel, under Ish-bosheth, continually losing ground.
Soon after the death of Absalom and David's restoration to his throne his kingdom was visited by a grievous famine, which was found to be a punishment for Saul's violation ( 2 Samuel 21:2 2 Samuel 21:5 ) of the covenant with the Gibeonites ( Joshua 9:3-27 ). The Gibeonites demanded blood for the wrong that had been done to them, and accordingly David gave up to them the two sons of Rizpah (q.v.) and the five sons of Michal, and these the Gibeonites took and hanged or crucified "in the hill before the Lord" ( 2 Samuel 21:9 ); and there the bodies hung for six months ( 21:10 ), and all the while Rizpah watched over the blackening corpses and "suffered neither the birds of the air to rest on them by day, nor the beasts of the field by night." David afterwards removed the bones of Saul and Jonathan at Jabeshgilead ( 2 Samuel 21:12 2 Samuel 21:13 ).
Here, "at the great stone," Amasa was put to death by Joab ( 2 Samuel 20:5-10 ). To the altar of burnt-offering which was at Gibeon, Joab ( 1 Kings 2:28-34 ), who had taken the side of Adonijah, fled for sanctuary in the beginning of Solomon's reign, and was there also slain by the hand of Benaiah.
Soon after he came to the throne, Solomon paid a visit of state to Gibeon, there to offer sacrifices ( 1 Kings 3:4 ; 2 Chr. 1:3 ). On this occasion the Lord appeared to him in a memorable dream, recorded in 1 Kings 3:5-15 ; 2 Chr 1:7-12 . When the temple was built "all the men of Israel assembled themselves" to king Solomon, and brought up from Gibeon the tabernacle and "all the holy vessels that were in the tabernacle" to Jerusalem, where they remained till they were carried away by Nebuchadnezzar ( 2 Kings 24:13 ).
called also Jerubbaal ( Judges 6:29 Judges 6:32 ), was the first of the judges whose history is circumstantially narrated (Judg. 6-8). His calling is the commencement of the second period in the history of the judges. After the victory gained by Deborah and Barak over Jabin, Israel once more sank into idolatry, and the Midianites (q.v.) and Amalekites, with other "children of the east," crossed the Jordan each year for seven successive years for the purpose of plundering and desolating the land. Gideon received a direct call from God to undertake the task of delivering the land from these warlike invaders. He was of the family of Abiezer ( Joshua 17:2 ; 1 Chronicles 7:18 ), and of the little township of Ophrah ( Judges 6:11 ). First, with ten of his servants, he overthrew the altars of Baal and cut down the asherah which was upon it, and then blew the trumpet of alarm, and the people flocked to his standard on the crest of Mount Gilboa to the number of twenty-two thousand men. These were, however, reduced to only three hundred. These, strangely armed with torches and pitchers and trumpets, rushed in from three different points on the camp of Midian at midnight, in the valley to the north of Moreh, with the terrible war-cry, "For the Lord and for Gideon" ( Judges 7:18 , RSV). Terror-stricken, the Midianites were put into dire confusion, and in the darkness slew one another, so that only fifteen thousand out of the great army of one hundred and twenty thousand escaped alive. The memory of this great deliverance impressed itself deeply on the mind of the nation ( 1 Samuel 12:11 ; Psalms 83:11 ; Isaiah 9:4 ; 10:26 ; Hebrews 11:32 ). The land had now rest for forty years. Gideon died in a good old age, and was buried in the sepulchre of his fathers. Soon after his death a change came over the people. They again forgot Jehovah, and turned to the worship of Baalim, "neither shewed they kindness to the house of Jerubbaal" (Judg. 8:35 ). Gideon left behind him seventy sons, a feeble, sadly degenerated race, with one exception, that of Abimelech, who seems to have had much of the courage and energy of his father, yet of restless and unscrupulous ambition. He gathered around him a band who slaughtered all Gideon's sons, except Jotham, upon one stone. (See OPHRAH .)
Heb. raham = "parental affection," Leviticus 11:18 ; Deuteronomy 14:17 ; RSV, "vulture"), a species of vulture living entirely on carrion. "It is about the size of a raven; has an almost triangular, bald, and wrinkled head, a strong pointed beak, black at the tip, large eyes and ears, the latter entirely on the outside, and long feet." It is common in Egypt, where it is popularly called "Pharaoh's chicken" (the Neophron percnopterus), and is found in Palestine only during summer. Tristram thinks that the Hebrew name, which is derived from a root meaning "to love," is given to it from the fact that the male and female bird never part company.
4. Simply a thing given ( Matthew 7:11 ; Luke 11:13 ; Ephesians 4:8 ); sacrifical ( Matthew 5:23 Matthew 5:24 ; 8:4 ); eleemosynary ( Luke 21:1 ); a gratuity ( John 4:10 ; Acts 8:20 ). In Acts 2:38 the generic word dorea is rendered "gift." It differs from the charisma ( 1 Corinthians 12:4 ) as denoting not miraculous powers but the working of a new spirit in men, and that spirit from God. The giving of presents entered largely into the affairs of common life in the East. The nature of the presents was as various as were the occasions: food ( 1 Samuel 9:7 ; 16:20 ), sheep and cattle ( Genesis 32:13-15 ), gold ( 2 Samuel 18:11 ), jewels ( Genesis 24:53 ), furniture, and vessels for eating and drinking ( 2 Samuel 17:28 ); delicacies, as spices, honey, etc. ( 1 Kings 10:25 ; 2 Kings 5: : 22 ). The mode of presentation was with as much parade as possible: the presents were conveyed by the hands of servants ( Judges 3:18 ), or still better, on the backs of beasts of burden ( 2 Kings 8:9 ). The refusal of a present was regarded as a high indignity; and this constituted the aggravated insult noticed in Matthew 22:11 , the marriage robe having been offered and refused.
(Gr. charismata), gifts supernaturally bestowed on the early Christians, each having his own proper gift or gifts for the edification of the body of Christ. These were the result of the extraordinary operation of the Spirit, as on the day of Pentecost. They were the gifts of speaking with tongues, casting out devils, healing, etc. ( Mark 16:17 Mark 16:18 ), usually communicated by the medium of the laying on of the hands of the apostles ( Acts 8:17 ; 19:6 ; 1 Timothy 4:14 ). These charismata were enjoyed only for a time. They could not continue always in the Church. They were suited to its infancy and to the necessities of those times.
1. One of the four rivers of Eden ( Genesis 2:13 ). It has been identified with the Nile. Others regard it as the Oxus, or the Araxes, or the Ganges. But as, according to the sacred narrative, all these rivers of Eden took their origin from the head-waters of the Euphrates and the Trigris, it is probable that the Gihon is the ancient Araxes, which, under the modern name of the Arras, discharges itself into the Caspian Sea. It was the Asiatic and not the African "Cush" which the Gihon compassed ( Genesis 10:7-10 ). (See EDEN .)
2. The only natural spring of water in or near Jerusalem is the "Fountain of the Virgin" (q.v.), which rises outside the city walls on the west bank of the Kidron valley. On the occasion of the approach of the Assyrian army under Sennacherib, Hezekiah, in order to prevent the besiegers from finding water, "stopped the upper water course of Gihon, and brought it straight down to the west side of the city of David" ( 2 Chronicles 32:30 ; 33:14 ). This "fountain" or spring is therefore to be regarded as the "upper water course of Gihon." From this "fountain" a tunnel cut through the ridge which forms the south part of the temple hill conveys the water to the Pool of Siloam, which lies on the opposite side of this ridge at the head of the Tyropoeon ("cheesemakers'") valley, or valley of the son of Hinnom, now filled up by rubbish. The length of this tunnel is about 1,750 feet. In 1880 an inscription was accidentally discovered on the wall of the tunnel about nineteen feet from where it opens into the Pool of Siloam. This inscription was executed in all probability by Hezekiah's workmen. It briefly narrates the history of the excavation. It may, however, be possible that this tunnel was executed in the time of Solomon. If the "waters of Shiloah that go softly" ( Isaiah 8:6 ) refers to the gentle stream that still flows through the tunnel into the Pool of Siloam, then this excavation must have existed before the time of Hezekiah. In the upper part of the Tyropoeoan valley there are two pools still existing, the first, called Birket el-Mamilla, to the west of the Jaffa gate; the second, to the south of the first, called Birket es-Sultan. It is the opinion of some that the former was the "upper" and the latter the "lower" Pool of Gihon ( 2 Kings 18:17 ; Isaiah 7:3 ; 36:2 ; 22:9 ). (See CONDUIT; SILOAM .)
boiling spring, a mountain range, now Jebel Fukua', memorable as the scene of Saul's disastrous defeat by the Philistines. Here also his three sons were slain, and he himself died by his own hand ( 1 Samuel 28:4 ; 31:1-8 ; 2 Sam 1:6-21 ; 21:12 ; 1 Chronicles 10:1 1 Chronicles 10:8 ). It was a low barren range of mountains bounding the valley of Esdraelon (Jezreel) on the east, between it and the Jordan valley. When the tidings of this defeat were conveyed to David, he gave utterance to those pathetic words in the "Song of the Bow" ( 2 Samuel 1:19-27 ).
hill of testimony, ( Genesis 31:21 ), a mountainous region east of Jordan. From its mountainous character it is called "the mount of Gilead" ( Genesis 31:25 ). It is called also "the land of Gilead" ( Numbers 32:1 ), and sometimes simply "Gilead" ( Psalms 60:7 ; Genesis 37:25 ). It comprised the possessions of the tribes of Gad and Reuben and the south part of Manasseh ( Deuteronomy 3:13 ; Numbers 32:40 ). It was bounded on the north by Bashan, and on the south by Moab and Ammon ( Genesis 31:21 ; Deuteronomy 3:12-17 ). "Half Gilead" was possessed by Sihon, and the other half, separated from it by the river Jabbok, by Og, king of Bashan. The deep ravine of the river Hieromax (the modern Sheriat el-Mandhur) separated Bashan from Gilead, which was about 60 miles in length and 20 in breadth, extending from near the south end of the Lake of Gennesaret to the north end of the Dead Sea. Abarim, Pisgah, Nebo, and Peor are its mountains mentioned in Scripture.
The region of Gilead abounded in spices and aromatic gums, which were exported to Egypt and Tyre ( Genesis 37:25 ; Jeremiah 8:22 ; 46:11 ; Ezekiel 27:17 ). The word "balm" is a contracted form of "balsam," a word derived from the Greek balsamon , which was adopted as the representative of the Hebrew words baal shemen , meaning "lord" or "chief of oils."
The Hebrew name of this balm was tsori . The tree yielding this medicinal oil was probably the Balsamodendron opobalsamum of botanists, and the Amyris opobalsamum of Linnaeus. It is an evergreen, rising to the height of about 14 feet. The oil or resin, exuding through an orifice made in its bark in very small quantities, is esteemed of great value for its supposed medicinal qualities. (See BALM .) It may be noted that Coverdale's version reads in Jeremiah 8:22 , "There is no triacle in Galaad." The word "triacle" = "treacle" is used in the sense of ointment.
1. From the solemn transaction of the reading of the law in the valley of Shechem between Ebal and Gerizim the Israelites moved forward to Gilgal, and there made a permanent camp ( Joshua 9:6 ; 10:6 ). It was "beside the oaks of Moreh," near which Abraham erected his first altar ( Genesis 12:6 Genesis 12:7 ). This was one of the three towns to which Samuel resorted for the administration of justice ( 1 Samuel 7:16 ), and here also he offered sacrifices when the ark was no longer in the tabernacle at Shiloh ( 1 Samuel 10:8 ; 13:7-9 ). To this place, as to a central sanctuary, all Israel gathered to renew their allegiance to Saul ( 11:14 ). At a later period it became the scene of idolatrous worship ( Hosea 4:15 ; 9:15 ). It has been identified with the ruins of Jiljilieh, about 5 miles south-west of Shiloh and about the same distance from Bethel.
2. The place in "the plains of Jericho," "in the east border of Jericho," where the Israelites first encamped after crossing the Jordan ( Joshua 4:19 Joshua 4:20 ). Here they kept their first Passover in the land of Canaan ( 5:10 ) and renewed the rite of circumcision, and so "rolled away the reproach" of their Egyptian slavery. Here the twelve memorial stones, taken from the bed of the Jordan, were set up; and here also the tabernacle remained till it was removed to Shiloh ( 18:1 ). It has been identified with Tell Jiljulieh, about 5 miles from Jordan.
3. A place, probably in the hill country of Ephraim, where there was a school of the prophets ( 2 Kings 4:38 ), and whence Elijah and Elisha, who resided here, "went down" to Bethel ( 2 Kings 2:1 2 Kings 2:2 ). It is mentioned also in Deuteronomy 11:30 . It is now known as Jiljilia, a place 8 miles north of Bethel.
exile, a city in the south-west part of the hill-country of Judah ( Joshua 15:51 ). It was the native place or residence of the traitor Ahithophel "the Gilonite" ( Joshua 15:51 ; 2 Sam 15:12 ), and where he committed suicide ( 17:23 ). It has been identified with Kurbet Jala, about 7 miles north of Hebron.
a place fertile in sycamores, a city in the plain of Judah, the villages of which were seized by the Philistines ( 2 Chronicles 28:18 ). It is now called Jimzu, about 3 miles south-east of Ludd, i.e., Lydda.
2. Job 18:9 , Isaiah 8:14 , Heb. pah, a plate or thin layer; and hence a net, a snare, trap, especially of a fowler ( Psalms 69: : 22 , "Let their table before them become a net;" Amos 3:5 , "Doth a bird fall into a net [pah] upon the ground where there is no trap-stick [mokesh] for her? doth the net [pah] spring up from the ground and take nothing at all?", Gesenius.)
5. Heb. hesheb, the "curious girdle" ( Exodus 28:8 ; RSV, "cunningly woven band") was attached to the ephod, and was made of the same material. The common girdle was made of leather ( 2 Kings 1:8 ; Matthew 3:4 ); a finer sort of linen ( Jeremiah 13:1 ; Ezekiel 16:10 ; Daniel 10:5 ). Girdles of sackcloth were worn in token of sorrow ( Isaiah 3:24 ; 22:12 ). They were variously fastened to the wearer ( Mark 1:6 ; Jeremiah 13:1 ; Ezekiel 16:10 ). The girdle was a symbol of strength and power ( Job 12:18 Job 12:21 ; 30:11 ; Isaiah 22:21 ; 45:5 ). "Righteousness and faithfulness" are the girdle of the Messiah ( Isaiah 11:5 ). Girdles were used as purses or pockets ( Matthew 10:9 . A. V., "purses;" RSV, marg., "girdles." Also Mark 6:8 ).
dwelling in clayey soil, the descendants of the fifth son of Canaan ( Genesis 10:16 ), one of the original tribes inhabiting the land of Canaan before the time of the Israelites ( Genesis 15:21 ; Deuteronomy 7:1 ). They were a branch of the great family of the Hivites. Of their geographical position nothing is certainly known. Probably they lived somewhere in the central part of Western Palestine.
( Joshua 19:13 ). See GATH-HEPHER.
a native of the Philistine city of Gath ( Joshua 13:3 ). Obed-edom, in whose house the ark was placed, is so designated ( 2 Samuel 6:10 ). Six hundred Gittites came with David from Gath into Israel ( 2 Samuel 15:18 2 Samuel 15:19 ).
a stringed instrument of music. This word is found in the titles of Psalms 88184 ,81,84. In these places the LXX. render the word by "on the wine-fats." The Targum explains by "on the harp which David brought from Gath." It is the only stringed instrument named in the titles of the Psalms.
was known to the Egyptians at a very early period of their national history, at least B.C. 1500. Various articles both useful and ornamental were made of it, as bottles, vases, etc. A glass bottle with the name of Sargon on it was found among the ruins of the north-west palace of Nimroud. The Hebrew word zekukith ( Job 28:17 ), rendered in the Authorized Version "crystal," is rightly rendered in the Revised Version "glass." This is the only allusion to glass found in the Old Testament. It is referred to in the New Testament in Revelation 4:6 ; 15:2 ; Revelation 21:18 Revelation 21:21 . In Job 37:18 , the word rendered "looking-glass" is in the Revised Version properly rendered "mirror," formed, i.e., of some metal. (Compare Exodus 38:8 : "looking-glasses" are brazen mirrors, RSV). A mirror is referred to also in James 1:23 .
The corners of fields were not to be reaped, and the sheaf accidentally left behind was not to be fetched away, according to the law of Moses ( Leviticus 19:9 ; 23:22 ; Deuteronomy 24:21 ). They were to be left for the poor to glean. Similar laws were given regarding vineyards and oliveyards. (Compare Ruth 2:2 .)