Easton's Bible Dictionary
Taanach — Thyine wood
a sandy place, an ancient royal city of the Canaanites, on the south-western border of the plain of Esdraelon, 4 miles south of Megiddo. Its king was conquered by ( Joshua 12:21 ). It was assigned to the Levites of the family of Kohath ( 17:11-18 ; 21:25 ). It is mentioned in the song of Deborah ( Judges 5:19 ). It is identified with the small modern village of Ta'annuk.
approach to Shiloh, a place on the border of Ephraim ( Joshua 16:6 ), probably the modern T'ana, a ruin 7 miles south-east of Shechem, on the ridge east of the Mukhnah plain.
impressions; rings, "the children of," returned from the Captivity ( Ezra 2:43 ).
famous, a town in the tribe of Ephraim ( Judges 7:22 ), to the south of Bethshean, near the Jordan.
goodness of God, the father of one whom the kings of Syria and Samaria in vain attempted to place on the throne of Ahaz ( Isaiah 7:6 ).
a Persian governor of Samaria, who joined others in the attempt to prevent the rebuilding of Jerusalem ( Ezra 4:7 ).
playing on a small drum or tabret. In Nahum 2:7 , where alone it occurs, it means beating on the breast, as players beat on the tabret.
4. The sacred tent (Heb. mishkan, "the dwelling-place"); the movable tent-temple which Moses erected for the service of God, according to the "pattern" which God himself showed to him on the mount ( Exodus 25:9 ; Hebrews 8:5 ). It is called "the tabernacle of the congregation," rather "of meeting", i.e., where God promised to meet with Israel ( Exodus 29:42 ); the "tabernacle of the testimony" ( Exodus 38:21 ; Numbers 1:50 ), which does not, however, designate the whole structure, but only the enclosure which contained the "ark of the testimony" ( Exodus 25:16 Exodus 25:22 ; Numbers 9:15 ); the "tabernacle of witness" ( Numbers 17:8 ); the "house of the Lord" ( Deuteronomy 23:18 ); the "temple of the Lord" ( Joshua 6:24 ); a "sanctuary" ( Exodus 25:8 ). A particular account of the materials which the people provided for the erection and of the building itself is recorded in Exodus 2540 -40. The execution of the plan mysteriously given to Moses was intrusted to Bezaleel and Aholiab, who were specially endowed with wisdom and artistic skill, probably gained in Egypt, for this purpose ( Exodus 35:30-35 ). The people provided materials for the tabernacle so abundantly that Moses was under the necessity of restraining them ( 36:6 ). These stores, from which they so liberally contributed for this purpose, must have consisted in a great part of the gifts which the Egyptians so readily bestowed on them on the eve of the ( Exodus 12:35 Exodus 12:36 ). The tabernacle was a rectangular enclosure, in length about 45 feet (i.e., reckoning a cubit at 18 inches) and in breadth and height about 15. Its two sides and its western end were made of boards of acacia wood, placed on end, resting in sockets of brass, the eastern end being left open ( Exodus 26:22 ). This framework was covered with four coverings, the first of linen, in which figures of the symbolic cherubim were wrought with needlework in blue and purple and scarlet threads, and probably also with threads of gold ( Exodus 26:1-6 ; 36:8-13 ). Above this was a second covering of twelve curtains of black goats'-hair cloth, reaching down on the outside almost to the ground ( Exodus 26:7-11 ). The third covering was of rams' skins dyed red, and the fourth was of badgers' skins (Heb. tahash, i.e., the dugong, a species of seal), Exodus 25:5 ; 26:14 ; Exodus 35:7 Exodus 35:23 ; 36:19 ; 39:34 . Internally it was divided by a veil into two chambers, the exterior of which was called the holy place, also "the sanctuary" ( Hebrews 9:2 ) and the "first tabernacle" (6); and the interior, the holy of holies, "the holy place," "the Holiest," the "second tabernacle" ( Exodus 28:29 ; Hebrews 9:3 Hebrews 9:7 ). The veil separating these two chambers was a double curtain of the finest workmanship, which was never passed except by the high priest once a year, on the great Day of Atonement. The holy place was separated from the outer court which enclosed the tabernacle by a curtain, which hung over the six pillars which stood at the east end of the tabernacle, and by which it was entered. The order as well as the typical character of the services of the tabernacle are recorded in Hebrews 9 ; 10:19-22 . The holy of holies, a cube of 10 cubits, contained the "ark of the testimony", i.e., the oblong chest containing the two tables of stone, the pot of manna, and Aaron's rod that budded. The holy place was the western and larger chamber of the tabernacle. Here were placed the table for the shewbread, the golden candlestick, and the golden altar of incense. Round about the tabernacle was a court, enclosed by curtains hung upon sixty pillars ( Exodus 27:9-18 ). This court was 150 feet long and 75 feet broad. Within it were placed the altar of burnt offering, which measured 7 1/2 feet in length and breadth and 4 1/2 feet high, with horns at the four corners, and the laver of brass ( Exodus 30:18 ), which stood between the altar and the tabernacle. The whole tabernacle was completed in seven months. On the first day of the first month of the second year after the Exodus, it was formally set up, and the cloud of the divine presence descended on it ( Exodus 39:22-43 ; 40:1-38 ). It cost 29 talents 730 shekels of gold, 100 talents 1,775 shekels of silver, 70 talents 2,400 shekels of brass ( Exodus 38:24-31 ). The tabernacle was so constructed that it could easily be taken down and conveyed from place to place during the wanderings in the wilderness. The first encampment of the Israelites after crossing the Jordan was at Gilgal, and there the tabernacle remained for seven years ( Joshua 4:19 ). It was afterwards removed to Shiloh ( Joshua 18:1 ), where it remained during the time of the Judges, till the days of Eli, when the ark, having been carried out into the camp when the Israelites were at war with the Philistines, was taken by the enemy ( 1 Samuel 4 ), and was never afterwards restored to its place in the tabernacle. The old tabernacle erected by Moses in the wilderness was transferred to Nob ( 1 Samuel 21:1 ), and after the destruction of that city by Saul ( 22:9 ; 1 Chronicles 16:39 1 Chronicles 16:40 ), to Gibeon. It is mentioned for the last time in 1 Chronicles 21:29 . A new tabernacle was erected by David at Jerusalem ( 2 Samuel 6:17 ; 1 Chronicles 16:1 ), and the ark was brought from Perez-uzzah and deposited in it ( 2 Samuel 6:8-17 ; 2 Chr 1:4 ). The word thus rendered ('ohel) in Exodus 33:7 denotes simply a tent, probably Moses' own tent, for the tabernacle was not yet erected.
the third of the great annual festivals of the Jews ( Leviticus 23:33-43 ). It is also called the "feast of ingathering" ( Exodus 23:16 ; Deuteronomy 16:13 ). It was celebrated immediately after the harvest, in the month Tisri, and the celebration lasted for eight days ( Leviticus 23:33-43 ). During that period the people left their homes and lived in booths formed of the branches of trees. The sacrifices offered at this time are mentioned in Numbers 29:13-38 . It was at the time of this feast that Solomon's temple was dedicated ( 1 Kings 8:2 ). Mention is made of it after the return from the Captivity. This feast was designed (1) to be a memorial of the wilderness wanderings, when the people dwelt in booths ( Leviticus 23:43 ), and (2) to be a harvest thanksgiving ( Nehemiah 8:9-18 ). The Jews, at a later time, introduced two appendages to the original festival, viz., (1) that of drawing water from the Pool of Siloam, and pouring it upon the altar ( John 7:2 John 7:37 ), as a memorial of the water from the rock in Horeb; and (2) of lighting the lamps at night, a memorial of the pillar of fire by night during their wanderings.
"The feast of Tabernacles, the harvest festival of the Jewish Church, was the most popular and important festival after the Captivity. At Jerusalem it was a gala day. It was to the autumn pilgrims, who arrived on the 14th (of the month Tisri, the feast beginning on the 15th) day, like entrance into a silvan city. Roofs and courtyards, streets and squares, roads and gardens, were green with boughs of citron and myrtle, palm and willow. The booths recalled the pilgrimage through the wilderness. The ingathering of fruits prophesied of the spiritual harvest.", Valling's Jesus Christ, p. 133.
(in Greek called Dorcas), gazelle, a disciple at Joppa. She was distinguished for her alms-deeds and good works. Peter, who was sent for from Lydda on the occasion of her death, prayed over the dead body, and said, "Tabitha, arise." And she opened her eyes and sat up; and Peter "gave her his hand, and raised her up; and calling the saints and widows, he presented her alive" ( Acts 9:36-43 ).
( Mark 7:4 ) means banqueting-couches or benches, on which the Jews reclined when at meals. This custom, along with the use of raised tables like ours, was introduced among the Jews after the Captivity. Before this they had, properly speaking, no table. That which served the purpose was a skin or piece of leather spread out on the carpeted floor. Sometimes a stool was placed in the middle of this skin. (See ABRAHAM'S BOSOM; BANQUET; MEALS .)
1. Now Jebel et-Tur, a cone-like prominent mountain, 11 miles west of the Sea of Galilee. It is about 1,843 feet high. The view from the summit of it is said to be singularly extensive and grand. This is alluded to in Psalms 89:12 ; Jeremiah 46:18 . It was here that Barak encamped before the battle with Sisera (q.v.) Judges 4:6-14 . There is an old tradition, which, however, is unfounded, that it was the scene of the transfiguration of our Lord. (See HERMON .) "The prominence and isolation of Tabor, standing, as it does, on the border-land between the northern and southern tribes, between the mountains and the central plain, made it a place of note in all ages, and evidently led the psalmist to associate it with Hermon, the one emblematic of the south, the other of the north." There are some who still hold that this was the scene of the transfiguration (q.v.).
2. A town of Zebulum ( 1 Chronicles 6:77 ).
(Heb. toph), a timbrel (q.v.) or tambourine, generally played by women ( Genesis 31:27 ; 1 Samuel 10:5 ; 18:6 ). In Job 17:6 the word (Heb. topheth) "tabret" should be, as in the Revised Version, "an open abhorring" (marg., "one in whose face they spit;" lit., "a spitting in the face").
good is Rimmon, the father of Benhadad, king of Syria ( 1 Kings 15:18 ).
palm, a city built by Solomon "in the wilderness" ( 2 Chronicles 8:4 ). In 1 Kings 9:18 , where the word occurs in the Authorized Version, the Hebrew text and the Revised Version read "Tamar," which is properly a city on the southern border of Palestine and toward the wilderness (Compare Ezekiel 47:19 ; 48:28 ). In 2 Chronicles 8:14 Tadmor is mentioned in connection with Hamath-zobah. It is called Palmyra by the Greeks and Romans. It stood in the great Syrian wilderness, 176 miles from Damascus and 130 from the Mediterranean and was the centre of a vast commercial traffic with Western Asia. It was also an important military station. (See SOLOMON .) "Remains of ancient temples and palaces, surrounded by splendid colonnades of white marble, many of which are yet standing, and thousands of prostrate pillars, scattered over a large extent of space, attest the ancient magnificence of this city of palms, surpassing that of the renowned cities of Greece and Rome."
=Tahpanhes=Tehaphnehes, (called "Daphne" by the Greeks, now Tell Defenneh), an ancient Egyptian city, on the Tanitic branch of the Nile, about 16 miles from Pelusium. The Jews from Jerusalem fled to this place after the death of Gedaliah (q.v.), and settled there for a time ( Jeremiah 2:16 ; 43:7 ; 44:1 ; 46:14 ). A platform of brick-work, which there is every reason to believe was the pavement at the entry of Pharaoh's palace, has been discovered at this place. "Here," says the discoverer, Mr. Petrie, "the ceremony described by [ Jeremiah 43:8-10 ; "brick-kiln", i.e., pavement of brick] took place before the chiefs of the fugitives assembled on the platform, and here Nebuchadnezzar spread his royal pavilion" (RSV, "brickwork").
the land of the newly inhabited, ( 2 Samuel 24:6 ). It is conjectured that, instead of this word, the reading should be, "the Hittites of Kadesh," the Hittite capital, on the Orontes. It was apparently some region east of the Jordan and north of Gilead.
1. Heb. tokhen, "a task," as weighed and measured out = tally, i.e., the number told off; the full number ( Exodus 5:18 ; see 1 Samuel 18:27 ; 1 Chronicles 9:28 ). In Ezekiel 45:11 rendered "measure."
2. Heb. hegeh, "a thought;" "meditation" ( Psalms 90:9 ); meaning properly "as a whisper of sadness," which is soon over, or "as a thought." The LXX. and Vulgate render it "spider;" the Authorized Version and Revised Version, "as a tale" that is told. In Job 37:2 this word is rendered "sound;" Revised Version margin, "muttering;" and in Ezekiel 2:10 , "mourning."
of silver contained 3,000 shekels ( Exodus 38:25 Exodus 38:26 ), and was equal to 94 3/7 lbs. avoirdupois. The Greek talent, however, as in the LXX., was only 82 1/4 lbs. It was in the form of a circular mass, as the Hebrew name kikkar denotes. A talent of gold was double the weight of a talent of silver ( 2 Samuel 12:30 ). Parable of the talents ( Matthew 18:24 ; 25:15 ).
( Mark 5:41 ), a Syriac or Aramaic expression, meaning, "Little maid, arise." Peter, who was present when the miracle was wrought, recalled the actual words used by our Lord, and told them to Mark.
abounding in furrows.
2. The daughter-in-law of Judah, to whose eldest son, Er, she was married ( Genesis 38:6 ). After her husband's death, she was married to Onan, his brother (8), and on his death, Judah promised to her that his third son, Shelah, would become her husband. This promise was not fulfilled, and hence Tamar's revenge and Judah's great guilt ( 38:12-30 ).
3. A daughter of David ( 2 Samuel 13:1-32 ; 1 Chronicles 3:9 ), whom Amnon shamefully outraged and afterwards "hated exceedingly," thereby illustrating the law of human nature noticed even by the heathen, "Proprium humani ingenii est odisse quem laeseris", i.e., "It is the property of human nature to hate one whom you have injured."
4. A daughter of Absalom ( 2 Samuel 14:27 ).
Heb. 'eshel ( Genesis 21:33 ; 1 Samuel 22:6 ; 31:13 , in the RSV; but in A.V., "grove," "tree"); Arab. asal. Seven species of this tree are found in Palestine. It is a "very graceful tree, with long feathery branches and tufts closely clad with the minutest of leaves, and surmounted in spring with spikes of beautiful pink blosoms, which seem to envelop the whole tree in one gauzy sheet of colour" (Tristram's Nat. Hist.).
a corruption of Dumuzi, the Accadian sun-god (the Adonis of the Greeks), the husband of the goddess Ishtar. In the Chaldean calendar there was a month set apart in honour of this god, the month of June to July, the beginning of the summer solstice. At this festival, which lasted six days, the worshippers, with loud lamentations, bewailed the funeral of the god, they sat "weeping for Tammuz" ( Ezekiel 8:14 ).
The name, also borrowed from Chaldea, of one of the months of the Hebrew calendar.
3. En-tappuah, the well of the apple, probably one of the springs near Yassuf ( Joshua 17:7 ).
the bearded darnel, mentioned only in Matthew 13:25-30 . It is the Lolium temulentum, a species of rye-grass, the seeds of which are a strong soporific poison. It bears the closest resemblance to wheat till the ear appears, and only then the difference is discovered. It grows plentifully in Syria and Palestine.
( 1 Samuel 17:6 , A.V., after the LXX. and Vulg.), a kind of small shield. The margin has "gorget," a piece of armour for the throat. The Revised Version more correctly renders the Hebrew word (kidon) by "javelin." The same Hebrew word is used in Joshua 8:18 (A.V., "spear;" RSV, "javelin"); Job 39:23 (A.V., "shield;" RSV, "javelin"); 41:29 (A.V., "spear;" RSV, "javelin").
a Sanscrit or Aryan word, meaning "the sea coast."
2. The name of a place which first comes into notice in the days of Solomon. The question as to the locality of Tarshish has given rise to not a little discussion. Some think there was a Tarshish in the East, on the Indian coast, seeing that "ships of Tarshish" sailed from Eziongeber, on the Red Sea ( 1 Kings 9:26 ; 22:48 ; 2 Chr 9:21 ). Some, again, argue that Carthage was the place so named. There can be little doubt, however, that this is the name of a Phoenician port in Spain, between the two mouths of the Guadalquivir (the name given to the river by the Arabs, and meaning "the great wady" or water-course). It was founded by a Carthaginian colony, and was the farthest western harbour of Tyrian sailors. It was to this port Jonah's ship was about to sail from Joppa. It has well been styled "the Peru of Tyrian adventure;" it abounded in gold and silver mines. It appears that this name also is used without reference to any locality. "Ships of Tarshish" is an expression sometimes denoting simply ships intended for a long voyage ( Isaiah 23:1 Isaiah 23:14 ), ships of a large size (sea-going ships), whatever might be the port to which they sailed. Solomon's ships were so styled ( 1 Kings 10:22 ; 22:49 ).
the chief city of Cilicia. It was distinguished for its wealth and for its schools of learning, in which it rivalled, nay, excelled even Athens and Alexandria, and hence was spoken of as "no mean city." It was the native place of the Apostle Paul ( Acts 21:39 ). It stood on the banks of the river Cydnus, about 12 miles north of the Mediterranean. It is said to have been founded by Sardanapalus, king of Assyria. It is now a filthy, ruinous Turkish town, called Tersous. (See PAUL .)
prince of darkness, one of the gods of the Arvites, who colonized part of Samaria after the deportation of Israel by Shalmaneser ( 2 Kings 17:31 ).
an Assyrian word, meaning "the commander-in-chief."
1. One of Sennacherib's messengers to Hezekiah ( 2 Kings 18:17 ).
2. One of Sargon's generals ( Isaiah 20:1 ).
gift, a Persian governor (Heb. pehah, i.e., "satrap;" modern "pasha") "on this side the river", i.e., of the whole tract on the west of the Euphrates. This Hebrew title pehah is given to governors of provinces generally. It is given to ( Nehemiah 5:14 ) and to Zerubbabel ( Haggai 1:1 ). It is sometimes translated "captain" ( 1 Kings 20:24 ; Daniel 3:2 Daniel 3:3 ), sometimes also "deputy" ( Esther 8:9 ; 9:3 ). With others, Tatnai opposed the rebuilding of the temple ( Ezra 5:6 ); but at the command of Darius, he assisted the Jews ( 6:1-13 ).
a place on the great "Appian Way," about 11 miles from Rome, designed for the reception of travellers, as the name indicates. Here Paul, on his way to Rome, was met by a band of Roman Christians ( Acts 28:15 ). The "Tres Tabernae was the first mansio or mutatio, that is, halting-place for relays, from Rome, or the last on the way to the city. At this point three roads run into the Via Appia, that from Tusculum, that from Alba Longa, and that from Antium; so necessarily here would be a halting-place, which took its name from the three shops there, the general store, the blacksmith's, and the refreshment-house...Tres Tabernae is translated as Three Taverns, but it more correctly means three shops" (Forbes's Footsteps of St. Paul, p.20).
first mentioned in the command ( Exodus 30:11-16 ) that every Jew from twenty years and upward should pay an annual tax of "half a shekel for an offering to the Lord." This enactment was faithfully observed for many generations ( 2 Chronicles 24:6 ; Matthew 17:24 ).
Afterwards, when the people had kings to reign over them, they began, as Samuel had warned them ( 1 Samuel 8:10-18 ), to pay taxes for civil purposes ( 1 Kings 4:7 ; 9:15 ; 12:4 ). Such taxes, in increased amount, were afterwards paid to the foreign princes that ruled over them.
In the New Testament the payment of taxes, imposed by lawful rulers, is enjoined as a duty ( Romans 13:1-7 ; 1 Peter 2:13 1 Peter 2:14 ). Mention is made of the tax (telos) on merchandise and travellers ( Matthew 17:25 ); the annual tax (phoros) on property ( Luke 20:22 ; 23:2 ); the poll-tax (kensos, "tribute," Matthew 17:25 ; 22:17 ; Mark 12:14 ); and the temple-tax ("tribute money" = two drachmas = half shekel, Matthew 17:24-27 ; Compare Exodus 30:13 ). (See TRIBUTE .)
( Luke 2:2 ; RSV, "enrolment"), "when Cyrenius was governor of Syria," is simply a census of the people, or an enrolment of them with a view to their taxation. The decree for the enrolment was the occasion of Joseph and Mary's going up to Bethlehem. It has been argued by some that Cyrenius (q.v.) was governor of Cilicia and Syria both at the time of our Lord's birth and some years afterwards. This decree for the taxing referred to the whole Roman world, and not to Judea alone. (See CENSUS .)
( Esther 2:16 ), a word probably of Persian origin, denoting the cold time of the year; used by the later Jews as denoting the tenth month of the year. Assyrian tebituv, "rain."
(an old name for the lime-tree, the tilia), Isaiah 6:13 , the terebinth, or turpentine-tree, the Pistacia terebinthus of botanists. The Hebrew word here used (elah) is rendered oak (q.v.) in Genesis 35:4 ; Judges 6:11 Judges 6:19 ; Isaiah 1:29 , etc. In Isaiah 61:3 it is rendered in the plural "trees;" Hosea 4:13 , "elm" (RSV, "terebinth"). Hosea 4:13 , "elm" (RSV, "terebinth"). In 1Sam 17:2,19it is taken as a proper name, "Elah" (RSV marg., "terebinth").
"The terebinth of Mamre, or its lineal successor, remained from the days of Abraham till the fourth century of the Christian era, and on its site Constantine erected a Christian church, the ruins of which still remain."
This tree "is seldom seen in clumps or groves, never in forests, but stands isolated and weird-like in some bare ravine or on a hill-side where nothing else towers above the low brushwood" (Tristram).
weighed ( Daniel 5:27 ).
pitching of tents; fastening down, a town of Judah, about 12 miles south of Jerusalem, and visible from the city. From this place Joab procured a "wise woman," who pretended to be in great affliction, and skilfully made her case known to David. Her address to the king was in the form of an apologue, similar to that of Nathan ( 2 Samuel 12:1-6 ). The object of Joab was, by the intervention of this woman, to induce David to bring back Absalom to Jerusalem ( 2 Samuel 14:2 2 Samuel 14:4 2 Samuel 14:9 ).
This was also the birth-place of the prophet ( Amos 1:1 ).
It is now the village of Teku'a, on the top of a hill among ruins, 5 miles south of Bethlehem, and close to Beth-haccerem ("Herod's mountain").
hill of corn, a place on the river Chebar, the residence of Ezekiel ( Ezekiel 3:15 ). The site is unknown.
young lambs, a place at which Saul gathered his army to fight against Amalek ( 1 Samuel 15:4 ); probably the same as Telem (2).
or Thelasar, ( Isaiah 37:12 ; 2 Kings 19:12 ), a province in the south-east of Assyria, probably in Babylonia. Some have identified it with Tel Afer, a place in Mesopotamia, some 30 miles from Sinjar.
1. A porter of the temple in the time of ( Ezra 10:24 ).
2. A town in the southern border of Judah ( Joshua 15:24 ); probably the same as Telaim.
hill of salt, a place in Babylon from which the Jews returned (id.).
south; desert, one of the sons of Ishmael, and father of a tribe so called ( Genesis 25:15 ; 1 Chronicles 1:30 ; Job 6:19 ; Isaiah 21:14 ; Jeremiah 25:23 ) which settled at a place to which he gave his name, some 250 miles south-east of Edom, on the route between Damascus and Mecca, in the northern part of the Arabian peninsula, toward the Syrian desert; the modern Teyma'.
2. A place in Southern Idumea, the land of "the sons of the east," frequently mentioned in the Old Testament. It was noted for the wisdom of its inhabitants ( Amos 1:12 ; Obadiah 1:8 ; Jeremiah 49:7 ; Ezekiel 25:13 ). It was divided from the hills of Paran by the low plain of Arabah ( Habakkuk 3:3 ).
one of the sons of Ashur, the father of Tekoa ( 1 Chronicles 4:6 ).
first used of the tabernacle, which is called "the temple of the Lord" ( 1 Samuel 1:9 ). In the New Testament the word is used figuratively of Christ's human body ( John 2:19 John 2:21 ). Believers are called "the temple of God" ( 1 Corinthians 3:16 1 Corinthians 3:17 ). The Church is designated "an holy temple in the Lord" ( Ephesians 2:21 ). Heaven is also called a temple ( Revelation 7:5 ). We read also of the heathen "temple of the great goddess Diana" ( Acts 19:27 ).
This word is generally used in Scripture of the sacred house erected on the summit of Mount Moriah for the worship of God. It is called "the temple" ( 1 Kings 6:17 ); "the temple [RSV, 'house'] of the Lord" ( 2 Kings 11:10 ); "thy holy temple" ( Psalms 79:1 ); "the house of the Lord" ( 2 Chronicles 23:5 2 Chronicles 23:12 ); "the house of the God of Jacob" ( Isaiah 2:3 ); "the house of my glory" ( 60:7 ); an "house of prayer" ( 56:7 ; Matthew 21:13 ); "an house of sacrifice" ( 2 Chronicles 7:12 ); "the house of their sanctuary" ( 2 Chronicles 36:17 ); "the mountain of the Lord's house" ( Isaiah 2:2 ); "our holy and our beautiful house" ( 64:11 ); "the holy mount" ( 27:13 ); "the palace for the Lord God" ( 1 Chronicles 29:1 ); "the tabernacle of witness" ( 2 Chronicles 24:6 ); "Zion" ( Psalms 74:2 ; 84:7 ). Christ calls it "my Father's house" ( John 2:16 ).
The temple erected by the exiles on their return from Babylon had stood for about five hundred years, when Herod the Great became king of Judea. The building had suffered considerably from natural decay as well as from the assaults of hostile armies, and Herod, desirous of gaining the favour of the Jews, proposed to rebuild it. This offer was accepted, and the work was begun (B.C. 18), and carried out at great labour and expense, and on a scale of surpassing splendour. The main part of the building was completed in ten years, but the erection of the outer courts and the embellishment of the whole were carried on during the entire period of our Lord's life on earth ( John 2:16 John 2:19-21 ), and the temple was completed only A.D. 65. But it was not long permitted to exist. Within forty years after our Lord's crucifixion, his prediction of its overthrow was accomplished ( Luke 19: : 4144 -44). The Roman legions took the city of Jerusalem by storm, and notwithstanding the strenuous efforts Titus made to preserve the temple, his soldiers set fire to it in several places, and it was utterly destroyed (A.D. 70), and was never rebuilt.
Several remains of Herod's stately temple have by recent explorations been brought to light. It had two courts, one intended for the Israelites only, and the other, a large outer court, called "the court of the Gentiles," intended for the use of strangers of all nations. These two courts were separated by a low wall, as Josephus states, some 4 1/2 feet high, with thirteen openings. Along the top of this dividing wall, at regular intervals, were placed pillars bearing in Greek an inscription to the effect that no stranger was, on the pain of death, to pass from the court of the Gentiles into that of the Jews. At the entrance to a graveyard at the north-western angle of the Haram wall, a stone was discovered by M. Ganneau in 1871, built into the wall, bearing the following inscription in Greek capitals: "No stranger is to enter within the partition wall and enclosure around the sanctuary. Whoever is caught will be responsible to himself for his death, which will ensue."
There can be no doubt that the stone thus discovered was one of those originally placed on the boundary wall which separated the Jews from the Gentiles, of which Josephus speaks.
It is of importance to notice that the word rendered "sanctuary" in the inscription was used in a specific sense of the inner court, the court of the Israelites, and is the word rendered "temple" in John 2:15 and Acts 21:28 Acts 21:29 . When Paul speaks of the middle wall of partition ( Ephesians 2:14 ), he probably makes allusion to this dividing wall. Within this partition wall stood the temple proper, consisting of, (1) the court of the women, 8 feet higher than the outer court; (2) 10 feet higher than this court was the court of Israel; (3) the court of the priests, again 3 feet higher; and lastly (4) the temple floor, 8 feet above that; thus in all 29 feet above the level of the outer court.
The summit of Mount Moriah, on which the temple stood, is now occupied by the Haram esh-Sherif, i.e., "the sacred enclosure." This enclosure is about 1,500 feet from north to south, with a breadth of about 1,000 feet, covering in all a space of about 35 acres. About the centre of the enclosure is a raised platform, 16 feet above the surrounding space, and paved with large stone slabs, on which stands the Mohammedan mosque called Kubbet es-Sahkra i.e., the "Dome of the Rock," or the Mosque of Omar. This mosque covers the site of Solomon's temple. In the centre of the dome there is a bare, projecting rock, the highest part of Moriah (q.v.), measuring 60 feet by 40, standing 6 feet above the floor of the mosque, called the sahkra, i.e., "rock." Over this rock the altar of burnt-offerings stood. It was the threshing-floor of Araunah the Jebusite. The exact position on this "sacred enclosure" which the temple occupied has not been yet definitely ascertained. Some affirm that Herod's temple covered the site of Solomon's temple and palace, and in addition enclosed a square of 300 feet at the south-western angle. The temple courts thus are supposed to have occupied the southern portion of the "enclosure," forming in all a square of more than 900 feet. It is argued by others that Herod's temple occupied a square of 600 feet at the south-west of the "enclosure."
Before his death David had "with all his might" provided materials in great abundance for the building of the temple on the summit of Mount Moriah ( 1 Chronicles 22:14 ; 29:4 ; 2 Chr 3:1 ), on the east of the city, on the spot where Abraham had offered up Isaac ( Genesis 22:1-14 ). In the beginning of his reign Solomon set about giving effect to the desire that had been so earnestly cherished by his father, and prepared additional materials for the building. From subterranean quarries at Jerusalem he obtained huge blocks of stone for the foundations and walls of the temple. These stones were prepared for their places in the building under the eye of Tyrian master-builders. He also entered into a compact with Hiram II., king of Tyre, for the supply of whatever else was needed for the work, particularly timber from the forests of Lebanon, which was brought in great rafts by the sea to Joppa, whence it was dragged to Jerusalem ( 1 Kings 5 ). As the hill on which the temple was to be built did not afford sufficient level space, a huge wall of solid masonry of great height, in some places more than 200 feet high, was raised across the south of the hill, and a similar wall on the eastern side, and in the spaces between were erected many arches and pillars, thus raising up the general surface to the required level. Solomon also provided for a sufficient water supply for the temple by hewing in the rocky hill vast cisterns, into which water was conveyed by channels from the "pools" near Bethlehem. One of these cisterns, the "great sea," was capable of containing three millions of gallons. The overflow was led off by a conduit to the Kidron.
In all these preparatory undertakings a space of about three years was occupied; and now the process of the erection of the great building began, under the direction of skilled Phoenician builders and workmen, in the fourth year of Solomon's reign, 480 years after the Exodus ( 1 Kings 6 ; 2 Chr. 3 ). Many thousands of labourers and skilled artisans were employed in the work. Stones prepared in the quarries underneath the city ( 1 Kings 5:17 1 Kings 5:18 ) of huge dimension (see QUARRIES) were gradually placed on the massive walls, and closely fitted together without any mortar between, till the whole structure was completed. No sound of hammer or axe or any tool of iron was heard as the structure arose ( 6:7 ). "Like some tall palm the noiseless fabric sprang." The building was 60 cubits long, 20 cubits wide, and 30 cubits high. The engineers of the Palestine Exploration Fund, in their explorations around the temple area, discovered what is believed to have been the "chief corner stone" of the temple, "the most interesting stone in the world." It lies at the bottom of the south-eastern angle, and is 3 feet 8 inches high by 14 feet long. It rests on the solid rock at a depth of 79 feet 3 inches below the present surface. (See PINNACLE .) In examining the walls the engineers were "struck with admiration at the vastness of the blocks and the general excellence of the workmanship."
At length, in the autumn of the eleventh year of his reign, seven and a half years after it had been begun, the temple was completed in all its architectural magnificence and beauty. For thirteen years there it stood, on the summit of Moriah, silent and unused. The reasons for this strange delay in its consecration are unknown. At the close of these thirteen years preparations for the dedication of the temple were made on a scale of the greatest magnificence. The ark was solemnly brought from the tent in which David had deposited it to the place prepared for it in the temple, and the glory-cloud, the symbol of the divine presence, filled the house. Then Solomon ascended a platform which had been erected for him, in the sight of all the people, and lifting up his hands to heaven poured out his heart to God in prayer ( 1 Kings 8 ; 2 Chr. 67 ,7). The feast of dedication, which lasted seven days, followed by the feast of tabernacles, marked a new era in the history of Israel. On the eighth day of the feast of tabernacles, Solomon dismissed the vast assemblage of the people, who returned to their homes filled with joy and gladness, "Had Solomon done no other service beyond the building of the temple, he would still have influenced the religious life of his people down to the latest days. It was to them a perpetual reminder and visible symbol of God's presence and protection, a strong bulwark of all the sacred traditions of the law, a witness to duty, an impulse to historic study, an inspiration of sacred song."
The temple consisted of,
1. The oracle or most holy place ( 1 Kings 6:19 ; 8:6 ), called also the "inner house" ( 6:27 ), and the "holiest of all" ( Hebrews 9:3 ). It was 20 cubits in length, breadth, and height. It was floored and wainscotted with cedar ( 1 Kings 6:16 ), and its walls and floor were overlaid with gold ( 1 Kings 6:20 1 Kings 6:21 1 Kings 6:30 ). There was a two-leaved door between it and the holy place overlaid with gold ( 2 Chronicles 4:22 ); also a veil of blue purple and crimson and fine linen ( 2 Chronicles 3:14 ; Compare Exodus 26:33 ). It had no windows ( 1 Kings 8:12 ). It was indeed the dwelling-place of God.
4. The chambers, which were built about the temple on the southern, western, and northern sides ( 1 Kings 6:5-10 ). These formed a part of the building. Round about the building were,
5. The court of the priests ( 2 Chronicles 4:9 ), called the "inner court" ( 1 Kings 6:36 ). It contained the altar of burnt-offering ( 2 Chronicles 15:8 ), the brazen sea ( 2 Chronicles 4:2-5 2 Chronicles 4:10 ), and ten lavers ( 1 Kings 7:38 1 Kings 7:39 ).
6. The great court, which surrounded the whole temple ( 2 Chronicles 4:9 ). Here the people assembled to worship God ( Jeremiah 19:14 ; 26:2 ). This temple erected by Solomon was many times pillaged during the course of its history, (1) 1 Kings 14:25 1 Kings 14:26 ; (2) 2 Kings 14:14 ; (3) 2 Kings 16:8 2 Kings 16:17 2 Kings 16:18 ; 2 Kings 2 Kings 2 Kings 18:15 2 Kings 18:16 . At last it was pillaged and destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar ( 2 Kings 24:13 ; 2 Chr 36:7 ). He burned the temple, and carried all its treasures with him to Babylon ( 2 Kings 25:9-17 ; 2 Chr 36:19 ; Isaiah 64:11 ). These sacred vessels were at length, at the close of the Captivity, restored to the Jews by Cyrus ( Ezra 1:7-11 ).
After the return from captivity, under Zerubbabel (q.v.) and the high priest Jeshua, arrangements were almost immediately made to reorganize the long-desolated kingdom. The body of pilgrims, forming a band of 42,360, including children, having completed the long and dreary journey of some four months, from the banks of the Euphrates to Jerusalem, were animated in all their proceeding by a strong religious impulse, and therefore one of their first cares was to restore their ancient worship by rebuilding the temple. On the invitation of Zerubbabel, the governor, who showed them a remarkable example of liberality by contributing personally 1,000 golden darics (probably about $6,000), besides other gifts, the people with great enthusiasm poured their gifts into the sacred treasury ( Ezra 2 ). First they erected and dedicated the altar of Jehovah on the exact spot where it had formerly stood, and they then cleared away the charred heaps of debris which occupied the site of the old temple; and in the second month of the second year (B.C. 535), amid great public excitement and rejoicing ( Psalms 116 ; 117 ; 118 ), the foundations of the second temple were laid. A wide interest was felt in this great movement, although it was regarded with mingled feelings by the spectators ( Haggai 2:3 ; Zechariah 4:10 ). The Samaritans made proposals for a co-operation in the work. Zerubbabel and Jeshua and the elders, however, declined all such cooperation: Judah must build the temple without help. Immediately evil reports were spread regarding the Jews. The Samaritans sought to "frustrate their purpose" ( Ezra 4:5 ), and sent messengers to Ecbatana and Susa, with the result that the work was suspended. Seven years after this Cyrus died ingloriously, having killed himself in Syria when on his way back from Egypt to the east, and was succeeded by his son Cambyses (B.C. 529-522), on whose death the "false Smerdis," an imposter, occupied the throne for some seven or eight months, and then Darius Hystaspes became king (B.C. 522). In the second year of this monarch the work of rebuilding the temple was resumed and carried forward to its completion ( Ezra 5: : 617 -17; 6:1-15 ), under the stimulus of the earnest counsels and admonitions of the prophets Haggai and Zechariah. It was ready for consecration in the spring of B.C. 516, twenty years after the return from captivity.
This second temple had not the ark, the Urim and Thummim, the holy oil, the sacred fire, the tables of stone, the pot of manna, and Aaron's rod. As in the tabernacle, there was in it only one golden lamp for the holy place, one table of shewbread, and the incense altar, with golden censers, and many of the vessels of gold that had belonged to Solomon's temple that had been carried to Babylon but restored by Cyrus ( Ezra 1:7-11 ).
This second temple also differed from the first in that, while in the latter there were numerous "trees planted in the courts of the Lord," there were none in the former. The second temple also had for the first time a space, being a part of the outer court, provided for proselytes who were worshippers of Jehovah, although not subject to the laws of Judaism.
The temple, when completed, was consecrated amid great rejoicings on the part of all the people ( Ezra 6:16 ), although there were not wanting outward evidences that the Jews were no longer an independent people, but were subject to a foreign power.
Haggai 2:9 is rightly rendered in the Revised Version, "The latter glory of this house shall be greater than the former," instead of, "The glory of this latter house," etc., in the Authorized Version. The temple, during the different periods of its existence, is regarded as but one house, the one only house of God (comp 2:3 ). The glory here predicted is spiritual glory and not material splendour. "Christ himself, present bodily in the temple on Mount Zion during his life on earth, present spiritually in the Church now, present in the holy city, the heavenly Jerusalem, of which he is the temple, calling forth spiritual worship and devotion is the glory here predicted" (Perowne).
1. Trial; a being put to the test. Thus God "tempted [ Genesis 22: : 1; RSV, 'did prove'] Abraham;" and afflictions are said to tempt, i.e., to try, men ( James 1:2 James 1:12 ; Compare Deuteronomy 8:2 ), putting their faith and patience to the test.
2. Ordinarily, however, the word means solicitation to that which is evil, and hence Satan is called "the tempter" ( Matthew 4:3 ). Our Lord was in this way tempted in the wilderness. That temptation was not internal, but by a real, active, subtle being. It was not self-sought. It was submitted to as an act of obedience on his part. "Christ was led, driven. An unseen personal force bore him a certain violence is implied in the words" ( Matthew 4:1-11 ). The scene of the temptation of our Lord is generally supposed to have been the mountain of Quarantania (q.v.), "a high and precipitous wall of rock, 1,200 or 1,500 feet above the plain west of Jordan, near Jericho." Temptation is common to all ( Daniel 12:10 ; Zechariah 13:9 ; Psalms 66:10 ; Luke 22:31 Luke 22:40 ; Hebrews 11:17 ; James 1:12 ; 1 Peter 1:7 ; 4:12 ). We read of the temptation of Joseph ( Genesis 39 ), of David ( 2 Samuel 24 ; 1 Chronicles 21 ), of Hezekiah ( 2 Chronicles 32:31 ), of Daniel ( Daniel 6 ), etc. So long as we are in this world we are exposed to temptations, and need ever to be on our watch against them.
1. Heb. 'ohel ( Genesis 9:21 Genesis 9:27 ). This word is used also of a dwelling or habitation ( 1 Kings 8:66 ; Isaiah 16:5 ; Jeremiah 4:20 ), and of the temple ( Ezekiel 41:1 ). When used of the tabernacle, as in 1 Kings 1:39 , it denotes the covering of goat's hair which was placed over the mishcan.
2. Heb. mishcan (Cant 1:8 ), used also of a dwelling ( Job 18:21 ; Psalms 87:2 ), the grave ( Isaiah 22:16 ; comp 14:18 ), the temple ( Psalms 46:4 ; 84:2 ; 132:5 ), and of the tabernacle ( Exodus 25:9 ; 26:1 ; 40:9 ; Numbers 1:50 Numbers 1:53 ; 10:11 ). When distinguished from 'ohel, it denotes the twelve interior curtains which lay upon the framework of the tabernacle (q.v.).
3. Heb. kubbah ( Numbers 25:8 ), a dome-like tent devoted to the impure worship of Baal-peor.
4. Heb. succah ( 2 Samuel 11:11 ), a tent or booth made of green boughs or branches (see Genesis 33:17 ; Leviticus 23:34 Leviticus 23:42 ; Psalms 18:11 ; Jonah 4:5 ; Isaiah 4:6 ; Nehemiah 8:15-17 , where the word is variously rendered). Jubal was "the father of such as dwell in tents" ( Genesis 4:20 ). The patriarchs were "dwellers in tents" ( Genesis 9:21 Genesis 9:27 ; 12:8 ; 13:12 ; 26:17 ); and during their wilderness wanderings all Israel dwelt in tents ( Exodus 16:16 ; Deuteronomy 33:18 ; Joshua 7:24 ). Tents have always occupied a prominent place in Eastern life ( 1 Samuel 17:54 ; 2 Kings 7:7 ; Psalms 120:5 ; Cant 1:5 ). Paul the apostle's occupation was that of a tent-maker ( Acts 18:3 ); i.e., perhaps a maker of tent cloth.
i.e., the tenth part of an ephah (as in the RSV), equal to an omer or six pints. The recovered leper, to complete his purification, was required to bring a trespass, a sin, and a burnt offering, and to present a meal offering, a tenth deal or an omer of flour for each, with oil to make it into bread or cakes ( Leviticus 14:10 Leviticus 14:21 ; Compare Exodus 16:36 ; 29:40 ).
the wanderer; loiterer, for some unknown reason emigrated with his family from his native mountains in the north to the plains of Mesopotamia. He had three sons, Haran, Nahor, and Abraham, and one daughter, Sarah. He settled in "Ur of the Chaldees," where his son Haran died, leaving behind him his son Lot. Nahor settled at Haran, a place on the way to Ur. Terah afterwards migrated with Abraham (probably his youngest son) and Lot (his grandson), together with their families, from Ur, intending to go with them to Canaan; but he tarried at Haran, where he spent the remainder of his days, and died at the age of two hundred and five years ( Genesis 11:24-32 ; Joshua 24:2 ). What a wonderful part the descendants of this Chaldean shepherd have played in the history of the world!
givers of prosperity, idols in human shape, large or small, analogous to the images of ancestors which were revered by the Romans. In order to deceive the guards sent by Saul to seize David, Michal his wife prepared one of the household teraphim, putting on it the goat's-hair cap worn by sleepers and invalids, and laid it in a bed, covering it with a mantle. She pointed it out to the soldiers, and alleged that David was confined to his bed by a sudden illness ( 1 Samuel 19:13-16 ). Thus she gained time for David's escape. It seems strange to read of teraphim, images of ancestors, preserved for superstitious purposes, being in the house of David. Probably they had been stealthily brought by Michal from her father's house. "Perhaps," says Bishop Wordsworth, "Saul, forsaken by God and possessed by the evil spirit, had resorted to teraphim (as he afterwards resorted to witchcraft); and God overruled evil for good, and made his very teraphim (by the hand of his own daughter) to be an instrument for David's escape.", Deane's David, p. 32. Josiah attempted to suppress this form of idolatry ( 2 Kings 23:24 ). The ephod and teraphim are mentioned together in Hosea 3:4 . It has been supposed by some (Cheyne's Hosea) that the "ephod" here mentioned, and also in Judges 8:24-27 , was not the part of the sacerdotal dress so called ( Exodus 28:6-14 ), but an image of Jehovah overlaid with gold or silver (Compare Judg. 17,18; 1 Samuel 21:9 ; 1 Samuel 23:6 1 Samuel 23:9 ; 1 Samuel 30:7 1 Samuel 30:8 ), and is thus associated with the teraphim. (See THUMMIM .)
the third, a Roman Christian whom Paul employed as his amanuensis in writing his epistle to the ( Romans 16:22 ).
a modification of "Tertius;" a Roman advocate, whom the Jews employed to state their case against Paul in the presence of Felix ( Acts 24:1-9 ). The charges he adduced against the apostle were, "First, that he created disturbances among the Romans throughout the empire, an offence against the Roman government (crimen majestatis). Secondly, that he was a ringleader of the sect of the Nazarenes; disturbed the Jews in the exercise of their religion, guaranteed by the state; introduced new gods, a thing prohibited by the Romans. And thirdly, that he attempted to profane the temple, a crime which the Jews were permitted to punish."
occurs twelve times in the New Testament ( Hebrews 9:15 , etc.) as the rendering of the Gr. diatheke, which is twenty times rendered "covenant" in the Authorized Version, and always so in the Revised Version. The Vulgate translates incorrectly by testamentum, whence the names "Old" and "New Testament," by which we now designate the two sections into which the Bible is divided. (See BIBLE .)
1. Witness or evidence ( 2 Thessalonians 1:10 ).
3. The altar raised by the Gadites and Reubenites ( Joshua 22:10 ).
the tabernacle, the great glory of which was that it contained "the testimony", i.e., the "two tables" ( Exodus 38:21 ). The ark in which these tables were deposited was called the "ark of the testimony" ( 40:3 ), and also simply the "testimony" ( 27:21 ; 30:6 ).
strictly the ruler over the fourth part of a province; but the word denotes a ruler of a province generally ( Matthew 14:1 ; Luke 3:1 Luke 3:19 ; 9:7 ; Acts 13:1 ). Herod and Phasael, the sons of Antipater, were the first tetrarchs in Palestine. Herod the tetrarch had the title of king ( Matthew 14:9 ).
breast, the name of one of the apostles ( Mark 3:18 ), called "Lebbaeus" in Matthew 10:3 , and in Luke 6:16 , "Judas the brother of James;" while ( John 14:22 ), probably referring to the same person, speaks of "Judas, not Iscariot." These different names all designate the same person, viz., Jude or Judas, the author of the epistle.
a badger, a son of Nahor, Abraham's brother ( Genesis 22:24 ).
only mentioned in Acts 19:29 Acts 19:31 . The ruins of this theatre at Ephesus still exist, and they show that it was a magnificent structure, capable of accommodating some 56,700 persons. It was the largest structure of the kind that ever existed. Theatres, as places of amusement, were unknown to the Jews.
brightness, a place some 11 miles north-east of Shechem, on the road to Scythopolis, the modern Tabas. Abimelech led his army against this place, because of its participation in the conspiracy of the men of Shechem; but as he drew near to the strong tower to which its inhabitants had fled for safety, and was about to set fire to it, a woman cast a fragment of millstone at him, and "all to brake his skull" i.e., "altogether brake," etc. His armourbearer thereupon "thrust him through, and he died" ( Judges 9:50-55 ).
Punished by restitution, the proportions of which are noted in 2 Samuel 12:6 . If the thief could not pay the fine, he was to be sold to a Hebrew master till he could pay ( Exodus 22:1-4 ). A night-thief might be smitten till he died, and there would be no blood-guiltiness for him ( 22:2 ). A man-stealer was to be put to death ( 21:16 ). All theft is forbidden ( Exodus 20:15 ; 21:16 ; Leviticus 19:11 ; Deuteronomy 5:19 ; 24:7 ; Psalms 50:18 ; Zechariah 5:3 ; Matthew 19:18 ; Romans 13:9 ; Ephesians 4:28 ; 1 Peter 4:15 ).
a word first used by Josephus to denote that the Jews were under the direct government of God himself. The nation was in all things subject to the will of their invisible King. All the people were the servants of Jehovah, who ruled over their public and private affairs, communicating to them his will through the medium of the prophets. They were the subjects of a heavenly, not of an earthly, king. They were Jehovah's own subjects, ruled directly by him (Compare 1 Samuel 8:6-9 ).
lover of God, a Christian, probably a Roman, to whom Luke dedicated both his Gospel ( Luke 1:3 ) and the Acts of the Apostles ( 1:1 ). Nothing beyond this is known of him. From the fact that Luke applies to him the title "most excellent", the same title Paul uses in addressing Felix ( Acts 23:26 ; 24:3 ) and Festus ( 26:25 ), it has been concluded that Theophilus was a person of rank, perhaps a Roman officer.
The first epistle to the Thessalonians was the first of all Paul's epistles. It was in all probability written from Corinth, where he abode a "long time" ( Acts 18:11 Acts 18:18 ), early in the period of his residence there, about the end of A.D. 52.
The occasion of its being written was the return of Timotheus from Macedonia, bearing tidings from Thessalonica regarding the state of the church there ( Acts 18:1-5 ; 1 Thessalonians 3:6 ). While, on the whole, the report of Timothy was encouraging, it also showed that divers errors and misunderstandings regarding the tenor of Paul's teaching had crept in amongst them. He addresses them in this letter with the view of correcting these errors, and especially for the purpose of exhorting them to purity of life, reminding them that their sanctification was the great end desired by God regarding them.
The subscription erroneously states that this epistle was written from Athens.
The second epistle to the Thessalonians was probably also written from Corinth, and not many months after the first.
The occasion of the writing of this epistle was the arrival of tidings that the tenor of the first epistle had been misunderstood, especially with reference to the second advent of Christ. The Thessalonians had embraced the idea that Paul had taught that "the day of Christ was at hand", that Christ's coming was just about to happen. This error is corrected ( 2:1-12 ), and the apostle prophetically announces what first must take place. "The apostasy" was first to arise. Various explanations of this expression have been given, but that which is most satisfactory refers it to the Church of Rome.
a large and populous city on the Thermaic bay. It was the capital of one of the four Roman districts of Macedonia, and was ruled by a praetor. It was named after Thessalonica, the wife of Cassander, who built the city. She was so called by her father, Philip, because he first heard of her birth on the day of his gaining a victory over the Thessalians. On his second missionary journey, Paul preached in the synagogue here, the chief synagogue of the Jews in that part of Macedonia, and laid the foundations of a church ( Acts 17:1-4 ; 1 Thessalonians 1:9 ). The violence of the Jews drove him from the city, when he fled to Berea ( Acts 17:5-10 ). The "rulers of the city" before whom the Jews "drew Jason," with whom Paul and Silas lodged, are in the original called politarchai, an unusual word, which was found, however, inscribed on an arch in Thessalonica. This discovery confirms the accuracy of the historian. Paul visited the church here on a subsequent occasion ( 20:1-3 ). This city long retained its importance. It is the most important town of European Turkey, under the name of Saloniki, with a mixed population of about 85,000.
thanksgiving, referred to by Gamaliel in his speech before the council at Jerusalem ( Acts 5:36 ). He headed an insurrection against the Roman authority. Beyond this nothing is known of him.
( Habakkuk 2:6 ) is correctly rendered in the Revised Version "pledges." The Chaldean power is here represented as a rapacious usurer, accumulating the wealth that belonged to others.
( Luke 23:32 Luke 23:39-43 ), robbers, rather brigands, probably followers of Barabbas. Our Lord's cross was placed between those of the "malefactors," to add to the ignominy of his position. According to tradition, Demas or Dismas was the name of the penitent thief hanging on the right, and Gestas of the impenitent on the left.
1. Heb. hoah ( 2 Kings 14:9 ; Job 31:40 ). In Job 41:2 the Hebrew word is rendered "thorn," but in the Revised Version "hook." It is also rendered "thorn" in 2 Chronicles 33:11 ; Proverbs 26:9 ; Cant 2:2 ; "brambles" in Isaiah 34:13 . It is supposed to be a variety of the wild plum-tree, but by some it is regarded as the common thistle, of which there are many varieties in Palestine.
2. Heb. dardar, meaning "a plant growing luxuriantly" ( Genesis 3:18 ; Hosea 10:8 ); Gr. tribolos, "a triple point" ( Matthew 7:16 ; Hebrews 6:8 , "brier," RSV "thistle"). This was probably the star-thistle, called by botanists Centaurea calcitropa, or "caltrops," a weed common in corn-fields. (See .)
twin, one of the twelve ( Matthew 10:3 ; Mark 3:18 , etc.). He was also called Didymus ( John 11:16 ; 20:24 ), which is the Greek equivalent of the Hebrew name. All we know regarding him is recorded in the fourth Gospel ( John 11:15 John 11:16 ; John 14:4 John 14:5 ; John 20:24 John 20:25 John 20:26-29 ). From the circumstance that in the lists of the apostles he is always mentioned along with Matthew, who was the son of Alphaeus ( Mark 3:18 ), and that these two are always followed by James, who was also the son of Alphaeus, it has been supposed that these three, Matthew, Thomas, and James, were brothers.
1. Heb. hedek ( Proverbs 15:19 ), rendered "brier" in Micah 7:4 . Some thorny plant, of the Solanum family, suitable for hedges. This is probably the so-called "apple of Sodom," which grows very abundantly in the Jordan valley. "It is a shrubby plant, from 3 to 5 feet high, with very branching stems, thickly clad with spines, like those of the English brier, with leaves very large and woolly on the under side, and thorny on the midriff."
2. Heb. kotz ( Genesis 3:18 ; Hosea 10:8 ), rendered akantha by the LXX. In the New Testament this word akantha is also rendered "thorns" ( Matthew 7:16 ; 13:7 ; Hebrews 6:8 ). The word seems to denote any thorny or prickly plant ( Jeremiah 12:13 ). It has been identified with the Ononis spinosa by some.
3. Heb. na'atzutz ( Isaiah 7:19 ; 55:13 ). This word has been interpreted as denoting the Zizyphus spina Christi, or the jujube-tree. It is supposed by some that the crown of thorns placed in wanton cruelty by the Roman soldiers on our Saviour's brow before his crucifixion was plaited of branches of this tree. It overruns a great part of the Jordan valley. It is sometimes called the lotus-tree. "The thorns are long and sharp and recurved, and often create a festering wound." It often grows to a great size. (See CROWN OF THORNS .)
4. Heb. atad ( Psalms 58:9 ) is rendered in the LXX. and Vulgate by Rhamnus, or Lycium Europoeum, a thorny shrub, which is common all over Palestine. From its resemblance to the box it is frequently called the box-thorn.
( 2 Corinthians 12:7-10 ). Many interpretations have been given of this passage.
1. Roman Catholic writers think that it denotes suggestions to impiety.
2. Luther, Calvin, and other Reformers interpret the expression as denoting temptation to unbelief.
3. Others suppose the expression refers to "a pain in the ear or head," epileptic fits, or, in general, to some severe physical infirmity, which was a hindrance to the apostle in his work (Compare 1 Corinthians 2:3 ; 2 co 10:10 ; 11:30 ; Galatians 4:13 Galatians 4:14 ; 6:17 ). With a great amount of probability, it has been alleged that his malady was defect of sight, consequent on the dazzling light which shone around him at his conversion, acute opthalmia. This would account for the statements in Galatians 4:14 ; 2 co. 10:10 ; also Acts 23:5 , and for his generally making use of the help of an amanuensis (Compare Romans 16:22 , etc.).
4. Another view which has been maintained is that this "thorn" consisted in an infirmity of temper, to which he occasionally gave way, and which interfered with his success (Compare Acts 15:39 ; 23:2-5 ). If we consider the fact, "which the experience of God's saints in all ages has conclusively established, of the difficulty of subduing an infirmity of temper, as well as the pain, remorse, and humiliation such an infirmity is wont to cause to those who groan under it, we may be inclined to believe that not the least probable hypothesis concerning the 'thorn' or 'stake' in the flesh is that the loving heart of the apostle bewailed as his sorest trial the misfortune that, by impatience in word, he had often wounded those for whom he would willingly have given his life" (Lias's Second Cor., Introd.).
See AGRICULTURE .
1. Heb. miphtan, probably a projecting beam at a higher point than the threshold proper ( 1 Samuel 5:4 1 Samuel 5:5 ; Ezekiel 9:3 ; Ezekiel 10:4 Ezekiel 10:18 ; 46:2 ; 47:1 ); also rendered "door" and "door-post."
2. 'Asuppim, pl. ( Nehemiah 12:25 ), rendered correctly "storehouses" in the Revised Version. In 1Chr 26:15,17the Authorized Version retains the word as a proper name, while in the Revised Version it is translated "storehouses."
(Heb. kiss'e), a royal chair or seat of dignity ( Deuteronomy 17:18 ; 2 Sam 7:13 ; Psalms 45:6 ); an elevated seat with a canopy and hangings, which cover it. It denotes the seat of the high priest in 1 Samuel 1:9 ; 4:13 , and of a provincial governor in Nehemiah 3:7 and Psalms 122:5 . The throne of Solomon is described at length in 1 Kings 10:18-20 .
perfection (LXX., "truth;" Vulg., "veritas"), Exodus 28:30 ; Deuteronomy 33:8 ; Judges 1:1 ; 20:18 ; 1 Samuel 14:3 1 Samuel 14:18 ; 23:9 ; 2 Sam 21:1 . What the "Urim and Thummim" were cannot be determined with any certainty. All we certainly know is that they were a certain divinely-given means by which God imparted, through the high priest, direction and counsel to Israel when these were needed. The method by which this was done can be only a matter of mere conjecture. They were apparently material objects, quite distinct from the breastplate, but something added to it after all the stones had been set in it, something in addition to the breastplate and its jewels. They may have been, as some suppose, two small images, like the teraphim (Compare Judges 17:5 ; Judges 18:14 Judges 18:17 Judges 18:20 ; Hosea 3:4 ), which were kept in the bag of the breastplate, by which, in some unknown way, the high priest could give forth his divinely imparted decision when consulted. They were probably lost at the destruction of the temple by Nebuchadnezzar. They were never seen after the return from captivity.
often referred to in Scripture ( Job 40:9 ; Psalms 77:18 ; 104:7 ). James and John were called by our Lord "sons of thunder" ( Mark 3:17 ). In Job 39:19 , instead of "thunder," as in the Authorized Version, the Revised Version translates (ra'amah) by "quivering main" (marg., "shaking"). Thunder accompanied the giving of the law at Sinai ( Exodus 19:16 ). It was regarded as the voice of God ( Job 37:2 ; Psalms 18:13 ; 81:7 ; Compare John 12:29 ). In answer to Samuel's prayer ( 1 Samuel 12:17 1 Samuel 12:18 ), God sent thunder, and "all the people greatly feared," for at such a season (the wheat-harvest) thunder and rain were almost unknown in Palestine.
a city of Asia Minor, on the borders of Lydia and Mysia. Its modern name is Ak-hissar, i.e., "white castle." Here was one of the seven churches ( Revelation 1:11 ; 2:18-28 ). Lydia, the seller of purple, or rather of cloth dyed with this colour, was from this city ( Acts 16:14 ). It was and still is famous for its dyeing. Among the ruins, inscriptions have been found relating to the guild of dyers in that city in ancient times.
mentioned only in Revelation 18:12 among the articles which would cease to be purchased when Babylon fell. It was called citrus, citron wood, by the Romans. It was the Callitris quadrivalvis of botanists, of the cone-bearing order of trees, and of the cypress tribe of this order. The name of this wood is derived from the Greek word thuein , "to sacrifice," and it was so called because it was burnt in sacrifices, on account of its fragrance. The wood of this tree was reckoned very valuable, and was used for making articles of furniture by the Greeks and Romans. Like the cedars of Lebanon, it is disappearing from the forests of Palestine.